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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



aENEEAL MEETINGS FOE SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 



1905, vol. L 

(JANUARY— APEIL.) 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AND SOLD AT THEIE HOUSE IN HANOVEE-SQUAEE. 

LONDOJS : 

MESSES. LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND 00. 

PATERNOSTER. ROW. 



LIST 



OF THE 



COUNCIL AND OFFICEES 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1905. 



COUNCIL. 
His Grace The Duke of Bedford, K.G., President. 



Sir Alexander Baird, Bt. 
George A. Boulexger, Esq., 

F.R.S., Vice-President. 
Thomas H. Burroughes, Esq. 
Frederic G. D. Drewitt, Esq., 

M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Herbert Druce, Esq., F.L.S., 

Vice-President. 
Charles Drummoxd, Esq., 

Treasurer. 
Sir Edward Durand, Bt., C.B. 
Frederick Gillett, Esq. 
F. Du Cane Godman, Esq., 

D.C.L.,F.R.S.,Ffce-Pi-mrZeH«. 
W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq. 



J. Jackson Lister, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Sir Edmund Giles Loder, Bt. 

E. G. B. Meade- Waldo, Esq. 

P. Chalmers Mitchell, Esq., 
M.A., D.Sc, Secretary. 

E. Lort Phillips, Esq. 

Howard Saunders, Esq., Vice- 
President. 

H.S.H. Prince Francis of 
Teck. 

Charles S. Tomes, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S. , Vice-President. 

Augustus F. Wiener, Esq. 

Henry Woodward, Esq.,LL.D., 
F.R.S., Vice-President. 



PRINCIPAL OFFICERS. 

P. Chalmers Mitchell, Esq., M.A., D.Sc, Secretary. 
Frank E. Beddard, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector. 
R. I. PococK, Esq., Superintendent of the Gardens. 
Charles Gabriel Seligmann, Esq., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 

Pathologist, 
Mr. F. H. Waterhouse, Lihrarian. 
Mr. John Barrow, Accountant. 
Mr. W. H. Cole, Chief Clerk. 

Mr. George Arthur Doubleday, Clerk of Publications. 
Mr. Arthur Thomson, Assistaiit Superintendent of the 

Gardens. 



^^'L~ 



v\ 



n(^ 




LIST OF CONTENTS. 



January 17, 1905. 

Page 
The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in December 1 904 1 

The Secretary. Exhil^ition of a photograph of an Indian 

Rhinoceros 1 

1. Some Notes on the Cranial Osteology of the Mastignre 

Lizard, Uromastix. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., 
F.R.S., Prosector to the Society 2 

2. A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Frilled Lizai'd 

[Chlamydosaurus kingi) and some other Agamidce. By 
Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the 
Society 9 

3. A ISTote on the Brain of the Black Ape, Cynopithecus 

niger. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector 

to the Society 22 

4. On a Collection of Sipunculids made at Singapore and 

Malacca. By W. F. Lanchestee, M.A., Assistant 
Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology in University 
College, Dundee = . = = ■ 26 

5. The Marine Fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, 

from Collections made by Cyril Crossland in the Years 
1901 and 1902. — Gephyrea. By W. F. Lanchester, 
M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology 

in University College, Dundee. (Plate T. ) 28 

a 2 



IV 

Page 

6. On the Sipunculids and Echiurids collected during the 

" Skeat " Expedition to the Malaj^ Peninsula. By W. 
F. Lanchester, M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demon- 
strator in Zooloa:y in University College, Dundee. 
(Plate 11.) .". 35 

7. On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobranch 

Fishes. By A. D. Imms, B.Sc. (Lond.), Zoological 
Laboratory, University of Birmingham. (Plate III.) ... 41 

8. Note on some recently discovered Remains of the Musk -Ox 

{Ovibos moschatus Zimmerniann, sp.) from the Pleistocene 
Beds of Southern England. By 0. W. Andrews, D.Sc, 
F Z.S. (British Museum , IS^atural History) 50 

9. Descriptions of Three new Species of Birds obtained 

during the recent Expedition to Lhassa. By Henry 

E. Dresser, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. (Plates IV. & Y.) 54 



February 7, 1905. 

The Secretaiy. Exhibition, on behalf of the Hon. Walter 

Rothschild, of a pair of mounted Gorillas 56 

Mr. Fredei-ick Gillett. F.Z.S. Exhibition of some mounted 

heads of the Rocky Mountain Goat 56 

Mr. R. H. Burne, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, 
specimens made from the viscera of an Indian Rhinoceros 
that had died in the Gardens 56 

1. On Abnormal Ranid Larvse from IN^orth-Eastern India. 

By Nelson Annandale, B.A., Deputy Superintendent 

of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. (Plate VI.) 5& 

2. On a Second Collection of Fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde 

in the Kenya District, East Africa. By G. A. Boulenger, 
F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. (Plate VII.) 62 

3. Notes on the Mammals of Southern Cameroons and tlie 

Benito. By George L. Bates 65 

4. A Contribution to the Study of the Function of the 

Antennae in Insects. By Maclbod Yearsley, F.R.C.S., 
F.Z.S 85 



V 

Page 

5. Notes on a small Collection of Heterocera from the Fiji 
Islands, with Descriptions of some New Species. By 
G. T . Bethune-Baker, F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Plates YIII. 
.klX.) ^^ 

6 On some Points in the Anatomy of the Theriodont Reptile 
Diademodon. By R. Broom, M.D., O.M.Z.S., Victoria 
College, Stellenbosch. (Plate X.) 96 

7. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Arteries of the 
Brain in the Class Aves. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., 
F.R.S., Prosector to the Society 102 



February 21, 1905. 

The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in January 1905 ^^° 

Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S. Exhiliition, on behalf of 
Mr. Rowland Ward, of a melanistic specimen of the 
Blackbuck 11^ 

Mr. R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S. Exhibition of specimens of the 

South- African Millipede, Spirosireptus |j»yroceyirt^^ts 118 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Notice of a Memoir entitled 
" A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Varieties of 
Lacerta murcdis in Western Europe and North Africa." 118 

1, On the Nigerian and Kilimanjaro Giraffes. By R. 

Lydekker." (Plates XI. & XII.) 119 

2 On Dolphins from Travancore. By R. Lydekker. 

(Plate XIII.) 122 

3. The Rudd Exploration of SoiTth Africa. — II. List of 

Mammals from the Wakkerstroom District, South- 
Eastern Transvaal. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. , 
F.Z.S., and Harold Schwann, F.Z.S 129 

4. On the Greater Kudu of Somaliland. By R. I. Pocock, 

Superintendent of the Gardens 139 



March 7, 1905. 

Page 
Dr. Albert A. Gray. Exhibition of a series of lantern-slides 
of, and remarks upon, the Membranous Labyrinth of 
certain animals 143 

Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 
upon, illusti'ations of a Zebra in woi'ks by Aldrovandus 
and Ludolphus 145 

Mr. J. Lewis Bonhote, F.Z.S. Remarks on the Hybri- 
disation of Ducks, illustrated with specimens 147 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Exhibition of a series of Fishes 

from Lake Chad and the Shari River 151 

1. A Revision of the Fishes of the South- American Cichlid 

Genera Grenacara, Batracliops, and Crenicichla. By 

C. Tate Regan, B.A., F.Z.S. (Plates XIY. & XV.) ... 152 

2. Notes on a New Oribi Antelope from the Kenya District, 

British East Africa. By Capt. R. Meinertzhagem. 
F.Z.S 169 

3. The Q^^cology and Deposits of the Cape Verde Marine 

Fauna. By Cyril Crosslakd, M.A., B.Sc, F.Z.S., 
Carnegie Fellow and Fellow of the University of 
St. Andrews 170 



March 21, 1905. 

The Secretar3^ Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in February 1905 186 

Mrs. S. L. Hinde. Extract from a letter from, giving an 

account of an Antelope killing a bird 187 

Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 
upon, a photograph of a wounded Oryx hiding in 
bushes "^ 187 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks 

upon, a series of sketches of Fishes of the Rio !N"egro ... 189 



Vli 

Page 
Mr. Macleod Yearsley, F.Z.S, Exhibition of an X-ray 

l^hotogiapli of a )Snake with two Fi'ogs within it 190 

Mr. E. E. Holding. Exhibition of Antlers of Deer showing 

arrest of development due to Castration 190 

1. The Eft'ects of Castration on the Horns of the Prongbuck 

{Antilocapra americana). By R. I. Pocock, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., Superintendent of the Gardens 191 

2. Notes on the Mammals and Birds of Liberia. By Sir 

Harry H. Johxstox, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.Z.S 197 

3. On some Abnormal Remains of the Bed Deer [Cervus 

elcqylitrs) from the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the Sonth 

of England. By Martin A. C. Hintox 210 

4. On the Affinities of the Primitive Reptile Procoloplion. 

By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc, C.M.Z.S., Yictoria College, 
Stellenbosch, Cape Colony 212 

5. On the Primitive Reptile Procolojjhoa. By H. G. Seeley, 

F.R.S., F.Z.S \ 218 



April 18, 1905. 

The Seci-etary. Report on the Additions to the Society's 

Menagerie in March 1905 230 

Mr. J. G. Millais, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks ujDon, 

the horn of an Urus 231 

Dr. W. J. Holland, F.Z.S. Remarks, illustrated with 
Lantern-slides, on the discovery of the skeleton of 
Dijylodocus carnegii 231 

1. On Parts of the Skeleton of Cetiosaurus leedsi, o. Sauro- 

podous Dinosaur from the Oxford Clay of Peterborough. 
By A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S 232 

2. On a Young Female Girafie from Nigeria. By P. Chalmers 

Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc, Secretary to the Society 244 

3. Notes on Ento-Parasites from the Zoological Gardens, 

London, and elsewhere. By A. E. Shipley, M.A., 
F.R.S., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
and University Lecturer in the Morphology of the 
Invertebrata 248 



Vlll 

Page 

4. The Rudd Exploration of South Africa. — III. List of 

Mammals obtained hy Mr. Grant in Zululand. By 
Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S. F.Z.S., and Haeold Schwanx, 
F.Z.S. (PlateXVI.) 254 

5. Description of a new Newt from Yunnan. By G. A. 

BouLENGER, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. (Plate XYII.) 277 

6. On Hybrid Hares between Lepus timidus L. and Lepics 

euro^KVMS Pall, from Southern Sweden. By Einar 

LONNBERG, C.M.Z.S., etc 278 

7. On the Giant Eland of the Bahr el Ghazal, Taurotragus 

derbianus gigas (Heugl.). By A. L. Butler, F.Z.S. , 
Superintendent of Game Preservation, Soudan 288 

8. Notes on the Muscular and Visceial Anatomy of the 

Leathery Turtle {Dennochehjs coriacea). By R. H. 
BuRNE, B.A., F.Z.S ' 291 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



CONTRIBUTORS, 



With References to the several Articles contributed hy each. 



Page 
Andrews, Charles William, D.Sc, F.Z.S., of the British 
Museum (Natural History). 

Notes on some recently discovered Remains of the 
Musk-Ox [Ovihos moschatus Zimmermann, sp.) from the 
Pleistocene Beds of Southern England 50 



Annandale, Nelson, B.A., Deputy Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta.. 

On Abnormal Ranid Larvte from North-Eastern India. 
(Plate VI.) 58 



Bates, George L. 

Notes on the Mammals of Southern Cameroons and the 
Benito 65 



X 

Page 

Beddard, Frakk E., M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society. 

Some Notes on the Cranial Osteology of the Mastigure 
Lizard, Uromastix 2 

A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Frilled Lizard 
{Ghlmnydoscairus kingi) and some other Agamidce 9 

A ISTote on the Brain of the Black Ape, Ci/nojnthecus 
niger 22 

A Contribution to the Knov/ledge of the Arteries of the 
Brain in the Class Aves 102 



Bethune-Bakee, G. T., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Notes on a small Collection of Heterocera from the Fiji 
Islands, with Descriptions of some New Species. (Plates 
YI1L& IX.) 



BoNHOTE, J. Lewis, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Remarks on the Hybridisation of Ducks, illustrated 
with specimens 147 



BouLENGER, George Albert, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

On a Second Collection of Fishes made by Mr. S. L. 
Hinde in the Kenya District, East Africa. (Plate YII.) 62 

Notice of a Memoir entitled " A Contribution to our 
Knowledge of the Varieties of Lacerta muralis in Western 
Europe and North Africa " 118 

Exhibition of a series of Fishes from Lake Chad and the 
Shari River 151 

Description of a new Newt from Yunnan. (Plate 
XYIL) 277 



XI 

Page 
Broom, Robert, M.D., C.M.Z.S., Yictoria College, Stellen- 
boscli. Cape Colony. 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Theriodont 
Reptile Diaclemodon. (Plate X.) 96 

On the Affinities of the Primitive Reptile PrccolopJion. 212 

BuRNE, Richard Higgins, B.A., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remai^ks upon, specimens made from 
the viscera of an Indian Rhinoceros that had died in the 
Gardens 56 

Notes on the Muscular and Visceral Anatomy of the 
Leathery Turtle {Dermochelys coriacea) 291 

Butler, Arthur Lennox, Superintendent of Game Preserva- 
tion, )Soudan. 

On the Giant Eland of theBahr el Gliazal, Taurotragus 
derbianus gigas (Heugl.) 288 

Crossland, Cyril, M.A., B.Sc, F.Z.S. , Carnegie Fellow and 
Fellow of the University of St. Andrews. 

The (Ecology and Deposits of the Cape Verde Marine 
Fauna 170 



Dresser, Henry E., M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 

Descriptions of Three new Species of Birds obtained 
during the recent Expedition to Lhassa. (Plates IV. k, V.) 54 

Gillett, Frederick, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of some mounted heads of the Rocky 
Mountain Goat 56 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a photograph of a 
wounded Oryx hiding in bushes 187 



Xll 

Page 

Gray, Dr. Albert A. 

Exhibition of a series of lantern-slides of, and remarks 
upon, the Membranous Labyrinth of certain animals 143 



HiNDE, Mrs. S. L. 

Extract from a letter from, giving an account of an 
Antelope killing a bird 187 



HINTO^", Martin A. 0. 

On some Abnormal Remains of the Red Deer {Cervus 
elaphus) from the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the South of 
England 210 



Holding, R. E. 

Exhibition of Antlers of Deer showing arrest of 
development due to Castration 190 



Holland, The Rev. William J., Ph.D., D.D., D.Sc, LL.D., 

F.Z.S., Director of the Carnegie Institute, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Remarks, illusti^ated with Lantern-slides, on the 
discovery of the skeleton of Diplodocus carneyii 231 



Imms, a. D., B.Sc. (Lond.), Zoological Laboratory, University 
of Birmingham. 

On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobranch 
Fishes. (Plate IIL) 41 

Johnston, Sir Harry H., G.C.M.G K.C.B., F.Z.S. 

Notes on the Mammals and Birds of Liberia 197 



XIU 

Page 
Lanchester, W. F., M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demon- 
strator in Zoology in University College, Dundee. 

On a Collection of kSipunculids made at Singapore and 
Malacca 26 

The Marine Fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, 
from Collections made by Cyril Crossland in the Years 
1901 and X^m.—Gephyrea. (Plate I.) 28 

On the Sipunculids and Echiurids collected during the 
" Skeat " Expedition to the Malay Peninsula. (Plate II.) 35 



LoNNBERG, Dr. EiNAR, C.M.Z.S., Yetenskapsakademien, 
Stockholm. 

On Hybrid Hares between Lepus fAmidus L. and Lepns 
europcBus Pall, from Southern Sweden 278 

Lydekker, Richard, B.A., F.K.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Nigerian and Kilimanjaro Giraffes. (Plates 
XL & XII.).,...... 119 

On Dolphins from Travancore. (Plate XIII.) 122 



Meinertzhagen, Capt. R., F.Z.S. 

Notes on a New Oribi Antelope from the Kenya District, 
British East Africa 169 



MiLLAis, J. G., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the horn of an Urus. 231 

Mitchell, P. Chalmers, M.A., D.Sc, Secretary to the 
Society. 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
December 1904 1 



XIV 

Page 
Mitchell, P. Chalmers, M.A. {Continued.) 

Exhibition of a photograpli of an Indian Rhinoceros. . . 1 

Exhibition of, on behalf of the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 
of a pair of mounted Gorillas 56 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
January 1905 118 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
February 1 905 186 

Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in 
March 1905 230 

On a Young Female Giraffe from Nigeria 244 

PococK, Reginald Innes, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Supei-intendent of 
the Gardens. 

Exhibition of specimens of the South- African Millipede, 
Sph'ostrejJtus pyroce'plwXus 118 

On the Greater Kudu of Somaliland 139 

The Effects of Castration on the Horns of the Prongbuck 
{Antiloccqjra americana) 191 

Regan, C. Tate, B.A., F.Z.S., of the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

A Revision of the Fishes of the South-American 
Cichlid Genera Crenacara, Batrachops, and Crenicichla. 
(Plates XIV. k XY.) 152 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a series of sketches of 
Fishes of the Rio Negro 189 

ScHEEREN, Henry, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition, on behalf of Mr. Rowland Ward, of a 
melanistic specimen of the Blackbuck 118 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, illustrations of a 
Zebra in works by Aldrovandus and Ludolphus 145 



XV 



ScHWAN^r, Harold, F.Z.S., and Thomas, Oldfield, F.R.S., 

F.Z.S. 

The Rucld Exploration of Soutli Africa. — II. List of 
Mammals from the Wakkerstroom District, South- 
Eastern Transvaal 129 

The Rudd Exploration of South Africa.— III. List of 
the Mammals obtained by Mr. Grant in Zululand 254 



Seeley, Prof. H. G., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Primitive Reptile PTOColophon 218 

Shipley, A. E., M.A., F.R.S., FelloAv and Tutor of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in the 
Morphology of the Invertebrata. 

Notes on Ento- Parasites from the Zoological Gardens, 
London, and elsewhere 248 



Thomas, Oldfield, F.R.S., F.Z.S., and Schwann, Harold, 

F.Z.S. 

The Rudd Exploration of South Africa.— IT. List of 
Mamm_als from the Wakkerstroom District, South- 
Eastern Transvaal 129 

The Rudd Exploration of South Afriea.—lII. List of 
the Mammals obtained by Mr. Grant in Zxiluland, 
(Plate XVI.) 254 



Woodward, Dr. Arthur Smith, LL.D., F.R.S. , F.Z.S. 

On Parts of the Skeleton of Getiosaurus leedsi, a 
Sauropodous Dinosaur from the Oxford Clay of 
Peterborough 232 



XVI 

Page 
Yearsley, MACLEOD, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. 

A Contribution to the Stud}^ of the Function of the 
Antennae in Insects 85 

Exhibition of an X-ray photograph of a Snake witli two 
Froes within it 190 



LIST OF PLATES. 
1905.— Vol. I. 



Plate Page 

I. Gepbyrea from Zanzibar 28 

II. Gepbyrea from tbe Malay Peninsula ■ • 35 

III. Pbaryngeal Denticles of Elasmobrancbs 41 

IV. Bahax waddelli I 54 

V. 1. Lanius lama. 2. Qarrulax tibetanus ' 

VI. Abnormal Ranid Larvas 58 

VII. 1. Biscognathtis hindii. 2. Barhus thikensis. 3. Amphilius 

granats "■^ 

j^' [ Heterocera from tbe Fiji Islands 88 

X. Diademodon mastacus 9" 

XI. Giraffa camelopardalis tipiyelskirchi (Immature female) . . | 
XII. Fi^s. 1,2. Head and neck of Qiraffa camelopardalis peralta. \ 119 
Fig. 3. Bacli view of bead of G. c. cottoni 1 

XIII. Dolpbins from Travancore 122 

XIV. 1. Batrachops punctulatus. 2. Crenicichla wallacii. 3. C.\ 

acutirostris r 1^- 

XV. 1. Crenicichla strigata. 2. C. ornata ! 

XVI. 1-3. Amblysomus. 4, 5. Pronolagus 254 

XVII. Molge wolterstorffi .277 



Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. 



LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES, 

1905.— Vol. I. 



1. Ventral view of skull of Uromastix spinipes 3 

2. Lateral view of the skull figured on p. 3 5 

3. Back view of the skull figured on p. 3 6 

4. Squamosal region in various Lizai'ds 8 

5. Lung of Chlainydosaurus, opened to show internal structure . . 10 

6. Lung of Physignathus^ opened to show internal structure 11 

7. Ventral view of liver of Iguana, to show relation of umbilical 

ligament 12 

8. Ventral view of liver of Physignathus , to show relation of 

umbilical ligament 13 

9. Hyoid of Chlainydosaurus 20 

10. Hyoid of Physignathiis 21 

11. Brain of Cynopithecus niger (dorsal aspect) 24 

12. The same Brain as that represented in text-fig. 11 (lateral 

aspect) 25 

13. Axis vertebra of Musk-Ox, from Brick-earths of the Thames at 

Plumstead 50 

14. Two views of skull of Musk-Ox, from near base of bed of gravel 

at Frampton-on-Severn, Gloucestershire 52 

15. Brain of Stnithio masaicus (ventral aspect), showing the principal 

branches of the arterial system 103 

16. Brain of Ara hyacinthina (ventral aspect), showing the principal 

branches of the arterial system 106 

17. Brain of Pelecanus fuscus (ventral aspect), showing the principal 

branches of the arterial system 108 

18. Brain of Spheniscus demersus (ventral aspect), showing the 

principal branches of the arterial system 110 

19. Brain of Tantalus ibis (ventral aspect), showing the principal 

branches of the arterial system 112 



XX 

Page 

20. Brain of Gymnorhina leuconota (yentral aspect), showing the 

principal branches of the arterial system 115 

21. Chart of the Cape Verde Islands 171 

22. Map of St. Antonio and St. Vincent 173 

23. Map of St. Jago 174 

24. Map of Bonavista 175 

25. Chart of Porto Praya 180 

26. Chart of Porto Grande iSS 

27. Wounded Oryx hiding in bushes 188 

28. Lateral view of head of a castrated Prongbuck, showing the 

abnormal growtli and shape of the horns 191 

29. Section of the left compound horn-sheath of a castrated Prong- 

buck, slightly diagrammatic, showing the five component 
sheaths 1 95 

30. Type specimen of Procolophon ininor, from Donnybrook 218 

31. Type specimen of Procolophon trigoniceps, from Donnybrook . . 220 

32. Type specimen of Procolophon laticeps, from Donnybrook, 

showing the vertical occipital plate and the postorbital 
foramen 223 

33. Palate of Procolophon cuneiceps, showing the molar teeth ; from 

Donnybrook 224 

34. Impression of a palate of Procolophon, showing crowns of the 

molar teeth ; from Fernrocks 225 

35. Outline showing the truncated snout ai Procolophon platyrhinns, 

from Fernrocks 226 

36. Outline showing the wedge-shaped snout of Procolophon spheno- 

rhinus, from Fernrocks 227 

37. Hind limbs of Procolophon, from Fernrocks 228 

38. Humerus and adjacent bones of fore limb, from Fernrocks .... 229 

39. Cetiosaurus leedsi, from Upper Jurassic (Oxford Clay), Peter- 

borough 233 

40. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Posterior dorsal vertebra, lacking neural 

spine ; posterior and right lateral aspects 234 

41. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Anterior caudal vertebra ; anterior and left 

lateral aspects 235 

42. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Anterior caudal vertebra ; posterior and 

right lateral aspects 237 

43. CetiDsaurtcs leedsi. — Middle caudal vertebra ; left lateral, anterior, 

and posterior aspects . . . , 238 

44. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Posterior middle caudal vertebra : left 

lateral, anterior, and posterior aspects 238 

45. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — One of the terminal caudal vertebrae, left 

lateral aspect 239 

46. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Chrevron-bones 239 

47. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Right humerus, anterior aspect, and trans- 

verse section showing internal cavity 240 

48. Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Upper portion of right radius and ulna, 

anterior aspect j and upper articular end of the same 240 



XXI 

Page 

49. Cetiosawus leedsi, —TPdght femur, posterior aspect ; upper end, 

transverse sections of shaft, and lower end 242 

50. Young- female Giraffe from Nigeria 245 

51. Head of Giraffe from Nigeria 247 

52. Porocephahis lie rpetodnj ados 251 

53. First premolar of the umxillary of Lepus curopceus, of L. tbnidus, 

and of hj'brid between both 282 

54. Anterior part of the zygomatic arch of Lepus europccns, of 

i. timidus, and of hybrid between both 283 

55. Dermochelys corictcea, muscles of the neck 293 

56. Dermochelys coriacea, anterior part of the vestigial nmscles 

of the back 296 

57. Dermochelys coriacea, inner surface of the plastron 298 

58. Dennochelys coriacea, muscles of the« right shoulder, ventral 

aspect 299 

59. Dermochelys coriacea, left shoulder-girdle, anterior view 300 

60. Dermochelys coriacea, right shoulder-girdle, dorsal view 302 

01. i'ermoc/ie^^s ronacea, left shoulder-girdle, ventral view 302 

02. Dermochelys coriacea, right fore limb, extensor surface 303 

63. Dermochelys coriacea, muscle-attachments upon the extensor 

surface of the forearm and hand 305 

64. Dermochelys coriacea, right fore limb, llexor surface 306 

65. Dermochelys coriacea, left hind limb, ventral aspect 308 

60. Dermochelys coriacea, muscle-attachments to the left hind 

limb 310 

^7 . Dermochelys coriacea, muscle-attachments to the dorsal surface 

of the left hind limb 31 1 

08. Dermochelys coriacea, lids of tJie left eye seen from within .... 314 

09. Dermochelys coriacea, oesophngus. — A. Bifid process from the 

middle part. B. Trifid procct^s from the lower end 315 

70. Dermochelys coriacea, abdominal viscera seen from the ventral 

aspect 316 

71. Dermochelys coriacea, diagrammatic transverse section through 

the mid-region of the peritoneal sac 317 

72. Dermochelys coriacea, left kidney with its associated veins 

and arteries 321 

73. Dermochelys coriacea, part of wall of uro-genifal sinus, with 

termination of oviduct and ureter (right side) 323 



Proc. Zool. Soc. — 1905, Vol. I. 



NEW GENERIC TERM 

PEOPOSED IN THE PRESENT VOLUME (1905, vol. I,). 



Page 
Phassocles (Ins.) 89 



EERATUM. 
Page 118, line 11 from bottom, fur 243" read 24|" 



PROCEEDINGS 



GENERAL MEETINGS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 

OF TIIK 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 

1905, Vol. I. (January to April). 



January 17, 1905. 

G. A. BouLEKGER, Esq., F.R.S., Vice- President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions that 
had been made to the Society's Menagerie in December 1904: — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
m.onth of December were 1 25 in number. Of these 47 were acquii-ed 
by presentation, 3 by purchase, 29 were received on deposit, 5 
were bred in the Gardens, and 41 were received in exchange. 
The total number of departures during the same period, by death 
and removals, was 163. 

Amongst the additions special attention may be directed to : — 

1 . A young male Greater Koodoo [Strepsiceros strepsicei'os) from 
Somaliland, presented by Major Irvine, I. M.S., on Dec. 12th. 

2. A Hairy -eared Bear [Ursids piscator) from Manchuria, 
presented by Mr. Frederick Ringer on Dec. 13th. 

3. Two Victoria Crowned Pigeons {Goura victorioi) from Jobie 
Island, purchased on Dec. 15th. 

4. A young specimen of Pousargue's Guenon {Gercopithecus 
pousarguei) from Northern Nigeria, presented by Mr. L. Lester 
on Dec. 29th. New to the Collection. 



The Secretary exhibited an enlarged photograph, taken by 
Mr. H. Sandland and presented by him to the Society, of " Jim," 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905 Vol. 1. No. I. ' 1 



2 MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE CRANIAL [Jan. 17, 

the Indian Rhinoceros which had recently died in the Gardens 
after an existence there of forty-one years. 



The following papers were read :— 

1. Some Notes on the Cranial Osteology o£ the Mastigure 
Lizard, UromastLv. By Fkank E. Beddakd, M.A., 
F.R.S., Prosector to the Societ}^ 

[Received December 13, 1904.] 

(Text-figures 1-4.) 

During a recent examination of a number of Reptilian skulls, 
I noted some features in the palate, as well as in other regions of 
the skull, of Uromastix spinipes which are undoubtedly of some 
interest. The most recent papers on the skull of Uromastix with 
which I am acquainted are by Busch * and Siebenrock f. The 
foiiiier writer deals only with the palatal region and principally 
with the soft tissues of that region in the Lacertilia and in 
HcMeria. A number of dry skulls are also figured, and among 
them Uromastix^ with which figure, however, my own observa- 
tions do not agree completely. It must be remembered, however, 
that Dr. Busch and I had before us diflierent species, he dealing 
with Uromastix hardwickii and I with U. spinijyes. Whether age 
may have anjiihing to do with these differences I do not know ; 
but in any case the skull of Uromastix spinipes, upon which I 
report here, measrires 43 mm. from the occipital condyle to the 
tip of the premaxillfe, which agrees pretty well, as do the other 
measurements of the body, with those given by Boulenger J 
for this species, which is considerably larger than Uromastix 
hardwickii. 

Dr. Busch describes the bony palate of Uromastix in the follow- 
ing way, and his figure corresponds with that description. The 
two pterygoids are divided by a suture from each corresponding 
palatine, which has a very oblique course. This results in the 
cutting off of a large piece of each palatine from approximation 
in the middle ventral line of the skull. In this there is a 
difference from the allied Galotes and Iguana, both figured by that 
author; in fact a dissimilarity from the Lacertilia in general. 
Inasmuch, however, as this is but a very slight exaggeration of 
the usual obliquity of this suture among the Agamidse and some 
other lizards, the author of the paper to which I refer does not 
lay any stress upon it. 

Dr. Siebenrock does not figure the skvdl of this genus ; nor does 

* " Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Gaumeiibildung bei den Reptilieii," Zool. Jahrb. 
(Abth. f. Anat.) xi. p. 441 (1898). 
t " Das Skelet der Agamidas" SB. k. Akad. Wiss. Wieii, civ. p. 1112 (1895). 
X Catalogue of Lizards in B. M. vol. i. p. 407 (1885). 



1905.] 



OSTEOLOGY OF THE MASTIGURE LIZARD. 



he emphasise certain of the following points in the structure of the 
palate of Uromastix spinij^es. 

In the latter species (see text-fig. 1) the anatomy of the bony- 
palate is somewhat different fi-om that of Uromastix hardwickii. 
As Dr. Busch has mentioned in the case of the latter species, the 
pterygoids and palatines nowhere meet their fellows in the middle 
line ; the palate is so far completely schizognathous. But while 
in Uromastix hardicdckii the palatines might, so to speak, meet 
each other in the middle line in the way that occui's in many 
Lacertilia, this is rendered impossible in Uromastix spinipes by the 
forward growth of the pterygoids to reach, or very nearly reach, 

Text fiff. 1. 




Ventral view of skull of JJromastLr spinipes. 

A.PL, anterior bar of palatine; PL, palatine; Ft., pterygoid; Tr., trausvcree; 
T'., vomer. 

the vomers. These bones (the pterygoids) are at first divided 
from the palatines by an oblique suture ; this suture later becomes 
parallel with the long axis of the pteiygoid itself, and only dies 
away anteriorly, close to, if not in actual contact with, the vomers. 
If the vomers of that lizard happened to be rather largei- than 
they actually are in this species, and as they undoubtedly are in 
some lizards, there would be a prolongation forward of the ptery- 
goids to the vomers. As it is, their forward growth results in the 
complete severance fi^om each other of the palatines, except 
possibly for a very minute space anteriorly. These facts are to he 
noted in the accompanying figure (text-fig. 1). 

1* 



4 MR. r. E. BEDDARD ON THE CRANIAL [Jan. 17, 

f believe that this extension forwards of the pterygoids and 
subsequent cutting ofi" of the palatines from forming the median 
portion of the hard palate is a new fact so far as concerns the 
Lacertilia. It is at any rate clear that the fact, if known and on 
record, has escaped general attention. For in the elaborate 
account of the development of the skeleton of Hatteria by Prof. 
Howes and Mr. Swinnerton*, the greater part of the "Introduc- 
tion " is devoted to emphasising the characters of the palate in 
Hatteria, from which introduction I extract the following sentences, 
viz. : — " One of its (i. e. JIatteria's) most distinctive characters is 
the forward prolongation of the pterygoids to meet the vomers with 
apposition in the middle line. The mere forwai'd pi'olongation 
referred to is a feature already recognisable among the Bati'achia 
and Stegocephalia." The authors then proceed to refer to those 
reptiles and birds in which this forward prolongation with or with- 
out apposition occurs ; but they mention no Lacertilian in which 
this state of affairs exists. It is plain therefore that it is meant 
to contrast Hatteria with Lizards in the arrangement of the bones 
of the palate. 

I am thus able to I'ecord here a new (or at least little known 
and overlooked) morphological fact which has been held to be of 
considerable importance. 

■ It would thus appear that the peculiarities of the jaalate of 
Hatteria as distinguishing that rejatile from the Lacertilia have 
been somewhat overi-ated, of course through ignorance of the con- 
ditions which obtain in the lizard which forms the subject of the 
present communication to the >Society. Apart altogether from the 
new facts contained in the present paper, the difference between 
Hatteria and the Lacertilia as i-egards the palate is not greater 
than between the Emu and a Rail, and is, indeed, almost exactly 
the same so far as the point under discussion is concerned. The 
analogy may now, it will be observed, be pushed still further. 
Uroniastix is Lacertilian so far as its general anatomy is concerned, 
but shows in its palate a likeness to Hatteria, just as the Tinamou 
and some other burls f are carinate in most features but 
" struthious " in certain palatal arrangements. A " Rhyncho- 
cephalian " character of the bird palate,"as Prof. Howes and Mr. 
Swinnerton term the thrusting forward of the pterygoids, has 
been shown to be transitory in some birds and subsequently lost 
through co-ossification. Whether this is the case with any true 
Lacertilia I am not aware. 

It must not be understood that I am arguing for a special 
likeness between Hatteria and Uromastix among "the Lacertilia. 
I am only urging that a character supposed to be peculiar to 
Hatteria as contrasted with the Lacertilia is not peculiar to that 
reptile but is found in a Lacertilian. 

In regard to the palate there is another fact which requires 

* " On tlie DGvelopmeiit of the Skeleton of the Tnatera," Tr. Z. S. xvi v 2 

(1901). ^ 

t See Pycnift, " Contiiliutious to the O.^teulo-y of Birds/' ]'. Z. S. 1808, p. 973. 



1905.] OSTKOLOGY OF THE MASTIGCRE LIZARD. O 

attention. The junction of the palatine with the maxilla — the 
direct junction, not that through the transverse bone — is long 
and firm in Hatteria, a fact which, possibly, is correlated with the 
existence and position of the palatine teeth. Their groundwork 
is thus strengthened. As possibly comparable to this, it is inter- 
esting to note a slip of bone in Uromastix (text-fig. 1, A. PI., p. 3), 
continuous with and not segmented off from the palatine, which 
runs forward in close apposition to the maxilla. Among the 
immediate allies of Uromastix, e. g. Amphiholurus, Iguana, this 
process of the palatine is aborted. Finally (so far as concerns the 
palate), it is important to notice that the palatine bones have not 
merely the long forward extension that has been referred to, but 
that they also extend a long way back, reaching, indeed, the 
transverse bones on either side. This has been noted in Uromastix, 
and it exists also in some other Lizards, but it is not a universal 
feature of the Licertiha. I mention the matter here in order to 
suggest that these two features are an indica,tion of the partial 
retention of a formerly more extensive palatal bone such as persists 
in Hatteria. 

I now turn to the consideration of certain points in the skull 
which do not appear to have been recorded, though I do not pretend 
that they bear upon the retention of any archaic characters. 

Text-fig. 2. 



Lateral viow of the skull figured ou p. 3. 

JFn, frontal ; J"., jugal; Jf.S., mesethmoid ; JV"., nasal ; P., parietal; (7., quadrate ; 
pf., postf'rontal ; po., postorbital; Ft., pterygoid; Sg., squamosal; St., supra- 
temporal. 

The orbital and postorbital regions offer some characters not 
without interest, and, as it appears to me, are not well known. 
Gegenbaur has figured and contrasted side views * of three Lacer- 
tilian skulls including Uromastix and Iguana. In the latter is 
correctly represented a large postorbital and a, small postf rontal 
bone. I cannot, however, agree with Gegenbaur's figure of 
Uromastix — on the assumption, of course, that the species figured 

* Vergleicheiule Anatomie der W'irbeltliiere, vol. i. p. 391. 



() MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE CRANIAL [Jan. 17, 

by him is Uromastix spinipes, or that in the pai'ticulars to be 
i-eferred to there is no difference between U. spinipes and other 
Kpecies of the genus. In U^-omastix, Gegenbaur figures a rather 
smaller postorbital than in Iguana, and represents the postfrontal 
of the latter lizard as absent. This interpretation of the bone 
bounding the orbit posteriorly and intervening between the jugal 
and the parietal is, I believe, correct; but, as will be seen from the 
annexed figure (text-fig. 2, p. 5), the postfrontal is not absent. The 
postfrontal is a very much smaller bone, both actually and rela- 
tively, than it is in a skull of Iguana tuherculata at my disposal. 
Fui-thermore, the postorbital in Uromastix spinipes has not the 
shape that it is represented to have in the drawing of Gegenbaur. 
It extends backwards along the jugal for a much greater distance, 
but does not, as is the case with the postorbital of Iguana, reach 
the squamosal. 

The squamosal in ITromastix spinipes requires some considei-atioii 
since it appeai-s to differ greatly from that of the Uromastix figured 
by Gegenbaur, and, indeed, from the squamosal of other Agamid 
lizards. There is, however, a likeness to the conditions obtaining in 
Iguaiia, a fact which encourages me in adopting a different view. 
The bones in question are depicted in the accomjDanying drawing 
(text-fig. 2, p. 5). As in other Agamids, the squamosal is a bifid 

Text-fig-. 3. 




IJack view of the skull figured on p. 3. 
St?, second supniteniporal ; other lettering as in text-fia-. 2. 

bone, of which one limb is applied to the jugal and the othej' to the 
parietal. Posteriorly the squamosal is in contact with the quadrate 
and appears to be in contact also with the lateral process of the 
occipital. The whole of this bone is not however, as I think, to 
be regarded as squamosal. It is true that the examination of this 
region in the skull of some Lizards might lead to that inference. 
But in Uromastix (at any rate in U. spinipes) (text-fig. 3) the 
posterior undivided region of the bone in question is seen to be 
divided off by a suture, which is equally clear on both sides of 
the skull. The piece thus cut ofi' from the supposed squamosal 
is in contact with the quadrate below and with a small bonelet 
laterally, to which reference will be made innnediately, and which 
interposes between it and the lateral extension of tlie occipital. 



1905.] OSTEOLOPrY OF THE MASTIGUKE LIZARD. 7 

That half of the supposed S!;]uamosal which is applied to the 
parietal rests upon a thin splinter of bone which is, I think, but 
am not quite certain, continuous beneath with the cut-ofi' portion 
of the supposed squamosal. The latter therefore evidently consists 
of two quite separate parts, which are not distinguished in 
Gegenbaur's figure already referred to. The question is, what are 
these two bones ? but, before attempting to answer it, we will 
consider the same region of the skull of Iguana which is figured 
(not very satisfactorily) in Bronn's ' Thierreichs' *. In that lizard 
(see text-fig. 4, B, p. 8) a rounded bone lies between the parietal, 
occipital, quadrate, and reputed squamosal. This bone may be 
the segmented- oft' portion of the squamosal complex in Uromastix, 
or it may be the tiny bone in the same lizard which lies (see 
text-fig. 4, C) closer to the occipital, and which must be a 
supratemporal. If we compare the arrangement of the bones 
in the squamosal region of Uromastix with that in Lacerta as 
figured by Parker f, it would seem that we have, as in that lizard, 
two supratemporal bones of unequal size : the smaller of these is 
that wedged in close to the occij)ital ; the larger is the external bone 
overlapping the real squamosal and commonly termed squamosal. 
Parker observes + that " in many kinds (of lizards) .... the first 
supratemporal is wanting, the second is constant." If by the 
latter half of this statement the constant presence of a sepa- 
rate second supratempoial is meant, I venture to disagree with 
Parker. It does, howevei-, apparently exist commonly, and is 
figured, for example, in Gerrhonotus by Siebenrock §. I use the 
word "apparently" advisedly; for I am not yet convinced that 
the bone in qu.estion is not in reality, as I have already suggested, 
the squamosal. 

I may point out that the way in which I have ventured to 
interpret the bones of the region of the skull is quite in accord 
with Shufeldt's description of the skull of Heloderma ||. Iir this 
lizard, Shufeldt describes as squamosal the bone which I have so 
named in Uromastix spinipes, and describes as a " fragment of 
the hinder end of the zygomatic arch " a rudiment which un- 
doubtedly corresponds with the squamosal multorum auctoruin. 
I detect in a specimen of Heloderma forming part of the collection 
in the Society's prosectorium (text-fig. 4, D, p. 8) a bony nodule 
lying between the occipital and the squamosal, which I identify with 
the second supratemporal of Lacerta and of Uromastix spmipes. 
Siebenrock % has come to the same conclusion with regard to the 
bone that is in my opinion to be regai'ded as the true squamosal. 
But he terms that bone which I venture hei'e to call supia- 
temporal, " Paraquadratum." He does not appear to have seen 

* Vol. vi. Reptilieii, Taf. 68. f. 7. 
t Phil. Trans. 1879, pi. 42. fig. iv. 

I Loc. cit. p. 599. 

§ "Zur Keiiutniss d. Kopfskelet. d. Sciucoiduii," Ann. k.-k. Hofinus. Wieii, vii. 
pi. xii. tig. 8. 

II " Contributions to the Study of Heloderma susperftnii,''' 1'. Z. S. 1890, p. 11-8. 
^ " Das Skelet der Agamidte," SB. k. AkaJ. Wiss. Wien, civ. p. 1112. 



8 ON THE CRANIAL OSTEOLOGtY OF THE MASTIGURE LIZARD. [Jan. 17, 

in Uromastix spinipes the small bone which I term, following 
Parker, second supratemporal. 

On the dorsal surface of the skull I desire to direct attention 
to three features. In the first place, the parietal foramen lies 
entirely in front of the fronto-parietal suture. Secondly, the 



Text-fig. 4. 




Squamosal region in various Lizards. 

A. Lacerta. B. Igtiana. C. Vromastix. D. Heloderma. 
(Lettering as in text-figs. 2 & 3.) 

impaired frontal bone (text-fig. 2, p. 5) shows an unusual character, 
which is, however, approached in the Monitor. On each side, 
anteriorly, the bone sends a thin forwardly and outwardly directed 
process which passes between the prefrontal and nasal of each side 
and reaches the nasal vacuity. 



1905.] 0^" THE AXATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZAUD. 9 

In front of the frontal bone, between it and the nasals, is a 
squarish piece of bone distinct from both of these. In many 
Agamidae there exists, according to Siebenrock, a fontanelle in this 
region, and the same occurs in Iguana and Phrynosoma. It is, 
however, according to Siebenrock, filled up in the full-grown lizard, 
and thus a character of youth. The plugging up of the vacuity 
by a separate bone in Uromastix, not mentioned by Siebenrock, 
leads me to the inference that this bone is to be looked upon not 
as a detached fragment of the frontal — a wormian bone, but as an 
ossified mesethmoid comparable to that which exists upon the 
surface of the skull in some Struthious birds. &c. 

2. A Contribution to the Anatomy of the Frilled Lizard 
{Chlamydosaurus hingi) and some other Agcuinda\ By 
Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosecutor to the 
iSocietj. 

[Received November 29, 1904.] 

(Text-figures 5-10.) 

Except for its muscular anatoray, which has been described by 
Mr. de V^is *, and for certain points in its osteology which have 
been described by Dr. Mivart t and Prof. Dollo %, the structure 
of the genus Chlamydosaitrus appears to be but little known, 
though the external characters § and habits || have been studied 
and recorded by many natviralists. The following pages contain 
a contribution to our knowledge of this Lizard as compared 
with allied genera among the Agamidse, of which family it is un- 
doubtedly to be reckoned a member. 

Lungs. — Seeing that the lungs of the Lacertilia are evidently 
capable of considerable variation *\ and that the habits of Chlamy- 
dosaurus and Physignathits are very different, it is not remarkable 
that their lungs show certain differences of structure. They 
are, however, broadly similar and constructed upon a plan which 
characterises the family Agamidfe — to which these two genera 
belong — and the Iguanidse. This is seen in the fact that the 
lung (both right and left) is divided into two non-communicating 
compartments, only communicating — that is to say — indirectly 
through each bronchus. - The tip of each lung which is continued 
headwards beyond the bifurcation of the bronchi constitutes the 
second and smaller compartment of the lung. This, however, 

* Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. viii. 1883, p. 300. 

t Article " Reptilia," Encycl. Brit. 9th ed. 

X Rev. Quest. Sci. xix. p. 318. 

§ Gray in King's Survey of Australia, ii. p. 424 ; Dumeril and Bibron, Erpetol. 
Gen. p. 440 ; Boulenger, Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Beddard, P. Z. S. 1904, vol. ii. p. 82, 
Encycl. Brit. 9th ed., Article " Lizard." 

il Savile Kent, P. Z. S. 1895, p. 712. 

■|f Milano, " Beitrage z. Kenntniss d. Reptilienlungen," Zool. Jahrb. (Abth. f. Anat.) 
vii. p. 545 ; he does not deal with either of the types described above. 



10 



MR. F. E. BEDDARD OX THE 



[Jan. 17, 



does not, as it does in Iguana, overlap the lai'ger compai'tment of 
the lung posteriorly. It ends exactly on a level with the entrance 
of the bronchus into the main division of the lung. 

The interior of the lung in both genera is slightly sacculated, 
and the accompanying drawings (text-figs. 5, 6) illustrate the 
conditions obtaining in the two genera. It will be noticed that 
in Clilamyclosaurus the dorsal sacculations, though fewer, are 
more pronounced and deeper than in Physignathus, while the 



Text-fig. 5. 



y 






IjUiig of Cldantijdoscniriis, opened to sliovv iiitenial titiucture. 

deeper honeycombed structure of the lung itself implies a larger 
respiratory sui-face and so far a greater efficiency as an organ of 
breathing. It appears to me to be a fair inference that this is 
associated with the bipedal and more active gait of Clilamyclo- 
saurus. In both genera the mesentery tying the lung to the 



1905.1 



AXATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZARD. 



11 



dorsal parietes extends to the very tip of that organ. It is not 
superfluous to direct attention to the fact, since the membrane in 
question is not always coextensive with the lung in Lizards. 

Furthermore, in Physignathus the left lung, but not the right, 
has an attachment to the ventral body-wall by a mesentery 
extending for about half its length. I have also observed this 
ligament in Agama colonorum. 





Lung of PIij/sic/natJiKS, opened to show internal struc'turc. 



Live)-. — The liver is bound down to the ventral parietes by a 
doable umbilical ligament, the presence of -which distinguishes 
Cldaiui/domnrus fi'om Uromastix. In possessing this double 



12 



MR. F. E. BEDDARB OX THE 



[Jan. 17, 



umbilical ligament, Chlamydosaurus clifiers fiom at least some 
others among the Agamidfe, but exactly agrees with Varanus, 
where also the two umbilical ligaments form a V when seen in 
transverse section : that is to say, the ligaments converge at their 
insertion on to the liver and diverge to be inserted separately on 
to the parietes. In the Skinks, on the other hand, the V is as it 
were upside down ; the attachments of the ligaments to the liver 
are separate and wide apart, but they converge to be inserted on 
to the ventral parietes*. 

Text-fig. 7. 




Ventral view of liver of Iguana, to show relation of umbilical ligament. 
G., gall-bladder ; i., liver; os., oesophagus and stomacli ; Z7., umbilical ligament. 



In Physignathtis the arrangement of the umbilical ligament 
(text-fig. 8, p. 1 3) departs from that of Chlamydosaurus, and is really 
more like that of the Skinks. The membrane has a double origin 
from the last third of the liver and anteriorly is single. The 
attachment to the ventral parietes is, however, single throughout. 
The umbilical ligament of this Liza,rd furthei-more difi"ers from 

* See Beddard, " On Certain Points in the Visceral Anatomy of the Lacertilia, 
particularly oi 3Ionitor" P. Z. S. 1888, p. 98; and Cope. P. Acad. Sci. Phil. 1896, 
p. 308. 



1905. 



ANATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZARD. 



13 



that of Chlamydosaurus in the strong development of muscular 
fibres in the posterior double region of the ligament. These 
fibres pass out on either side over the liver. That muscular 
fibres occur in the mesenteries of Saurians is of course a quite 
well-known fact, and is dealt with further on in this commu- 
nication. That there should be this difference between allied 

Text-fig. 8. 




7?1^ 



Ventral view of liver of Fhi/sii/nathus, to show relation of umbilical ligament. 
in., muscular fibres in gastrohepatic ligament ; other lettering as in text-fig. 7. 



forms is not without interest. This double and muscular region 
of the umbilical ligament suggests a portion of the posthepatic 
septum of the Teiidpe*. 

* Butler, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 166, 



1 4 MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE [Jan. 1 7, 

The umbilical ligaments of Amphiholurus are moi^e like those 
of Physig7iathus than those of Chlamydosatirus ; but the con- 
ditions observable are at the same time somewhat intermediate 
between those in the other two. The umbilical ligament divides, 
as in Physignathtis, before the posterior end of the liver, but 
rather nearer to the end than in that genus. In Chlcmiydo- 
scmrus the conditions are not really different ; it presents us 
merely with the third term in a series, for the umbilical ligament, 
as mentioned, arises as one sheet from the liver up to the 
very point of its bifurcation into two lobes ; it then follows 
both, leaving the gall-bladder between. In Physignathus a tiny 
fragment is cut off each of the two lobes of the liver, and these 
lie between the tent-like folds of the posterior region of the 
umbilical ligament. Finally, in Amphiholurus a large piece of 
liver-substance belonging to the left lobe as well as a small piece 
belonging to the right lobe, in addition, of course, to the gall- 
bladder, lie sheltered by the posterior divided region of the 
umbilical ligament. As in Chlamydosaurus, no muscular layer 
passes out upon the liver. 

It is plain, therefore, that in these characters Chlamydosaurus 
does not stand markedly apart from its allies. The liver, however, 
is rather more compressed and not quite so broad from side to 
side as in Physignathus and Amphiholurus, especially in Amphi- 
holurus. In all these genera the long prolongation of the right 
lobe (the " Hohlvenenfortsatz " of Hochstetter) extends right 
down to the testis of its side of the body. There is no great 
length of vena cava left between testis and liver such as exists in 
some lizards, e. g. Tiliqua. In the Agamidee, moreover, there is 
not always so marked a prolongation of the liver-lobe towards the 
gonad ; for while in a $ Agama colonorum the liver-lobe was 
nearly in contact with the ovary, there was in a $ Uromasiix 
acanthinur^is a considerable sti'etch of vena cava between the 
two. 

Mesenteries of Colon. — In Uromastix acanthinurtis, which is a 
vegetable-feeder, the large intestine is particularly long, and the 
wide colon with thin greenish walls is sharply to be distinguished 
from the naiTOW thick-walled rectum. The whole of the colon 
and the greater part of the rectum lie outside of the shelter of 
the pelvic bones. In these particulars Uromastix contrasts with 
Physignathus. 

Associated with this is a peculiarity in the arrangement of the 
mesenteries which is so far peculiar to the genus. In addition to 
the median dorsal mesentery tying down the gut to the parietes, 
the colon has a second mesentery which affixes it to the elongated 
process of the right lobe of the liver and to the vena cava behind 
the point where the lobe of the liver ends. This membrane forms 
the mesorectum at the beginning of the rectum, but it is distinct 
from it, as is shown by the fact that it is not pigmented, while 
the mesoi-ectum is, and that its muscular fibi-es ai'e more abundant 
and larijei'. 



1905.] ANATOMY OP THE FRILLED LIZARD. 15 

MitsGular fibres in the Mesenteries. — The existence of muscular 
fibres in the mesenteries of Saurians is well known *. That they 
have not been recorded in the genera with which I deal in the 
present communication is less important to me than to note 
their distribution in those mesenteries. 

The aorta in Uromastix lies between the two halves of the 
dorsal median mesentery, which are attached to it laterally and to 
the CBSophagus above in the thoracic region of the body. The 
two mesenteries spring from the sides of the vertebrfe ; they are 
much invaded by muscular fibi-es which have a dorso -ventral 
direction. The pulmonary mesenteries vary in this respect ; 
those which bind each lung to the dorsal parietes are free from 
muscular fibres except towards their posterior region ; on the 
other hand the (right) pulmo-hepatic ligament is much more 
invaded by muscular fibres. The mesogastrium and mesentery 
proper are not muscular, in which the formei- contrasts, as already 
pointed oiit, with the hepato-colic ligament. The oviducal 
mesenteries are very muscular. The umbilical ligament is also 
provided with muscular fibres. The gastro-hepatic membrane, on 
the other hand, is very slightly if at all muscular. 

The three other genera which I compare with each other and 
with Uromastix show differences as to the amount of the invasion 
of the several mesenteries by muscular tissue. In considering the 
ligament which binds the liver to the ventral parietes (umbilical 
ligament) I have already referred to its partial muscularity in 
Physignathus. The muscles in question are very strong at their 
insertion on to the ventral body- wall ; besides giving ofi' fibres to 
the liver as already described, they give off other fibi-es which run 
along the gastro-hepatic ligament and pass out on to the oesophagus. 
There is no question here, it must be noted, of a muscular con- 
nection between the liver and the cesophagus and stomach. The 
fibres cross this membrane. Similarly the pulmo-hepatic ligament 
on the opposite side is traversed by muscular fibres, arising, how- 
ever, in this case from the mesogastrium, which pass out on to 
both liver and lung. From this it results that the free extremity 
of the lung is attached by muscular fibres to the dorsal parietes 
behind the liver. The pulmonary ligament itself of this lung 
(the right), i. e. that which attaches the lung to the dorsal parietes, 
is completely free from muscle. In the case of the left lung, 
however, which possesses no pulmo-hepatic ligament, the pvilmo- 
parietal ligament, though generally free of muscle, has a few slips 
at the very tip of the lung which may correspond physiologically 
with those of the right side, though their relation to the pulmonary 
ligament is diff'erent. The mesogastrium is also muscular ; but 
the fibres by no means form such a thick dense mass as they do 
in Ghlamydosaurus, which will be dealt with immediately. They 
are more sparsely scattered, with wider non-muscular intei'vals. 

. •. 
* Briicke, "Uebev ein in Peritonajum von Tsammosauriis .(//'/seHs aufgefuuJencs 
System von glattcn MuskeUascri)," SH. Wicu. Akad. vii. p. 2k). 



16 MR. F. E. BEBDARD ON THE [JlUl. 17, 

These muscles are limited to the membrane of the stomach and 
oesophagus, and do not extend behind the extremity of the lungs. 
The bands of muscle vary in size. 

In Chlamydosaurus there are some differences in detail from 
the conditions characteristic of Physignathus . The mesogastrium 
is much more distinctly double than the mesogastrium in 
Physignathus^ owing to the greater size of the stomach, which 
lies across the doi'sal middle liver, instead of to the left only. 
With this is associated not only the much more distinctly double 
character of the mesogastrium, but its much greater muscularity. 
The membranous intervals between the muscular strands are so 
much reduced, that each mesogastrium looks like a thin muscle of 
coarse texture. 

I have ah^eady mentioned that the umbilical ligament is not 
muscular. If there are muscles in the pulmo-hepatic, pulmo- 
parietal, and gastro-hepatic ligaments, they must be microscopic. 
The mesentery proper has only muscular fibres at its very 
beginning, and these run at least chiefly to the stomach. 

Amphibohiru,s is somewhat intermediate between Physignathus 
and Chlamydosaurus. Thei'e is some development of muscle in the 
umbilical ligament posteriorly, which for the most part passes 
out upon the gastro-hepatic ligament and ends in contact with the 
walls of the stomach, and not, so far as I can make out, upon the 
liver. The posterior end of the pulmo-hepatic ligament is 
similarly invaded by muscular strands. The mesogastrium is 
very distinctly miiseular, but not so mai'kedly as in Chlamydo- 
saurus, though perhaps rather more so than in Physignathus. 

That the Iguanidse and the Agamidse are very closely allied 
families is admitted. It is not therefore without importance to 
compare the conditions which obtain in Iguana in respect of the 
invasion of the mesenteries by muscular tissue. I have examined 
from this point of view two specimens of Iguana titherculata, and 
find the following state of affairs : — The umbilical ligament is 
absolutely single and does not divide into two sheets posteriorly ; 
it lies entirely to the left of the gall-bladder and contains no 
muscular fibres. The mesogastrium is invaded by a moderate 
amount of muscular tissue, but none of the other mesenteries 
that have been referred to in the foi'egoing account of vai'ious 
types of Agamidse shows any such thick strands of invading 
muscular tissue in Iguana as they do in some of the Agamidae. 
It seems likely therefore that this character will be of some use 
in framing descriptions of the several families of Lizards. 

Some Arteries in Uromastix *. — The epigastric arteries ori- 
ginate in Uromastix., as in Iguana, from the subclavians. In the 
former genus, the artery pursues a rather complicated course 
before passing down the inside of the abdominal wall as the epi- 
gastric artery. The main branch of the subclavian traverses the 
sternal region and appears on the ventral surf§,ce of the sternum, 

* Sec Caloi'i, Mem. Ac. Bologna, 1863, p. -525, for other detail.^ of vaf?cnlar s3-frtem. 



1905.] AXATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZARD. 17 

when it immediately gives ofi" a branch to the pectoral muscles. 
After this the artery again perforates the body- wall close to a rib 
aiid reappears upon the peritoneal face of the ventral musculature, 
where it runs back and constitutes the epigastric. The conditions 
which obtain in this genus are not universal among the Lacertilia. 
The origin of the epigastric in Monitor is described by Corti *" 
as being quite different. I can confirm this. It originates in the 
Monitor from the carotid artery before it divides into two, but 
still some way in front of the heart. 

The relationship between the intercostal and oesophageal arteries 
is worth remarking upon in this Lizard. The left aorta is not, as 
it appears, concerned with the circulation of either the oesophagus 
or the body- wall t. But the right aortic arch gives off brandies 
to both. There are two pairs of intercostals in front of the union 
of the two aoi-tfe ; both of them on the i-ight side only give off a 
twig to the walls of the oesophngus. After, tliat is posteriori}^ to, 
the junction of the two aort;>^, one trunk ai'ises on each side of the 
aoi'ta, which branches into an intei'costal ond an oesophageal 
branch. From this point backwards the branches to the aH- 
mentai'V canal ai'ise sepaiately fi'om the intercostals. On the 
riglit side there are foiu- of these arteries, on the left only two. 
There is not, therefore, an accuratelv paii-ed nirangement. 

It is notewoi'thy that the intercostal arteries J do not plunge 
so deeplj" into the musculature of the back as they do in some 
Lizards ; the arteries in question can be followed for a long 
distance towaixls the ventral extremities of the ribs, h'ing as they 
do very superficially in the musculatui'e. In Iguana, on the other 
hand, the arteries in question are lost to view directly the}'' touch 
the dorsal musculature on either side of the middle line. 

It does not appear that the aorta gives ofi" in the gastiic region 
any branches to the livex' ; the hepatic artery, which is single, aiises 
as a branch of the coeliac. It is important to remark this fact 
because in some Lizards there are such arteries. In Lacerta 
galloii, for example, each of the last two intercostal arteries which 
lie in the liver region gives ofi" a bi'anch to that organ, which 
bi-anches lie close to the dorsal parieto-hepatic veins. In this 
particular Iguana agrees with Uromastix. 

Skull. — The skull of Chlamydosaurus is much like that of its allies 
Ainphibolurus and Physignathus. On the whole, it comes nearer 
to the former than to the latter, as the following facts tend to 
show. It has also peculiarities of its own. On a general aspect 
of the skulls the supratemporal fossa is seen to be very much more 
elongated in Physignathus than in the other two genera. This 
is actually due to the greater proportionate length of the metlian 
unpaired portion of the parietal in Physignathus. The I'elative 
lengths of the median portion of the parietal and the divei-ging 

* ' De systemate vasornin Fsammosauri c/risei,' 1S47. 

t Calovi, however, tig'ui-es an u'sopbageal artery arising- from the left aorta just at 
juiu-tion with the right, and no others on either rig'lit or left half arch. 
X These arteries are deliberately not dealt with by Calori, 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. II. 2 



18 MR. F. E. BEDDARB ON THE [Jan. 17, 

posterior limbs of that bone in the three types under consideration 
are : — 

Physignathus 10:16 

Chlamydosaurus 5: 14 

Amphihohirus 6 : 17 

Chlamydosaurus and Amphiholurios are thus much closer together 
than either is to Physignathus. 

The parietal foramen is quite different in the three types. In 
Physignathus it is very minute; in Amphiboluras it is large and 
longitudinally oval, and the suture between the frontal and parietal 
bones touches the foramen equatorially. In Chlamydosauriis 
the foramen lies much further back and is quite in the middle 
of the anterior median piece of the parietal bone ; it is intermediate 
in size between the foramina of the other two types. The occipital 
region of the skull is much more depressed below the level of the 
posterior limbs of the parietal in Physignathus than in the two 
remaining genera. 

Anteriorly the dorsal aspect of the skull shows differences in 
these Agamid Lizards. In both Chlamydosaurits and A mphiholurus 
the premaxillary bone extends back beyond the posterior level of 
the nostrils. In Physignathus the bone, which is broader than 
in the other two tj'pes, does not extend so far back as to the 
posterior boundary of the nostrils ; it follows that more of the 
nostrils are bounded by the nasal bones in Physignathus than in 
its allies. 

On the palatal aspect of the skull, Chlamydosaurus shows a 
peculiarity which is not shared by either Amphibolurus or Phy- 
signathus ; that is, that the pa,latines fail to meet in the middle 
line except for a short space anteiiorly. This is not a ma,tter of 
deficient ossification, as is shown by the clear rounded margins 
which bound the area where the palatines do come into contact. 
There is no question, however, here of the pterygoids pushing 
their way in between the palatines and preventing the latter 
from articulation, such as I have recently called attention to in 
Uromastix S2nnip>es^. 

In none of these Lizards is there a distinctly separate postfrontal 
bone ; nor can I detect between the occipital and the first supra- 
temporal any rudiment of the second supratemporal. 

In all three genera, as well as in Uromastix, the columella 
(epipterygoid) does reach the parietal bone above ; inasrauch as 
this bone does not reach the parietal in Iguana (as noted by 
Shufeldt t) or Phrynosoma, it seems likely that this character 
will prove useful in distinguishing the two families Agamid?e and 
Iguanidfe. 

In all three genera — Chlamydosaurus, Amphiholurus, and 
Physignathus — the quadrate is directed backwards. In Iguana, 
on the other hand, it is nearly straight, that is, at right angles 

* Supra, p. 3. 

t " Contributions to the Stiidy of Seloderma," P. Z. S. 1890, p. 222. 



1905.] ANATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZARD, 19 

to the long axis of the skull. This character, though uniting the 
three Agaraid genera mentioned, is of no use for diiferentiating 
the families Agamidse and Iguanidse ; for in Uromastix and 
Phryiiosoma this bone is directed forwards, as in Varanus and 
Heloderma. 

The three genera furthermore agree (to differ from Uromastix) 
in the comparative shortness of the basipterygoid processes, fi-oni 
which results a less divergent coarse in the pterygoid3 themselves, 
and as a consequence a narrower skull. It is interesting to note 
that the Iguanidas show a similar pair of contrasts. It is plain 
from Dr. Busch's figures*", as well as from skulls before me, that 
Iguana has short basipterygoid processes and that Phrynosoma, 
has long ones. 

Finally, Chlamydosaurus, Physlgnatlms, and Amphiholurus 
possess a long process of the lower jaw behind the articular cavity 
which is not paralleled in Uromastix. 

Hyoid. — The hyoid of Chlamydosaurus differs in a good many 
respects from that of Physignathus and Ainphiholarios, as may be 
seen by a comparison of the accompanying figures (text-figs. 9, 10, 
pp. 20, 21). The basihyoid sends back no long basibranchial 
processes in either Chlamydosaurus or Amphiholurus, though there 
are faint rudiments of them in the former. In Physignathus^ on 
the other hand, there are two long basibranchial processes, as in 
Igtumia and Anolis. I imagine that the absence or presence of 
these long processes is related to the absence or presence of the 
" dewlap " in the forms under consideration. 

In these three Lizards, as in others, the hyoid and branchial 
arches \i. e. the" anterior and posterior cornua] articulate with 
each other as well as with the median copula at their insertion on 
to that. There is, however, a mai-ked difference in the angles at 
which the hyoid and branchial lie with regai-d to each other. 

In Chlamydosaurus the two visceral arches are at about right 
angles to each other where they join the copula : Physignathus 
is at the other extreme ; the parts in question are nearly in the 
same straight line. In this particular Amphibolurus comes nearer 
to Physignathus than to Chlamydosaurus. The fact that in 
Chlamydosatirus the posterior coi-nua are much longer than the 
anterior cornua than in the other types, I put down to the frill 
in Chlamydosaurxis which is supported by these posterior cornua. 

There is a final point to which I desire to direct attention 
which is of some little impoi-tance. In Aviphiholurus, as in the 
majority of Lizards t, the backwardly and dorsally directed half of 
the hyoid arch is peifectly continuous with the extremity of the 
ventral bit of the arch that is attached to the copula. In both 
Ghlaiinydosaiirus and Physignathus the arrangement is as seen in 
the annexed figures (text-figs. 9, 10, pp. 20, 21), i.e. the ventral 
half is prolonged dorsally of the point of attachment to it of the 

* "Beitrag z. Kenntniss d. Gaumenbildung bei den Reptilieu," Zool. Jalirb. (Anat. 
Abth.) xi. pi. 35. fig. 7 a, and pi. 36. fig. 10 a. 
f Brouu's ' Thierreichs,' Band vi. (Reptiles) pi. 72. 

2* 



20 



MR. P. E. BEDDARD ON THE 



[Jan. 17, 



dorsal half of the hyoid. It appears to me that this projecting 
bit of cartilage (a) is the equivalent of the thickened region of 
the hyoid of Lacerta figured by Parker*. This projecting bit in 

Text-fig. 9. 




Hyoid of CMamydosaiirus. 
a, projecting cartilage of hyoid arch. 

Chlamydosaurus is ossified and segmented off from the adjoining 
bones, with which it articulates by definite joints and is not 
merely continuous. If it could be shown that this piece does 

* " On the Structure and Development of the Skull in theLacertilia," Phil. Trans. 
1879, pi. 40. fig. xi. and pi. 42. fig. v. In the latter figure the lettering " ch." 
points to the thickening. 



1905.] 



AXATOMY OF THE FRILLED LIZARD. 



21 



not in reality belong to the arcli to which it is attached, but is a 
persisting fragment of the second postoral arch, we should be 
able to bring the Lacertilia into line with the Chelonia, where 
the true hyoid arch is small and is followed by two better developed 
branchial arches. At present, however, I can only make the 
suggestion, after recording the facts. 

Text-fig. 10. 




Hyoid of Physignathus. a as in text-fig. 9. 

Vertebral Column and Ribs. — I find in Chlamydosaurus that 
there are 23 presacral vertebrae and 49 caudals ; of the latter I am 
inclined to think that none are missing. Of cervical vertebroi, 
that is vertebrae entirely without ribs, I found in two individuals 
jive^ which is one or two more than the usual number. The last 
intercentrum of the anterior vertebrae lies between Nos. 6 and 7. 
The dorso-lumbar vertebrae all possess ribs, even the last of the 
series, which in the Agamidse generally * does not bear free ribs. 

* Siebeiirock, " Das Slvelet der Agamidse," SB. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien, vol. civ. 



22 MR. F. E. BEDDARD OX THE [Jail. 17, 

The free iil:),s of the ];i.st dorso-lambar were, hoAvever, present only 
upon one side. Four ribs reach the sternum on each side, of 
which the last pair are attached to the xiphisternum. The sternur)i 
shows the unusual character of being not fenestrated. 

Between the first and second of the caudal vertehroi begin the 
intercentra. The first, however, are two small nodules only. The 
chevrons do not commence until the next vertebra. Towai'ds the 
end of the series the chevrons are occasionally replaced by small 
nodules. 

As regards the shoulder-girdle^ I have only to remai-k that the 
clavicle arises from a point a little way down the scapula. 
. These facts may be supplemented by a comparison of them with 
the corresponding facts in the osteology of Physignathus lesueuri, 
a genus not investigated by Siebenrock in his extensive svirvey of 
the osteology of the Agamid?e. 

The presacral vertebrpe are 24. Of caudal vertebrpe I counted 
53, and am convinced that not more than one or two are missing. 

The true cervical vertebrte are four instead of five, in which 
Physignathus agrees with two individuals out of three of Amphi- 
holurus harhatus which I examined from this point of view. In 
the third specimen there was at least one rib on vertebra 4. 

The spines of the dorsal vertebrae are much longer in Phy- 
signathus than in Chlainydosauru,s, while they are still moi'e 
depressed in Amphiholurus. The last intercentrum lies between 
vertebrae 5 and 6. 

The ribs of Physignathus ai'e in all 19 pairs, of which the fifth 
to the eighth pairs reach the sternum. The first two pairs show 
a peculiarity not observable in Chlamydosauriis. Each is expanded 
at its free end, this expansion being specially marked in the 
case of the second. The last of the sternal ribs is attached much 
nearer to the proximal end of the xiphisterna than is the 
corresponding rib of Chlamydosaurus. The sternum itself has in 
Physignathus the usual two foi-amiiia present in so many lizards. 
It is only the last of the dorso-lumbar series that has no free 
ribs 



3. A Note on the Brain of the Black Ape, Cynopitliecus niger. 
By Fkank E. Beddard, M.A,, F.R.S., Prosector to tlie 

Society. 

[Received November 29, 1904.] 
(Text-figures 11 & 12.) 

In a recent communication to this Society*, I described among 
a number of others the brain of Cynojnthecus niger, the Celebesian 
Black Baboon. That brain is still in my possession and is that of 
a female. Since then I have been able to compare this brain 

* r. Z. S. 1903, vol. i. p. 12. 



1905-J BRAIN OF THE BLACK APE. 23 

with another, this time of a male and of about twice the size of 
the former brain. More exact measurements are as follows : — 

$ brain. <J brain. 

Length of hemispheres 63 mm. 83 mm. 

Length of occipital lobe 10 mm. 24 mm. 

Mesial end of fissure of Rolando 

to front end of brain 36mm. 48 mm. 

Greatest breadth of hemispheres 52 mm. 65 mm. 

On again studying the smaller brain, I cannot find that my 
description and figures are inaccurate. There remain, so far as 
that brain is concerned, all the points of resemblance to Semno- 
pithecus which I indicated in the paper which I have ah^eady 
referred to. The second brain is so strikingly difiei-ent from the 
first, that it obviously occurred to me that error might have crept 
in. Instances of a confusion of labels and bottles are not 
unknown in Zoology. But a revision of the collection in the 
Prosectorium appears to disprove this. 

The second brain, in fact, shows no resemblances to the Semno- 
pitheci in any of the points in which the first brain undoubtedly 
does. As to the size, in the first place it is necessary to note that 
the smaller female brain was preserved in alcohol, the efiect of 
which is to cause the brain to shrink and diminish in size ; the 
lai'ger brain, on the other hand, was preserved in formol, which 
swells out the brain. 

I found it impossible to refit this bi-ain into the skull. Thus 
the diflerence in size between the two brains must be discounted 
on both sides. They are in reality more nearly equal than would 
appear from the above measvirements. ISTevei-theless, there still 
remains a considerable difference, which must imply a difi'erence 
in age, if not due to sex. 

The brain upon which I report here is that of a nearly adult 
male. The permanent dentition is complete save for the last upper 
molars, which have not quite reached the level of the other teeth. 
The brain is quite like that of other Baboons. The occipital 
lobes are smooth above except for the lateral occipital fissure and 
for the front limb of the T-shaped calcarine fissure which appears 
upon the upper surface of the brain. 

The inferior occipital sulcus is not small, as in the first 
described brain of this species ; it is quite Macacine in extending 
right round to the posteidor face of the occipital lobe. The 
collateral sulcus is concealed, as in Macaques, by the cerebellum. 
The inferior temporal sulcus is represented, as in Macaques, by a 
deep furrow at the lower end of the temporal lobe ; there is also 
an upper piece which does not join the inferior occipital sulcus. 
The Sylvian fissure in this brain does join above (on the right 
side only) the pai'allel ' fissure ; this is a common character in 
Macaques, but certainly rare in Semnojntheci. The oiiginal brain 
of Cynopithecus agreed in this particular with the Semnojntheci. 



24 



ME. F. E, BEDDARD ON THE 



[Jan. 17, 



Tlie intraparietal sukus of brain No. 2 of Ci/nopiihecus is 
precisely like that of a Macaque or a Baboon, in that it does not 
bend outwards before joining the Simian fissure ; this intraparietal 
fissure does not reach the fissure of Rolando. The fissvire of 
Rolando itself only cuts the inter-hemispheral sulcus on the right 
side of the brain. The median pari eto- occipital sulcus in the 
brain of CynopitheciijS which I describe heie for the first time has 
a foi'ward inclination as in the Macaques. 



Text -fig. 11. 




Bi'aiu of Cynopitliecus niger (dorsal aspect). 

c. Lateral occipital fissure; Ca. Calcarine fissure ; d. Intraparietal fissure; 
R. Fissure of Rolando ; <S. Sj-lvian fissure. 

It will be observed, therefore, that in every feature in which the 
smaller brain of the female Cynopithecus difiers from the Macacine 
and agrees with the Semnopithecine brain, a conti'adiction is 
shown in the larger brain of the male Cynopithecus. This latter 
brain, in short, is most emphatically a Baboon's brain ; it belongs 
to the Macacine type. 

The only certain conclusion to be drawn from these facts is 
that the brain of Cynopithecus may show all the typical Macacine 
characters. Though this is a conclusion which might be expected 
in view of the other zoological characters of the Celebesian 



1905.] 



BEAIN OF THE BLACK APE. 



25 



Baboon, it is nevertlieless important to point it out, particularly 
so in view of the second brain, which may or may not invalidate 
the general applicability of the above statement as to the brain of 
Cynopithecus. 

The question of course as to the second brain is, whether its 
differences are variations in an adult brain or are due to youth or 
sex, or both. This smaller ape only lived for six months in the 
Society's Gardens, and as there is no fui-ther evidence as to its age, 
it is impossible to be certain upon the point. I am disposed, how- 
ever, to think that this small brain is comparatively undeveloped, 
and the differences which it shows from the larger bi'ain would 
have lessened with age. 

Text-fig. 12. 




The same Brain as that represented in text-fig. 11 (lateral aspect). 

a. Inferior occipital fissure ; P. Parallel fissure. 
Other lettering as in text -fig. 11. 



These differences, it wiU be observed, can be mostly explained on 
that view. The simple calcarine fissure is simply minus the top 
bar of the T, which will ultimately appear ; the Sylvian fissure 
has not yet grown sufiiciently far back to meet the parallel 
fissure ; the lower portion of the inferior temporal sulcus is 
undeveloped ; a further growth forward of the operculum would 
alter the bending of the intraparietal fissure and perhaps shift 
forward the direction of the internal parieto-occipital. In fact, 
all the peculiarities of the smaller Cynopithecus brain may con- 
ceivably be explained on this view. 

If this be correct, we can draw the interesting inference that 
the Semnopithecine brain is relatively to the Macacine at a lower 
level. If, on the other hand, the differences between the two 
brains are variations of completely adult structure, it is no longer 



26 MR, W. F. LANCHESTER ON SIPUNCULIDS [Jan. 17, 

possible to draw a fixed line in brain-structure between the 
diflei-ent groups of the Cercopithecidae. 

The above observations as to the adult brain are quite in accord 
with those of Zuckerkandl *, who, however, figures only the 
calcarine and adjacent fissures in a memoir which appeared about 
the same time as my own already referred to. 

[I have just examined a third brain of Cynopithecus (a young 
female, which died on the 7th inst.), and find it like that of the 
male described above. — March 9th, 1905.] 



4. On a Collection o£ Sipuncnlids made at Singapore and 
Malacca. By W. F. Lanchester, M.A., Assistant 
Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology in University 
College, Dmidee f. 

[Received November 1, 1904.] 

During a joint expedition on the part of the late Mr. F. 
P. Bedford and myself to the Malayan region, 1 turned my 
attention in part to the collecting of GejDhyrea. In the relatively 
limited area which Ave examined, it was perhaps not to be expected 
that much would be found in the way of species in this compara- 
tively small group, but even allowing for this the I'esults are 
distinctly disappointing. I have examples of only five species, 
belonging to three genera ; in addition, I include another species 
from Borneo, a specimen of which Dr. Hanitsch, of the Raffles 
Museum, kindly handed over to me. All the specimens but one 
were obtained by digging in wet sand or ooze, in which they wei'e 
very common ; but many were rejected as being individuals of the 
same species as those already caught. This I now I'egard as a 
mistaken pi'oceeding, and I would again ui'ge on collectois that 
a great deal of interest is pi-obably lost through following this 
method. More specialisation and less heterogeneous collecting 
seem the main desiderata nowadays. 

In preserving specimens I found the method (recommended, 
I think, by Lo Bianco) of narcotising by pouring alcohol on sea- 
water to be very uncertain ; and after two or three experiments 
decided on the use of fresh- water as a nai-cotising agent, afterwards 
preserving the animals in ^ per cent, chromic acid. I believe 
this method to be the best on the whole ; though, seeing that even 
Sipunculids have their individual idiosyncracies (and the different 
efiects of the same method on different individuals is most 
surprising), it is only the best as applied to an average number of 
specim.ens. 

* "Zur Morphologie des AfFengehirns," Zeitsclir. Morpli. u. Authr. vi. 1903, pi. xii- 
fig. 16. 

f Communicated by the Secbetaet. 



1905.] FROM SINGArORE AND MALACCA. 27 

I. Genus SiPUNCULUS. 

1. SiPUNCULUS ROBUSTUS Keferstein. 

E. Selenka, Die Sipunculiden (Semper's Reisen, iv. p. 97). 

Log. Singapore. Teluk Ayer ; two specimens. Pasir Panjang ; 
two specimens. 

The longitudinal muscles do not anastomose at all, and number 
26-27, both in front and behind, in three dissected specimens. 
The ventral retractors arise in one instance from muscle-bands 
1-5 on both sides, and in another instance from muscle-bands 2-5 
on the right side, 2-6 on the left side ; in all cases the outer 
oi'igins are small, about half the size of the inner. 

Colour in spirit, ash. 

2. SiPUNCULUs CUMANENSIS Keferstein. 

Selenka, toin. cit. p. 104. 

Zoc. Singapore. Pasir Panjang ; several specimens of var. 
opacus, and three of var. vitreios. 

In the specimens dissected I find the nerve-cord thickening 
■ anteriorly, the thickening beginning at the level of the ventral 
retractors, whence the cord gradually expands into a dorso-ventrally 
flattened band running up the introvert. 

Among the specimens referred to var. opacus are several in 
which the hinder portion (or half) of the body presents the trans- 
parent colourless appearance of var. vitreus. In fully extended 
individuals a greater or less portion immediately behind the ten- 
tacles is also colourless or whitish. 

The specimens all have 20 longitudinal muscle-bands, except 
one example of var. vitreus which has 26. 

3. SiPUNCULUS BOHOLENSis Semper. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 109. 

E coll. Hanitsch. Four specimens of this large species. 

Zoc. Gaya Island, British North Borneo. 

Ifab. Sandy shore, low water. 

In the specimen dissected the longitudinal muscles number 31 
or 33 in the front and mid-regions of the body, and only 30 in 
the hind part. The dorsal retractors arise each from four muscle- 
bands, the ventral from, on the left side two, and on the right 
side three bands. 

II. Genus Phascolosoma. 

4. Phascolosoma vulgare de Blainville. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 20. 

Loc. Singapore. Raffles Lighthouse, ooze under stones 
seven specimens. Pasir Panjang, muddy sand ; one specimen. 

The only difiei'ence I can discover between these individuals and 
Selenka's desciiption of Ph. vulgare is that the ventral retractors 
arise at the anterior border of the posterior half of the body, 



28 MR. W. F. LANCHESTEB ON THE [Jail. 17, 

instead of at the anterior border of the middle third ; in conse- 
quence of which the kidneys do not nearly reach to these origins. 
The individual from Pasir Panjang was, in life, coloured orange, 
with the tip of the tail black. 

5. Phascolosoma pellucidum Keferstein. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 32. 

Loc. Singapore. Pasir Panjang ; one specimen. 

Malacca. Pulau Jawi ; two specimens, from under deep stones. 

Selenka says in regard to the kidneys in this species : " Segmen- 
talorgane von halber Korperliinge." Keferstein, on the other 
hand, says : " Segmentalorgane kurz " ; and his figure accoi-ds 
with this description. These specimens agree with Keferstein's 
description in this respect ; the kidneys are only one-sixth of 
the length of the body in the individual from Singapore, a little 
more than one-sixth in those from Malacca. 

There are no hooks on the introvert in any of these examples, 
and in those from Malacca the retractors are notably thicker than 
in the Singapore specimen. 

On the tails of these individuals {i. e. fi'om both localities) is 
fixed a species of the Entoproctous Polyzoan Loxosoma, which 
Dr. Harmer has kindly undertaken to examine. 

III. Genus Physcosoma. 

6. Physcosoma scolops Sel. & de Man. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 75. 

Loc. Singapore. Raffles Lighthouse ; two specimens. S'alat 
Sinki (strait between Pulau Brani and Blakang Mati), 5 fathoms, 
bottom of mud and stones ; one small specimen. 

In one example, the largest, the introvert is even longer than 
the body, being 1 ^ times the length of the latter. As regards 
the longitudinal muscle-bands, there are only 17-19, instead of 
20-21 ; the retractors, moreover, do not fuse till very far forward 
in the introvert. 



5. The Marine Fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, 
from Collections made by Cyril Crossland in the Years 
1901 and 1902. — Gephyrea. By W. F. Lanchester, 
M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoolo^ 
in University College, Dundee *, 

[Received November 1, 1904.] 

(Plate I.t) 

This collection was made by Mr. Crossland in East Africa during 
the years 1901-1902; it includes in all examples of 20 species, 

* Communicated by the Seceetaet. 
t For explanation of the Plate, see p. 35. 



PZ.S,1905,vol.I.Pl,I. 







3b 




-d"( 



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4!6 



56 





1c 




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GEPHYREA FROM ZANZIBAR. 



1905.] GEPHYREAN ^YORMS OF ZANZIBAR, ETC, 29 

16 being Sipunculids and 4 Echiurids. Of the Sipunculids three, 
and of the Echiurids one, are new ; the latter, a Thalassema, 
presents the novel feature of foiu* pairs of nephridia, the greatest 
number hitherto met with in that genus. Unfoi'tunately the 
Echiurids are not at all well preserved, and it is evident that the 
preservation of these animals needs even moi-e careful attention 
than in the case of the Sipunculids. In this group, moreover, 
I notice that, whether due to contraction or otherwise, the 
nephridia and anal trees are apt to lose their characteristic 
appearance, the nephridia appearing small or even absent, and 
the anal trees simple in a species in which they are really 
dendritic. 

SiPUNCULIDA. 

I. Genus SiPUNCULus. 

1. SiPUNCULus iNDicus Peters. 

Arch. f. Anat. u. Phys. p. 382 (1850). 

Log. Pemba Island. 

Hcd). From the eastern I'eefs in sand near the shore. 

Two large specimens, the internal organs of which are not 
sufficiently well preserved to enable me to add anything to our 
knowledge of their general anatomy. 

2. SiPUNCULus EDULis Lamarck. 

Sluiter, Natuurk. Tijds. Nederl. Ind. xlv. p. 484 (1886). 

Loc. Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar. 
Eab. Shore at low tide. 

Several examples ; in one of which the transverse dissepiments 
are absent. 

3. SiPUNCULus CUMANENSIS Kef. 

Selenka, Die Sipunciiliden (Semper's Reisen, iv. p. 104). 
Loc. Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar. 

Three specimens corresponding with Grube's var. semiritgosics. 
Log, Zanzibar. 
Two specimens of var. vitreus. 

4. SiPUNCULus TITUBANS Sel. & BUlow, 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 57. 

Loc. Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar ; two large specimens. 

This is a very clearly defined species, and these specimens 
agree closely with the description. The only comment I have 
to make on the original account is that, so far at least as concerns 
these examples, the papillae on the introvert, though certainly 
" von dreieckiger Form," are not so obviously so as in the case of 
S. indicus : the angles are rather softened down. This character 
together with the relative positions of the nephridial and anal 



30 MR. W. F. LANCHESTER OX THE [Jan. 17, 

openings serve to clearly distinguish it, externally, from the latter 
species, to which it appears at first sight vei-y similar. 

This species, originally known from America, has also been 
described by Fischer from Madagascar. 

5. SiPUNCULUS BILLITONENSIS Sllliter. 

Natuurk. Tijdschr. ISTed. Ind. xlv. p. 487. 
Loo. Pemba Island. 

Hah. From eastern reefs in sand near the shore. 
One specimen. 

G. SiPUNCULUS AUSTRALIS Kof. 

Selenka, tora. cit. p. 90. 

Log. Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar. 

One specimen. 

This specimen, a large one, agrees in all features with Selenka's 
description, but is without any hooks on the introvert. The 
presence of hook-bearing individuals in species that normally 
possess no hooks has already been recoixled, but I am not aware of 
an instance being known of the opposite phenomenon. That 
some of the hooks may drop off is, however, recognised, and it 
would seem that we have here the same occuri'ence cairied to 
completion, owing either to age or causes that cannot be definitely 
specified. Of course we may be dealing with a case of local 
variation, but of this there is no evidence. 

II. Genus Physcosoma. 

7. Physcosoma scolops Sel. & de Man. 

Selenka, tovi. cit. pp. 75-76. 

Loc. British East Africa. 

Hah. Among coral at low tide ; 2 specimens. Muddy shore 
at low tide ; 1 specimen. 10 fathoms; 4 specimens, 

Loc. Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar ; 1 specimen. 

These individuals correspond with the variety mossamhicense of 
Selenka and de Man, in which the dark lines bordering the clear 
spaces in the hooks are curved and not bent at an angle. The 
accessory process varies, in the hooks of an individual, from being 
present as a distinct small tooth through intermediate stages to 
complete absence. 

8. Physcosoma nigrescens Kef. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 72. 

Loc. Zanzibar Channel, 5 fathoms. 

One specimen in which, as in Selenka's Mauritius form, the 
papillse on the base of the introvert are slightly larger than those 
on the body, and the hooks slightly different. 

Loc. Chwaka Bay. 

One large specimen. The longitudinal muscles do not anasto- 
mose immediately in front of the anus, but extend a little distance 
up the introvert. Hooks typical. 



1905.] GEPHYREAX WORMS OF ZANZIBAR, ETC. 31 

9. Physcosoma evisceratum, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 1.) 

Log. Chwaka, Zanzibar. 

There is only a single specimen present, in which all the 
internal organs, including even the muscle-layers, have entirely 
disappeared. The part of the introvei't that bears the tentacles 
is also broken away. But the hooks and papillae present features 
which prevent me from placing the specimen in any known 
species. 

The introvert is as long as, or a little longer than, the body ; 
it is not possible exactly to mark the limit between the two, so 
that perhaps, I'oughly speaking, it is better to describe them as 
equal in length, the introvert being at any rate not shorter than 
the body. Both are covered entirely, except for a small piece 
at the extreme anterior end of the introvert, with large conical 
papillae, which are largest at the extreme hind end and smallest 
in the middle of the body ; generally colourless, at irregular 
intervals over the body a single papilla appears dark-brown and 
very distinct as against its surroundings. The appearance of the 
papillae under the microscope is shown in PI. I. figs. \a k \h ; 
those from the hind end are characteristically raised, in their basal 
regions, into small secondary papillae. 

The rows of hooks are numerous. In the region behind the 
mouth I find 15 rows (but these may in reality be more numerous, 
allowing for the teai^ing above mentioned) ; then comes a narrow 
interval, and again some 15 rows of hooks, and then after a 
similar interval 30 rows. All the hooks are alike in structure ; 
fig. 1 G gives a representation of one, and the characteristic feature 
to which I wish to draw attention is the presence of a distinct 
process projecting from the dai-k curved line bounding the convex 
border of the light central area and encroaching on the latter. 

Finally the body, which is markedly broader than the introvert, 
is unpigmented save for the isolated papillae mentioned above ; 
while the introvert is more or less brown, the coloration tending 
to be concentrated along a line that is probably either mid-dorsal 
or mid-ventral ; only the narrow areas which separate the three 
areas of hooks are whitish. 

III. Genus Phascolosoma. 

10. Phascolosoma semperi Sel. & de Man. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 37. 

Log. Chwaka Bay ; two specimens. 

On one of these Mr. Orossland has the following note: "Opaque 
white skin like fine sand -paper in appearance." 

11. Phascolosoma vulgare Blainv., var. nov, selenk^e. 
(Plate I. fig. 2.) 

Of. Selenka, toTn. cit. p. 23 (1883) ; and var. tro'picttm Sluiter, 
Siboga-Exp. p. 33 (1902). 



32 MR. W. F. LANX'HESTER ON THE [Jan. 17, 

Loc. British East Africa, 10 fathoms; 2 specimens, small. 
Chwaka, Zanzibar ; 2 specimens, large. 

These incli^"icluals evidently correspond with a form described 
by Selenka from the Red Sea, which differed from the type in the 
following particulars : the papilla? on the hind end were a little 
shorter and thicker, the hooks a little shorter, and the venti'al 
retractors tending to be inserted a little more posteriorly. Selenka 
was unwilling to establish a variety on a single specimen, but it 
would seem better, now that we have these additions, to distin- 
guish the form as a variety. The papilL'^ on the introvert are 
exactly similar to those on the hind end of the bodj^ ; but even 
shorter and broader. I figure these, and one of the hooks 
(v. figs. 2 «, 2 h). 

12. Phascolosoma glaucum, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 8.) 

Loc. Zanzibar Channel, 10-15 fathoms. 

In this species, which is represented by a single specimen, there 
are no hooks, and only two retractors. The muscle-laj-ers are so 
loosely attached to the skin that they readily tear away from it 
on opening the animal ; the retractors themselves arise, as strands 
ob^'iously split off from the longitudinal layer of the muscle- 
system, from the anteiior border of the hinder Cjuaiter of the body, 
and meet each other round the oesophagus at the level of the 
base of the introvert. The body is 13 mm. (approximately) in 
length, the introvert 5 mm. only ; the latter has a slightly darker 
tinge, owing to the crowding together of the pigmented papillate 
bodies, which are very low and not visible to the unaided eye, 
but distinctly so with the lens, under which they appear as distinct 
black spots. The papillae on the body are visible under the lens 
as distinct clear spots ; under the microscope they appear as 
elongated bodies with a clear apical opening and carried on fields 
roughly oblong in shape. 

Internally, we find the oesophagus running back wath the 
retractors as far as their insertion, and then bending shai-ply 
forward for a httle distance before entering the intestine ; the 
latter contains about 16 spiral turns, and is not attached to the 
hmd end of the body. The rectum is without a diverticulum, 
and opens by the anus just behind the level of the base of the 
introvert. Two muscle-strands suppoit the intestine anterioi'ly, 
and two more, arismg from close to the nerve-cord on each side 
of it, support the oesophagus at the angle where it bends foi-wai'd. 
Thei'e is a contractile vessel, thickly beset with little diverticula, 
along the length of the oesophagus where it lies between the 
retractors. The nephiidia are colourless, and open just in fi'ont 
of the level of the anus. 

13. Phascolosoma wasini, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 4.) 

Loc. Wasiu, British East Africa; 10 fathoms. 
Six specimens, of which the largest is 15 mm. in length. The 
most characteristic feature of this species is the laumei-ous rows of 



1905.] GEPHYREAX WORMS OF ZAXZIBAU, ETC. 33 

hooks of tlie Physcosoma type that lie in the introvert. Generally 
the hooks in Phascolosoma are simple, slightly curved structures, 
and in only one other form, the Ph. papilliferum of Keferstein 
( = Ph. dissors Sel. & de Man), do the hooks, so far as I know, 
acquire the features that ai'e generally found in those of a 
Physcosoma, namely the greatly curved apex borne on a broad base, 
the more or less sharply differentiated clear central space, and 
often an accessory lobe. As regards the internal anatomy, the 
following are the most important feat^^res : — There are four 
retractors, of which the ventral arise fairly close to the nerve-cord 
and just behind, the dorsal just in front of, the middle of the 
body ; these unite very soon to enclose the oesophagus, above which 
lies the simple contractile vessel. The intestine is not much 
twisted, and the rectum, which is moderately long, opens a little 
in front of the origin of the dorsal retractors ; a little in fi'ont of 
the anal opening again are the openings of the nephridia, w^hich 
latter are short, rather broad, and unpigmented. The intestine 
is held to the hind end of the body by a fine muscle-strand, and 
two other somewhat stouter strands run («) from the left side 
of the nerve-cord to the commencement of the intestine, and 
{b) from near the anus, along the rectum, to the intestine, Tw-o 
very distinct eye-spots may be seen just above the mouth. 

Externally the body is covered with numerous, conical, often 
brown-coloui'ed papillae ; in the middle, however, these are lower, 
less numerous, and more finger-shaped. These papillae, moreover, 
extend a little w-ay up the introvert, gradually becoming fewer and 
lower, till they reach the rows of hooks (which reach more than 
halfway back along the introvert) ; in betw^een the row-s they 
appear as flattened elliptical bodies Avith a conspicuous central 
opening. 

TV. Genus Cloeosiphox. 

14. Cloeosipho.v aspergillum Quatrefages. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 126 (1883). 

Log. Ohwaka Bay, Zanzibar ; 2 specimens. British East 
Afiica ; 1 specimen. 

Y. Genus Aspieosiphox. 

15. AsPiDOSiPEOX ELEGAXS Cham. &j Eysenh. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 124 (1883) ; Sluiter, ISTatuurk. Tijdschr. 
Ned. Ind. 1. p. 116 (1890), and Siboga-Exp. p. 19 (1902). 

Loc. Wasin, British East Africa. 

Hah. Among coral, at low tide. 

Several specimens. In Selenka's key to the species of this 
genus he includes A. elegans amongst those in which the anal 
shield is calcified. But there is certainly no calcification in the 
specimens I have seen, nor does Selenka mention the fact in his 
description. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yoi.. I. No. III. 3 



S4 ox THE OEPHYIiEAX WOKMS OF ZAXXIBAU. ETC. [Jan. 17, 

16. AspiDosiPHON thuxcatus, Kef. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p: 118 (1883); Sluiter, Siboga-Exp. p. 17 
- (1902). 

Loc. Wasin, British East Africa ; 10 fathoms. One very 
small specimen. 

ECHIURIDA. 

Yl. Genus Thalassema. 

17. TuALASSEMA BARoXii GreefF. 

GreeflT, Die Echiuren, Nov. Act. Acad. N. Cur. xli. p. 151, 
pi. vi. fig. 64 (1879). 

Loc. Zanzibar Channel. 

Hah. Shore, above lowest tide-level. 

The anal trees appear simple and not dendritic in this single 
specimen, as they do also in at least two among those collected by 
Dr. Willey. This character, together with the lack of any traces 
of the nephridia (which I cannot find either in this or in one of 
Dr. Willey's specimens), I take to be due to the fact that the 
individuals in question may be young. There is also a small 
globular diverticulum on the dorsal side of the rectum in this 
species. 

Mr. Crossland has a note on the colour of this specimen to the 
following effect : " Crimson-lake colour, with light-green pi-o- 
boscis." Previous descriptions of the colours in this species give 
them as being dark-green in the body with violet stripes. Evi- 
dently, then, the col our- character is not necessarily constant, for, 
despite the absence of nephridia, I feel no doubt as to the correct- 
ness of my diagnosis on anatomical grounds, especially after 
comparing them with the specimens from Dr. Willey's collection. 

18. Thalassema moebii Greeff. 

GreeflT, torn. cit. p. 152. 

Loc. Chwaka Bay, Kokotoni Bay. 

Hah. In sand in sheltered bays like the above. 

Two specimens, on which Mr. Crossland has the accompanying 
note : — " Abundant in sheltered bays in sand above low-tide level, 
but extremely difiicult to secure, as the burrows extend into 
crevices in the rocks below the sand. The larger specimens I 
never succeeded in obtaining. They occur with proboscides a foot 
or more long " (tliis presumably refers to those of large size) " when 
lying extended on the sand. Colour pink, owing to coslomic fluid 
seen through skin. Proboscis cream-coloured and more opaque." 

19. Thalassema sp. ? 
Loc. Chwaka, Zanzib.ar. 

A single specimen in a very bad state of preservation. It is 
impossible to refer this specimen with any certainty to any knoAvn 



rv-^l 



^XS^, 



PZ.S. 1905, vol. I. PI. II. 




ih 



3c 



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E.Wilson, Cambridge. 

GEPHYREA FROM THE MALAY PENIKSULA. 



1905.] siruxcuLiDs, etc. of the "skeat" expeditiox. 35 

species, though it might pos.siljly be referable to Th. jyilhicidum 
Fischer, which is, however, a Western form. 

The muscles number 1 2 or 1 3, but some of them are so indistinct 
as to make it impossible to be qtiite certain. The anal trees 
are quite short, brown, tapering, and simple. IS'o other internal 
features can be made out. The proboscis is 10 mm. in length as 
compared with a body length of 40 mm., and in this agrees with 
Fischer's species [cf. Shipley, Willey's Zool. Res. part iii. p. 351). 

Each ventral hook has an accessory hook of about the same size 
lying close to it. 

20. Thalassbma decameuox, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 5.) 

Log. Chwaka, Zanzibar. 

Hctb. In sand. 

One specimen. 

This specdes is characterised by the presence of four pairs of 
nephiidia, which are, however, small in this individual and only 
slightly elongated. Two of them, moderately distant from each 
other, lie behind the setie ; and the other two, much closer 
together, in front of the setse. 

The body- wall is extremely thin ; internally it is possible to dis- 
tinguish ten, fairly broad, but inconspicuous, longitudinal muscles, 
which can also be seen from the outside shining through the skin. 
The anal trees are long, broad and brown at the base, but soon 
tapering and becoming transparent ; simple and not dendritic in 
this individual. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Fln/smsoma eviseeratum (p. 31). a. Papilla fvom the fi-oiit end of the body. 

h. Papilla from the hind end of the body. c. Hook. 
Fig. 2. Thascolosoma vulgare, var. seleulcee (p. 31). a. Papilla from the introvert. 

h. Hook. 
Fig. 3. Thascolosoma glaucum (p. 32). a. Dissection showing- internal anatomy. 

h. Papilla from the front end of the introvert. 
Fig. 4. Phascolosoma wasini (p. 32). a. Dissection showing internal anatom.y. 

h. Papillae from introvert. 
Fig. o. Thalassema decmneron (p. 35). a. Body laid open, to show nephridia, 

muscles, and anal trees, h. Skin from mid-body. 

G. On the Sipunculids and Eehiurids collected during the 
" Skeat " Expedition to the Malay Peninsixhi. By 
W. F. Lanchestee, M.A , Assistant Lecturer and De- 
monstrator in Zoology in University College, Dundee *. 

[Received November 1, 1904.] 

(Plate II.+) 

This collection, which Mr. Sliipley kindly pitt into my hands 
for detei-mination, contains 12 species of Sipunculids and 1 of 
Eidiiurids ; the latter is a new form, as are also four of the 

* Communicated by the Secretaey. 
t For explanation of the Plate, see p. 41. 

3* 



36 MR. W, F. LANCHESTER OX THE SIPUXC'ULIBS [Jan. 17, 

Sipunculids. I will do no more here than call attention to the 
discovery of an Eastern form ( = Physcosoma gaudens, nov.) 
corresponding rathei' closely to the Western Ph. tveldonii, and to 
the somewhat • curious position of the anus in the new form 
Phascolosoina pyriformis. - . 

S I p u X c u L I D A. 
J I. Genus iSiPUNCULua. 

1. SiPUXCTTLUS CUMAXEXSIS Kef. 

Selenka, Die Sipunculiden (Semper's Eeisen, p. 104). 

Loc. Penang. 

Two specimens of the variety opacus. 

The bodies of these two individuals are much longer, relatively 
to the introvert, than was stated by Selenka, who wrote " Riissel 
tingefahr ein Drittel der Korperlange " : hei-e, however, the 
introvert is only one-sixth of the body-length. The measure- 
ments for the two specimens are : — 

(rt) Introvert 43 mm., body 253 mm. 
(6) „ 28 mm., „ 150 mm. 

Probably this diflFerence is due to the different relative con- 
traction of the two parts of the animal in these as opposed to 
Selenka's specimens. 

2. SiPUXCULUS AUSTRALIS Kef. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 90. 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 

Two specimens. 

In the one specimen dissected the ventral retractors arise from 
three, instead of four or five, muscle-bands, those tliree being the 
first to the third on each side of the nerve- cord. 

II. Genus Physcosoma. 

3. Physcosoma scolops Sel. & de Man. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 75. 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 

Numerous individuals. 

In several of these specimens the skin is less transparent, so 
that the longitudinal muscle-bands do not shine through it ; 
gradations may be traced, in others, between this and the typical 
transparent form. 

4. Physcosoma nigrescexs Kef. 

Selenka, toin. cit. p. 72. 

Log. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 

Three large, and one very small, specimens. 



1905.] AXB ECHIURTDS OF THE ''sKEAt" EXPEDITION. 3^ 

5. Physcosoma lurco Se). & de Man. 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 61. 

Loc. Trengganu. 

Numerous examples. 

In the text Selenka speaks of " zwei vorderen Retractoren," 
but in the figure he shows them as arising in the same transverse 
line ; in these specimens the dorsal retractors arise behind the 
ventral in the same longitudinal line, and so from the same 
muscle-bands, namely the first and second. Moreover, according 
to Selenka's figure, the four retractors fuse, after a short 
course, to form two retractors, and these two, again after a 
short course, again fuse to form one ; here, however, the four 
retractors fuse immediately into one after a short course. 
Further, I may mention that the anus is not necessarily con- 
spicuous as described by Selerdca. In many cases it is quite 
indistinguishable ; in many others it appears as a rather sunken 
cleft-formed opening, and in only a few cases as a round opening 
raised on a high papilla. As in the case of Sip. cunianensis, this 
difierence of detail may be explained, w^ithout doubt, by the 
difiering states of contraction in the various examples, either of 
the animal as a whole or of the anal sphincter or of both. 

6. Physcosoma sociUM, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 1.) 
Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 

Three specimens. 

Introvert nearly half as long as the body and thickly covered, 
especially in front, with flattened dark papilla, which posteriorly 
become more conical, smaller, lighter in colour, and less densely 
crowded. Those on the extreme hind end of the body are very 
like those on the front of the introvert, but over the body 
generally they are much more widely scattered, appearing as 
brown spots against the paler background of the semitransparent 
skin. These papillaj are formed of numerous concentric plates, 
and very closely resemble those of Ph. psaron Sluiter {v. fig. 1 6). 
There are no laooks on the introvert. The longitudinal muscles 
number 18-21 in the middle of the body, with occasional anasto- 
moses ; close to the postei-ior end there is a distinct convex line 
along which they again anastomose slightly, so that behind this 
line there are relatively fewer mixscles. The four retractors fuse 
as soon as they meet ; the ventral pair arise just behind the 
middle of the body from muscles 2-6, the dorsal just in front of 
the middle of the body from the 5th-6th muscles. The contractile 
vessel is without diverticula. The intestine has few (about 8-10) 
spirals ; it is held to the posterior end of the body by the spindle- 
muscle and anteriorly by two strands inserted to the left of the 
nerve-cord ; the rectum is long and opens near the base of 
the introvert. The nephridia are attached for two-thirds of their 
length, which is about half that of the body; their anterior halves 
are much swollen and their openings lie just behind the level of 
the anus. 



'38 MR. W. F. LANCHESTER OX THE SIPUNCULIDS [Jail. 17, 

Examination under the microscope of the skin of the introvert 
shows that, for about half its lengtli, the papillse are similar to 
those on the body, but that anteriorly they gradually become 
flatter, the plates becoming much smaller and losing their con- 
centric arrangement, so that the whole appears as a granular 
area surrounding the centi'al opening. In the dorsal half of this 
anterior region, moreover, they become surrounded by thick 
bands of bi-own pigment which fonn a dense network between 
them and tend to obscure their height, but in the ventral half 
the pigment is absent aiid it is easy to trace their gradual 
flattening (PI. II. fig. 1 c). 

This species is obviously very like Ph. psaron, but there are 
certainly no spines on the introvei-t and the papillae difFei- in 
certain features. Thus Sluiter says " Sonst kommen im Riissel 
nur dunkle Leisten vor, aber keine gesonderte Papillen," which 
hardly agrees with the arrangement found here. Otherwise the 
geneial anatomy is closely similar, save only that the nephridia 
a,re half and not three-quartei-s the length of the body, and 
attached for two-thirds and not one-third of their own length. 
Sluiter's description is rather brief and he has not figured his 
species, but I feel reasonably ceitain that the two forms are 
distinct. 

7. Phtscosoma gaudens, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 2.) 

Loc. Pulau Bidau, Penang. 

Three specimens. 

This form would appear to be the Eastern representative of the 
Western Ph. %oeldonii Shipley. In all general features it closely 
resembles the latter, but in regard to the papillfe of the body it is 
distinctly difierent ; these consist, in Shipley's species, of a 
number of brown horny plates with pigment in between, while in 
the present species they consist of tv>'0 rings of small transparent 
plates round the central opening, then a ring of about six large 
brown plates, and then another more or less complete ring of 
slightly smaller irregular brown plates, pigment granules being 
absent (fig, 2). The actual resemblances between the two forms 
are the relative shortness of the inti'overt and absence of hooks, 
the brown papillfe especially crowded on the introvert, the 
presence of only two reti'a,ctors, and the diverticula on the con- 
tractile vessel. The difierences, except as regards the body- 
papilla, are slight and obviously only difierences of degree, and I 
give them in tabular form : — 

Ph. weldonii. Ph. gaudens. 

Longitudinal muscles 10-12, splitting- Muscles 14, splitting in the middle of 

into twQ in tlie middle of the bodj', and the body, but into more than two, so that 

fusing at hind end. posteriorly there are as many as 34 ; not 

fusing at hind end. 

Opening of nephridia a little behind Opening of nephridia at anus level, 
anus. 

E«tractors arise at a level between the Retractors arise at the level of the 

aalevior two-thirds and tbc jwstcriov middle of the body, 
one-third of the bodv. 



1905.J AND ECmUlUDS OF THE " SKEAT " EXPEBITIOX. 39 

III. Genus Phascolosoma. 

8. Phascolosoma pyriformis, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 3.) 

Log. Pulau Biclan, Penang. 

Numerous specimens. 

The expanded animal is pyriform in shape, the introvert being 
considerably shorter than the body. The skin is thick, without 
papillfe when seen under the lens ; in most of these specimens 
the colour is a dirty- white with a slight tinge of very pale green 
which may be due to the reagent. Some, however, are distinctly 
reddish-brown {i. e., a lightish copper), and in nearly all it is 
noticeable that the skin is covered with splashes of white, which 
just behind the tentacles are aggregated into a broad white 
ring. 

Internally the most pecidiar chai'acter is that both anvis and 
nephridia open on the introvert, the anus halfway between its 
base and the tentacles, the nephridia just in front of its base 
{v. fig. 3 (lb). The muscle-layers are continuous, and there are 
two broad and short retractors which arise within the middle 
third of the body and fuse dii-ectly they meet. The oesophagtis, 
covered by a contractile vessel with numerous black-tipped 
diverticula, extends to the extreme hind end of the body (at 
which point the conti-tictile vessel ceases), and then bends sharply 
forward dorsal to the intestine to enter the latter at the anterior 
end of the body ; in its anterior half this j)art of the oesophagus 
is held in place by three small muscles which converge to be 
inserted fairly close together in the mid-dorsal line. The in- 
testine is much, coiled and opens at the anus by means of a rather 
short rectum ; it is not held down to the hind end of the body, 
but is attached in front by means of the spindle muscle. The 
nephridia are about a quarter of the body-length, hardly pig- 
mented, their anterior portion swollen. 

The papillate bodies consist of («) a low circular papilla, with a 
wide central opening, on the external body-wall, (6) of the 
glandular portion, lying rather deep down below the cutis and 
epidermis, and (c) of a fairly long, more or less straight duct, 
leading to the external opening {v. figs. 3 6, 3 c). 

lY. Genus CLOEOSIPHo^^ 

9. Cloeosiphon aspergillum Quatrefages. 

Selenka, toyn. cit. p. 126. 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 
One specimen. 

Y. Genus Aspidosiphox. 

10. AsPiDosiPHON STEEXSTRUPii Diesing, 

Selenka, torn. cit. p. 116. 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. . . . ■ 

One speciuien. 



40 siPUNCULiDs ETC. OF THE "skeat" expeditiox. [Jan. 17, 

11. AspiDosiPHON ELEGANS Cham. & Eysenh. 

Selenka, torn. cif. p. 124. 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang. 

Fifteen small specimens. 

12. AspiDosiPHON iNSULARis, sp. nov. (P]ate II. fig. 4.) 

Loc. Pulau Bidan, Penang, 

Two damaged specimens. 

The longitudinal muscles are split into bundles which anasto- 
mose rather freely ; they appear stronger behind the level of the 
retractors, where they number about 22, but in front of this level 
the transverse bands appear more prominent and the longitudinal 
muscles number only 15. The retractor muscles are four in 
number, and take their origin a little behind the middle of the 
body, the ventrals arising from longitudinal muscles 2-6, the 
dorsals from 5-6 only, a very little distance in front of the ven- 
trals ; the pairs unite very quickly, but the united pairs do not 
join till moderately close to the tentacles. The nephridia are 
long, extending from their opening, at the same level as the anus, 
close to the base of the introvert, to some little distance behind 
the retractors ; they are brown in colour, and attached only in 
their front portion, which is slightly swollen. A well-marked 
spindle-muscle holds the intestine down to the hind end of the 
body, which, in the specimen figured, is invaginated for a little 
distance. 

Externally the body is a dirty-white and dotted with small 
brown papillae, which in the middle of the body are only visible 
under the lens, but which increase in size towards the hind end. 
The anal shield is circular, and foi'med of crowded, large, brown 
papillae. The introvert is less than half the length of the body ; 
in front it carries a few rows of hooks (fig. 4 b), and behind 
rather large papillae, each of which terminates in a dense, almost 
tooth-like structure (fig. 4 c). Along the dorsal line the papillae 
are enclosed by a dense brown pigment. 

ECHIURIDA. 

VI. Genus Thalassema. 
13. Thalassemia sabinum, sp. nov. (Plate II. fig. 5.) 

Loc. Tale Sab, Singora. " In channel at top of brackish 
part." Five specimens. 

The characteristic features of this species are as follows : — 

a. The proboscis is short as compared with the body ; 

b. There are two pairs of nephridia with spiral openings ; 

c. The muscle-sheath is continuous ; 

d. The anal trees are short ; 

which conjunction of characters at once separates it from the 
other members of the genus. The animal is small, measuring in 



P Z.S. 1905, vol.!. PI. III. 




A.D.Imms d^el- 
M.P.PaT"keT mil. 



Par"ker & West imp- 



PHARYNGEAL DENTICLES OP ELASMOBRANCHS . 



1905.] ox THE DEXTICLES OF ELASMOBKANCH FISHES. 41 

one instance 10 mm., of which the proboscis forms only the fifth 
part, i. e. 2 mm. The ventral hooks lie close up behind the 
proboscis. The skin is rather thin, and only partially transparent 
so far as concerns most of the internal organs, but the nerve-cord 
is clearly visible from the outside. The structure of the papillate 
bodies is shown in fia:. 5. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Physcosoma socium (p. 37). a. Dissection showing internal anatonij'. 
h. Papilla ft-om mid-body. c. Skin of introvert, showing gradual flat- 
tening of the papilla;. 

Fig. 2. Physcosoma gaudens (p. 38). Papilla from the hind end of the body. 

Fig. 3. P/iascolosoma piriformis (p. 39). a. Dissection showing internal anatomy. 
b. Papilla from the front end of the body, surface view. c. The same in 
section. 

Fig. 4. Asjpidosiphon insularis (p. 40). a. Dissection showing internal anatomy. 
h. Hooks, c. Papilla from the base of the introvert. 

Fig. 5. Thalassema sahinum (p. 40). Skin from the front of the body. 



7. On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobraiich 
Fishes*. By A. D. Imms, B.Sc. (Lond.), Zoological 
Laboratory, University of Birmingham. 

[Received November 1, 1904.] 

(Plate Ill.t) 

It is well known that in the Elasmobranch Fishes true teeth are 
carried only in relation with the palato-quadi-ate and mandibular 
cartilages. Minute denticles, however, may be present in greater 
or less abundance in many parts of the lining of both the oral 
and pharyngeal cavities. Very little has been written with regard 
to these structures, and, although reference is made to them by 
Hertwig, Popta, and others, the only general description of them 
is that recently published by Steinhard$. 

I have been led to devote some attention to them as the outcome 
of an account which I have recently given of the structure of the 
gill-rakers of the Ganoid Fish Polyodon spathula §. In that 
paper I suggested that the gill-rakers of Polyodon may perhaps 
be regarded as scales (or denticles) which have migrated fiom the 
exterior of the body on to the branchial arches, and have there 
become greatly modified into long setiform structures. In order 
further to test the possibility of this suggestion, I have examined 
examples of species belonging to a considerable number of genera 
of Elasmobranchs for the purpose of ascertaining whether denticles 
of any description are present on the branchial arches in those 
Fishes. Given the presence of denticles on the branchial arches 
in such forms, it would not be difficult to conceive that the type of 

* Communicated by Prof. T. W. Bridge, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

t For explanation of the Plate, see p. 49. 

X Archiv fiir Naturgesch. Ixix. Bd. i. 1903, pp. 1-46, Taf. i. & ii. 

§ Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii. pp. 22-35, pi. ii. 



42 MB. A. D. IMMS OK THE DENTICLES [Jan. 17, 

gill-raker met with in Polyodon and CetorJdnus might have been 
derived from them through their spinous portions becoming greatly 
elongated. As the result of this examination, I has^e found that 
denticles are of very frequent occurrence both on the branchial 
arches and on the mucous membrane lining the mouth and 
pharynx in these Fishes. A brief account of the observations 
which I have made on these structures is embodied in the present 
article. I am indebted to Prof. T. W. Bridge, F.R.S., for helpful 
criticism and for his kindness in placing at my disposal a number 
of examples of various fishes. To Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., I 
also owe a debt of gratitude for allowing me to examine specimens 
of several genera of Elasmobranchs in the Collection of the British 
Museum. My investigation of this subject was commenced about 
the time when Steinhard's paper was published, and I did not 
become aware of the latter until my work was neai-ing completion. 
When I came to read his paper, I found that I had conducted my 
studies on similar lines and, moreover, that about half the species 
examined by me had already been investigated by him. As the 
result of this coincidence, I found it necessary to curtail the 
present paper considerably below its original dimensions, and, in 
its emended form, I offer it as a small additional contribvition to 
a knowledge of these denticles. 

In his paper Steinhard refers to the oral and pharyngeal 
denticles as " Schleimhautschuppen," or " mucous membi'ane 
scales," and he describes their form, arrangement, and distribution 
in a number of cases. The first part of his description treats of 
their occurrence among the Selachoidei, and the following species 
of the latter were examined by him : — Heptanchus clnei^eus, 
Mustelas vulgaris, Carcharias glaucus, Fristvm'its 'tnelanostomus, 
P. sp., Acanthias vulgaris, Centrophorus sp., ScylUum hurgeri, 
S. canicula, Galeorhinus japonicus ?, Sphiax niger, and Squatina 
vulgaris. He points out that from among these twelve species 
nine out of them possessed " Schleimhautschuppen." In some 
forms {Heptanchus, Mustelus, Carcharias) the whole of the mucous 
membrane lining the mouth and pharynx down to the commence- 
ment of the oesophagus is closely covered with them. In others 
[Acanthias, Pristiurus sp.) they invest the mucous membrane of 
the branchial arches, but their distiibution over the rest of the 
mouth and pharynx is more restricted. In Pi'istiurus melano- 
stormis, Centrophorus sp., and ScylUum hiLvgeri denticles were 
only present over the mucous membrane covering the branchial 
arches, while in Squatina they are confined to the lining of the 
oral cavity. The second part of the paper deals with Galeorhimis 
canis and the Batoidei. In the former, he describes the whole of 
the oral and pharyngeal cavities, together with the branchial 
arches, as being completely covered with denticles which extend 
as far back as the commencement of the oesophagus. A similar 
condition was met with in Pristis perotetti, which he considers in 
this respect to be the most primitive of the B;vtoidei. The other 
members of the group which he examined were lihijachohatis 



1905.] or ELASMOBRAXCH FISHES. 43 

djeddensis, Haja clavata, Torpedo marmoraia, and Trygon sejjhen, 
together with Chimccra monstrosa. The paper is accompanied by- 
numerous figures which show the varied forms assumed by these 
denticles. Those of HeptancJms in nowise differ in their form 
from the placoid scales of the skin in that genus. Those of 
Mustelus and Pristis are regarded as being intermediate in form 
between the teeth of the respective species on the one hand and 
the placoid scales on the other. In other genera their resemblance 
to the placoid scales becomes more remote. The author briefly 
refers to the function of these structures, and suggests that they 
may serve in grinding up the food. For that purpose a slight 
side rubbing-movement of the jaws and gill-apparatus might 
suffice. By means of such a motion the scaly mucous membrane 
W'ould act like two rough surfaces. Mention is also made of the 
difficulty to account for the presence of such structures over an 
area like the pharynx, which is of hypoblastic origin. He shares 
the view of Hertwig that their presence in that i-egion is more 
likely due to a migration of the ectoderm rather than to the 
possibility of the hypoblast having acquired a scale-forming 
capacity. 

My observations on the presence and distribution of oral and 
pharyngeal denticles have been made on specimens belonging to 
eighteen genera of E]asmobranchs. 

A. SeL ACHOIDEI*. 

Fam. Oarchartid^. 

1 . Carcharias glaucus Rond. — In an individual which measured 
39 cm. in length, denticles were present over the floor of the oral 
cavity and along the pharyngeal margins of the branchial arches. 
Steinhard remarks that in an example of this species which he 
studied, measuring 46 cm. long, the whole of the cavity of the 
mouth and pharynx, together with the branchial arches, were 
covered with denticles which extended as far back as the com- 
mencement of the oesophagus. 

2. 0. LATICAUDUS MuU. & Henle. — An examination of four 
specimens of this species, varying in length from 18-42 cm., 
showed that the oial cavity was closely covered with minute 
denticles, which extended backwards to about the level of the first 
gill-clift. In the region of the pharynx they w^ere found only 
along the inner or concave margins of the branchial arches. In 
a fifth example of this fish, 26 cm. long, no denticles w^ere to be 
detected except a few along the bi-anchial arches. 

3. Sphyrxa (Zyg.ena) malleus Risso. — In this species the whole 
of the lining of the oral and pharyngeal cavities, as far back as 
the entrance into the oesophagus, was covered with a complete 

* In this classifiL-atioii I liave followed Guiilhcr, Brit. JMiis. CHit. Fislics, vol. viii. 
1870. 



44 MR. A. D. IMMS ON I'HE DENTICLES [Jan. 1 7, 

pavement of denticles very closely packed together. A similar 
investment covered the branchial arches up to the bases of the 
gill-filaments. The specimen examined measured 56 cm. in length. 

4. MuSTELUS L^vis Rond. — In an example measuring 150 cm. 
long the distribution of denticles over the mouth and pharynx 
was similar to that in S'phyrna. It will be seen on refeiiing 
to PI. III. fig. 1, that the denticles of this species are rhomboidal 
in shape with rounded angles, a,nd each has a well-defined basal 
plate. They are very closely packed together, so that each partially 
overlaps two or more of its fellows immediately behind. Their 
basal plates are also seen to closely inter digitate with one another. 

5. Galeus (Galeorhinus) canis Rond. — Denticles in this 
species have a distribution identical with that found in Sphyrna 
and Mustelas. In PL III. fig. 2 is represented a strip of the 
mucous membrane of the pharynx with the denticles in situ. It 
will be observed that they are closely and regularly ai-ranged 
together, but no imbrication takes place as in Mustelus. The fish 
examined measured 155 cm. in leng-th. 

Fam. Lamxid^. 

6. Lamna (Oxyrhina) cornubica Gmelin. — In a specimen 
measuring 79 cm. in length the denticles had a distribution 
identical with that found in the three preceding genera. 

Fam. NoTiDANiD^. 

7. NoTiDANUs (Heptanchus) cinereus Gmelin. — In an example 
of this species measuring 65 cm. in length denticles were found to 
be generally distributed over the lining of the mouth and pharynx, 
and also to extend over the pharyngeal edges of the branchial 
ai'ches. They were absent, however, from the anterior and 
posterior faces of the latter. In form they are characteristically 
tricuspid, as is represented in PI. III. fig. 3, and are identical 
in all i-espects with the placoid scales of the skin. 

Fam. ScYLLiiD^. 

8. ScYLLiUM CANICULA L. — After an examination of a number 
of examples of this fish, which were used for class demonstrations, 
no denticles were to be detected over any part of the lining of 
the mouth or pharynx. 

9. OniLOSCYLLiUM INDICUM Gmelin. — In a specimen 34 cm. long 
denticles were found scattered somewhat irregularly over the 
lining of the mouth and jjharynx, but they did not extend on to 
the branchial arches. 

10. Pristiurus melanostomus (Rafinesque) Blainv. — In a very 
young individual, 14 cm. in length, oral and pharyngeal denticles 



1905.] OF ELASMOBRANCH FISHES. 45 

were entirely absent. In two much larger specimens (47 cm. and 
58 cm. long respectively), studied by Steinhard, denticles were 
found to be present on the mucous membrane investing the 
gill-arches. 

Fam. Heterodontid^. 

11. Heterodottus (Cestracion) philippi (BL). — In a ma^seum 
specimen, measuring 60 cm. in length, coarse denticles were pre- 
sent on the roof and floor of the mouth and pharynx, but as the 
specimen was not available for dissecting purposes I was unable 
to determine the precise limits of their distribution. 

Fam. Spinacid.'E. 

12. Centrina salviani Risso. — In an example 23 cm. long oral 
and pharyngeal denticles wei'e found to be entirely wanting. 

13. AcANTHiAS VULGARIS Risso. — An examination of several 
specimens of this fish, whose length averaged about 60 cm., showed 
that denticles were present over the floor of the mouth and pharynx, 
and extended from the latter on to the mucous membrane covering 
the branchial arches, where they extended as far as the bases of 
the gill-filaments and even over the gill-rakers also. In a young 
fish, 26 cm. long, the denticles had not yet appeared above the 
surface of the mucous membrane, with the exception of a small 
patch over the region of the basi- branchial cartilage. A portion 
of the mucous membrane, from the floor of the pharynx of this 
species, containing denticles, is represented in PI. III. fig. 4. 

Fam. Rhinid^. 

14. Ehina squatin^a L. — In an example of this species measuring 
80 cm. long denticles were found sparsely scattered in an irregular 
manner over the roof and floor of the oral cavity, and they 
extended also on to the pharyngeal margins of the hyoidean and first 
branchial arches. The denticles of this species are very remarkable 
in their form {vide PI. III. fig. 5). Each consists of a large basal 
plate, irregular in its outline, and in its centre is a boss-like pro- 
tuberance which has its surface intersected by several blade-like 
ridges. The protuberance appears to be the last remnant of the 
spinous portion of the denticle which attains its full development 
in the placoid scales of the skin. 

Steinhard deals with this species in considerable detail, and he 
regards the denticles as being placoid scales which have not reached 
their full development owing to an insufficient supply of lime salts. 

B. Batoidei. 
Fam. RhixObatid^. 

15. Rhinobatus productus Girard. — In this species, closely 
arranged denticles completely invest the lining of the mouth and 



46 MR. A. D. IMMS OX THE DEXTTCLES [Jan. 17, 

pharynx and extend backwards to the junction of" the latter 
with the oesophagus. No denticles, however, extend on to the 
branchial arches, and the junction of the mucous membrane 
covering the latter with that of the pharynx is clearly defined, as 
the denticle-covered area ceases very abruptly. As the specimen 
examined measured only 27 cm. in length, this condition is pro- 
bab\v owing to the denticles not having yet attained their full 
development. 

Fam. ToRPEDixic.B. 

16. Torpedo ocellata Rudolphi. — In two examples of this 
species, each of which measured a little over 30 cm. long, no 
denticles were to be detected over any part of the lining of the 
mouth or pharynx. 

Fam. Rajid.e. 

17. Raja clavata L. — In a young specimen, 30 cm. long, very 
minute denticles were found irregularly distributed over tlie 
mucous membrane of the branchial arches and the adjacent 
portions of the roof and floor of the pharynx. The denticles 
are spine-like in form and have relatively large basal plates. 
Vide PI. III. fig. 6. 

Fam. Trygoxtd^. 

18. Trygox walga Mull. & Henle. — Oral and pharyngeal 
denticles were totally absent in an example of this species 
measuring 47 cm. long. 

Fam. MrLiOBATiD.*:. 

19. Myliobatis aquila L. — In a specimen 40 cm. long oral 
and pharyngeal denticles were likewise totally absent. 

C. Holocephala. 

20. CniMiEaA moxstrosa L. — In two examples of this fish, one 
of which measured ahout 60 cm. to the tip of the tail, no traces 
of denticles were to be detected in aiiy part of the mouth or 
pharynx. 

To this list may be added two species, examples of neither of 
which have been examined by Steinhard nor by myself, viz. : — 
Alopias imljMs (Fam. Lamnidae) and EchinorJiinus spinosus (Fam. 
Spinacidge). 'Dr. Popta* in a recent paper entitled ^' Les Appen- 
dices des Arcs Branchiaux des Poissons," which deals with the gill- 
rakers a,nd phar_yngeal armature of Teleostomes, has some remarks 
on these two Elasmobranchs. With regard to Alojyecias he 
says : — " Les arcs n'ont pas d'appendices et, il n'y a pas des dents 
pharyngiales, mais les hordes larges et la partie supei'ieure de la 

* Anil. Sei. Nat., Zool. t xii. 19C0; pp. 139-216. 



1905.] OF ELASMOBRANCII FISHES. 47 

largeui' des arcs, la place des dents pharyngiales inferieures et 
partiellement la place des dents pharyngiales snpeiieures sont 
couvertes de tr^s petites ecailles inides et pointues, la pointe 
dirigee en arriere." On Echinorhinus he remarks, "Appendices* 
deux cotes 1", 2*^, 3®, 4*^ et cote exterieur 5^ arc, longs sans dents, 

long 6 mm." " Pas de dents pharyngiales inferieures a 

voir. Pas de dents pharyngiales superieures a voir." 

In his account of the primitive Shark ChlamiydoselacJius an- 
guineus, Garmau f mentions that both the mouth and throat 
of that fish are coveied with scales which are largest on the inner 
edges of the gills. 

It will be noted from the foregoing account that the presence 
of denticles in the lining of the mouth and pharynx is of very 
wide distribution among the Elasmobranchii. Out of the nine- 
teen species which I have examined, only five were found to be 
totally devoid of them. If there be added to these the species 
examined by Steinhard and Popta we have a total, with Chlaniydo- 
selachus, of thirty-two species, out of which only nine (or about 
28 7o) have no denticles whatever. 

The facts and conclusions that are to be gleaned from a study 
of these denticles may be summarised as follows : — 

1. In Heptanchus cmereus, Chlamydoselachus anguineus, Mus- 
telus Icevis, Gcdeus canis, Sphyrna malleus, Lamna cornuMca, and 
(probably) Rhinohatusproductus, denticles are uniformly distributed 
over the whole of the mucous membrane of the mouth, pharynx, 
and branchial arches, and extend backwards to the commencement 
of the oesophagus. Since this condition is met with in such gene- 
ralised types as^the two first named genera, there is good reason 
to believe that it represents the primitive method of distribution 
which has been inherited by them from the ancestral forms of 
existing Elasmobranchs. It seems probable that the variations 
in the distribution of the denticles which are met with in other 
species have been derived from this condition through their 
becoming restricted to certain areas only. The first and simplest 
modification is exhibited in AcantMas vidga?Hs. In tbis species 
the denticles are wanting from the roof of the mouth and pharynx. 
In Alopecias vulpes these structtu-es are absent from both the 
roof and floor of the mouth and pharynx, and hence they are 
restricted to the pharyngeal mai'gins of the branchial arches. In 
Rhina squatina they have ceased to be developed in the pharynx 
except on the mucous membrane covering the hj^oid and first 
branchial ai-ches. They are retained, however, over a considerable 
area on both the roof and floor of the oral cavity. In Scyllium 
eanicula, Echinorhinus spinosus, Myliohatis tiquila, Tmpedo 6'cel- 
tata, and Trygon walga denticles have become lost altogether. 

2. In all cases where I have examined the denticles micro- 
scopically, their structure and form proved that they were un- 

* I. e. gill-rakers. 

t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. vol. xii. No. 1, 1885, p. 2, pi. v. ' 



48 MR. A. D. IMMS ON THE DENTICLES [JaU. 17, 

doubtedly placoid scales. I have omitted to give an account of 
their characters in the various species since they are described in 
detail for many forms by Steinhard, and I need only add that my 
own observations are in entii'e accordance with his results. 

3. The facts which 1 have been able to make out lend but little 
support to the possibility of these structures performing any 
definite function. There appears to be no relation between the 
extent of the development and distribution of the denticles and 
the natiu-e of the food of the various species in which they are 
found. For instance, in both Galeus canis and Mustelus Icevis 
the denticles are distributed over an exactly similar area, and 
there is but a small difi'erence in the form of the individual 
denticles in the two cases. Nevertheless, Galeus preys on other 
fish, and has its teeth modified for that purpose, while in Mustelus 
the teeth are pavement-like, and are used for crushing the shell- 
fish &c. on which it feeds. 

The spinous portions of the denticles were found in all cases 
to be directed towards the caudal extremity of the fish, and this 
renders it possible that the denticles may perhaps serve to 
roughen the mouth and, by this means, assist in the swallowing 
of the food. There is also the suggestion make by Steinhard, 
that they may serve to some extent in grinding up the food, 
but it is difficult to conceive that they could be of much utility 
in this direction, for in not a a few cases the denticles are so 
small as to only produce a barely perceptible roughness to the 
touch. 

It is possible that the denticles may subserve one or both of 
these functions, although their value in these respects must be 
very slight. A more probable view, and one more in accoirlance 
with their variable disti'ibution and the absence of any obvious 
correlation between the nature of the food and the presence, 
a,bsence, or degree of development of the denticles, is that these 
structures are vestigial organs. It is well known how tenaciously 
vestigial structures pei'sist, even when they do not subserve any 
conceivable function, so long as their retention is harmless to 
the organism. In the case of the denticles, their persistence 
would not involve any serious tax on nutrition during their 
development, nor be detrimental in any other way, and under 
such circumstances, once they had been evolved for any special 
purpose, the tendency of heredity might be sufficient to secure 
their retention, even though their primitive physiological value 
had become lost. The fact that the denticles are relatively late 
in developing argues strongly in favour of their being vestigial 
organs. Thus in an Acanthias vulgaris 26 cm. long, although 
the teeth and dermal denticles were present, oral and pharyngeal 
denticles had only commenced to develop over a very limited area.. 
In a Carcharias glaucus 39 cm. long these denticles had not yet 
attained their full development ; and in a F?'istiurus melano- 
stomus 14 cm. long no indications of them were to be detected. 

Unfortunately we know nothing concerning the habits of the 



1905.] OF ELASMOIJRANTJn FISHES. 49 

ancestral Yertebiutes oi^ for what pai-ticulav mode of feeding tlie 
structure of their mouth was adapted. It is highly probable 
that some light might be thrown on the primitive use of the oral 
denticles, if one knew the precise nature and disposition of the 
skeletal structures which bounded the oral cavity in the primitive 
Vertebrates before the anterior branchial arches ceased to be 
purely gill- bearing and had acquired the special characters of jaws, 
as seen in the most primitive of existing Gnathostomata. In the 
primitive Vertebrata it is possible that the seizure, holding, or 
perhaps even the crushing of the food mf\y have been effected 
by the movements of the ventral portions of the arches towards 
the roof of the oral cavity, after the fashion of the hypopharyn- 
geal teeth in connection with the hinder branchial arches in many 
Teleosts. If there be any truth in this suggestion, it will not be 
difficult to appreciate the physiological value of an extensive 
distribution of denticles over the gi'eater part of the oral and 
pharyngeal mucous membrane in the primitive Vertebiates. 
Y/ith the evolution of special jaws at a latei' period, the functional 
denticles would naturally tend to become restricted to them and 
constitute ordinary teeth, leaving, howevei-, the residue of the 
stomodeal invasion of dermal denticles to become pharyngeal teeth, 
or gill-rakers, or to remain as vestigial structures, or to vanish 
altogether. 



EXI'LANATIO>f OF PLATK III. 

The figures are all ninp;iiifie(l about 80 tiuies nnd are from preparations exainineil 
in g-lycerine, which, in the case of tio-s. 1— i, rendered them siitiiciently transparent 
J'or the internal structure of the denticles to be seen. 

The spii.ou-i portions of the denticles are directed towards the caudal extremity (f 
the fish. 

Beferenco Letters. 

^/.j.». = basal plate ; rf.^ = dentine tubuli ; !«.»?. = niucous membrane ; 
j;.c. = pulp-cavity. 

Fi.^'. 1. A piece of the lining from the Hoor of the oval cavity of Ilustelus Icevix 
(p. 44), showins- the very closely arranged denticles. 

Fig. 1 a. A single denticle from the same, viewed laterally. 

Fig. 2. A strip of the mucous membrane from the floor of the pharynx of Galevji 
canis (p. 44). The denticles are seen to have a regular and orderly arrange- 
ment, but are not so closely disposed together as in Mii$teli(s. 

Fig. 2 a. A single denticle of Galens, viewed laterally. 

Fig. 3. A portion of the mucous membrane lining the floor of the pharynx of 
Notiilanus cinereus (p. 41). 

Fig. 4. A portion of the mucous membrane from the pharynx of AcaiUhias vulgaris 
(p. 45), taken from where the last two branchial arches join the iloor of tlu 
same. 

Fig. 5. A piece of the lining of the roof of the oral cavity of lihina sqiiatina (p. 45). 

Fig. 5«. A single denticle from the same, viewed laterally. 

Fig. 6. A strip of the mucous membrane lining the roof of the pharynx of Eain 
clavata (p. 46), taken from near the last two branchial arches. In thi< 
species and in lihina the denticles have lost their regular arrangen^ent and 
are scattered over the mucous membrane as if at random. 



Proc. Zcol. Soc— 1905. A^ol. I. No. IV, 



so 



DR. C. W. ANDREWS ON 



[Jan. 17, 



8. Note on some recently discovered Remains o£ the Miisk- 
Ox {Ovibos nioscJuctus Zimmermann, sp.) from the 
Pleistocene Beds of Southern England. By C. W. 
Andeews, D.Sc, F.Z.S. (British Museum, Natural 
History) . 

[Received January 9, 1905.] 

(Text figures 13 & 14.) 

Since 1855, the date of the discovery by Lord Avebury and the 
Rev. Charles Kingsley of a skidl of the Musk-Ox in the low-level 
gravels of the Thames at Maidenhead, only some half-a-dozen 
instances of the occurrence of remains of this animal in Bi'itain 
have been recorded. Details of these finds aie given by Pi'of. 
Boyd Dawkins in the Memoir on the Pleistocene Mammals of 
Britain, Pt. V., published by the Palfeontographical Society*. 
Remains of this animal being so rare, no apology will be needed 
for drawing attention to two recent discoveries of further evidence 
of its former existence in this country. The first of these was 
made in 1902 by the Rev. B. Hale Woitham, who found in the 
Brick Earths of the Thames at Plumstead an axis vertebra, pait 
of a right femin", and the shaft of a radius, which were presented 
to the British Museum, where they were determined by Dr. 
A. Smith Woodward as belonging to this species. 

The axis (text-fig. 13) has been compared with that of a large 

Text-fig. 13. 




Axis vertebra of Musk Ox, from Brick-earths of the Thames at Phimstead. 

male Musk-Ox from North America, and has been found to difier 
from it in size and in some details of structure. It is considerably 

* Mou. Palreont. Soc. 1872. 



1905.] REMAIXS OF THE MUSK-OX. -51 

larger and more massively constructed, the neural spine especially 
being much thicker. The posterior part of the pedicle of the arch 
is pei'forated by a channel which opens anteriorly into the groove 
for the second spinal nerve, and posteriorly on the hinder face of 
the base of the transverse process. This latter opening is present in 
the recent vertebra, but the passage from it seems to lead into the 
substance of the bone of the centrum. The posterior zygapophyses 
are considerably more massive in the fossil. The dimensions of 
the recent and fossil axes are as follows : — 

I'ossil. -Recent. 
em. cm. 

Width of anterior face of centrum 11'8 ITO 

Height ,, „ „ 5-4 4-9 

Length from tip of odontoid to middle 

of posterior face of centrum 7"5 6'4 

"Width of posterior face of centrum 7"0 6-2 

Height „ „ „ 5-8 4-9 

Length of ventral surface of centrum ... 6'2 5'4 

A portion of a left ulna from Plumstead consists of the shaft 
only. As in the case of the axis, this bone is larger and stouter 
than that of the recent animal, with which it was compared as far 
as its incomplete condition allowed. It was probably three or four 
centimetres longer : the least width and circumference of the 
shaft a,re 4*5 cm. and 12'3 cm. respectively, as compared with 4 cm. 
and lO'S cm. in the recent bone. Professor Boyd Dawkins gives 
the circumference of a radius measured by him as 4'4 in. (approxi- 
mately 11 cm.). 

An imperfect femur, also wanting the extremities, was found in 
the same place. It seems to have been longer and at the same 
time more slender than in the recent animal. Its length from the 
tip of the lesser trochanter to the middle of the supra-condylar 
fossa is 18 cm. : the width and circumference of the shaft are 5'1 
and 1 1 cm. respectively. In the recent animal these measurements 
taken at corresponding points are : — length 17"3, width 3"4, 
circumference 11 "7 cm. 

The most recent find of Musk-Ox remains consists of an in- 
complete skull of an old bull (text-fig. 14, p. 52) : this specimen, 
which is much rolled and water- worn, was discovered by Mr. Wm. 
T. Rennie near the base of a bed of gravel about eleven feet thick, 
near Frampton-on-Severn, about five miles from Btonehouse, 
Gloucestershire. Both this specimen and a humerus of Bos pr?"- 
migenius from a fev/ feet above it have been presented to the 
British Museum by the finder. 

The skull has lost the whole of the facial region in front of the 
orbits above and the cribriform plate below. Moreover, nearly all 
the prominent points are greatly abraded : thus the ends of the 
horns, the occipital condyles, and the mastoid region together 
with the paroccipital processes are wanting. The obliteration 



52 



DR. C. W. AXDREWS OX 



[Jan. 17, 



of most of the siitures aiid the large size of the horns indicate 
that the animal was an old male. The basioccipital shows the 

Text-fiff. 14. 





Two views of. skull of Musk-Qx, from near base of bed of gravel at 
Frampton-on-Severn, Gloucestershire. 



1905.] 



REMAINS OF TUE MUSK-OX. 



53 



chai'acteristic qiiadrate form : both the antei'ior and posterior 
muscular prominences are ahnost completely worn away, and just 
the base of the fused pterj^goid plate remains as a rounded ridge. 
The tympanic is wanting, a circumstance which, together with the 
abrasion of the paroccipital and other prominences, gives the skull 
a very peculiar appearance, difiering much from the recent type : 
but comparison of the foramina and other features not affected 
shows that in fact scai'cely any difFei-ence exists. 

The occipital surface is quadrate owing to the removal of the 
ventro-lateral region. The base of the horu- cores and the roof of 
the skull between them are much less raised above the lambdoidal 
crest than in the recent skull, and the same is the case with the 
specimen fi^om Maidenhead. On the other hand, the skull from 
Crayford described by Professor Boyd Dawkins is more like the 
recent form, so that perhaps this peculiarity is merely due to 
difference of age or to individual variation. The cranial portion 
of the horn-core is more concave from side to side and longer from 
before backwards than in the specimen from Maidenhead. 

The dimensions of the skull here referred to are given (in centi- 
metres) in column A ; those of the Crayford specimen (where 
possible) in B, of the Maidenhead skull in 0, and of that of a 
recent adult bull in D. 



Greatest width of occipital surface 

Height from foraiiieu magnum to top of 
lambdoidal crest 

Height from foi-amea magnum to roof of 
skull 

Least width of skull behind orbits 

Length of base of horn-cores 

Distance between bases of horn-cores 

Width of foramen magnum 

Height of foramen magnum 



A. 



E. 



13-2 

8-2 

10-2 
15'5 

18-8 
1-0 
3-0 

2-7 



147 

22-8 
1-0 
3-8 



c. 


D. 


20 app. 


17-5 


9-0 


9-2 j 

1 


11-0 


13-3 


15 app. 


12-5 


17-4 


20 app. 


1-5 


1-3 




3-0 




2-8 



Although careful examination of the specimens above refeired 
to supplies no reason for supposing that the Musk-Ox of Pleis- 
tocene Britain differed specifically from the existing animal, it 
may be suggested that it was somewhat more heavily built, and 
perhaps, on the average, rather larger. These differences are 
probably the natural I'esult of living in a less rigorous climate and 
with more abundant food than the recent form, conditions that 
may be fairly inferred from the fact that the fossil remains are 
from deposits which contain an abundant mammalian fauna, 
including such large herbivores as Bos j'Jrtv;tir/6?t«6s and Bison 
priscu-s. 



54 ME. H. E. DRESSER ON NEW [Jail. 17 

1). Descriptions of Threo new Species of Birds obtained 
during tlie recent Expedition to Lliussa. By Henky 
E. Dkesser, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. 

[Received .Januaiy 17, 1905.] 

(Plates lY. & V.*) 

Col, Wadclell, C.B., who has recently returned from Indin, 
having been one of the officers on the Tibet expedition, when there 
made a collection of birds, most of which, he tells me, he was able 
to identify by my ' Manual of Palaearctic Birds.' Some, however, 
he failed to recognize, and these he kept by him, and has sent 
them on to me for identification, requesting me to describe any 
that are new. The lest, however, were with his baggage, and 
weie unfoi-tunately lost on the return march from Lhassa. 

Amongst the birds which were fortunately saved I find the 
following to be unclescribed, viz. ; — 

Babax wadbelli, sp. n. (Plate IV.) 

Adult male (Tsangpo Valley, Tibet, 25th Sept., 1904). — Upper 
parts dull ashy grey, each feather with a broad central blackish 
stripe, the rump slightly less striped than the lest of the upper 
parts ; wing blackish brown, most of the feathers externally 
margined with ashy grey ; tail blackish brown, much graduated ; 
under parts similar to the upper pai'ts, but somewhat paler and 
more narrowly striped ; bill and legs plumbeous, iris dull orange. 
Total length about i2"60 inches, culmen 1-40, wing 5'10, tail 6-50, 
tarsus 1"70. 

The nearest ally to this species appears to be Babax lanceolatus, 
from which, however, it differs considerably, being larger (wing 
5"10 against 3'75, tail 6"50 against 5"0), and, as will be seen by the 
above description, it differs considerably both in colour and 
markings. It is, Col. Waddell says, "called by the Tibetans 
' Teh-Teh,' in imitation of its call. It fi'equents poplar and alder 
thickets remote from villages. It was gregarious, going about in 
parties of 8 to 10 individuals, but was not so active and secretive 
in its movements as the Garrulax, alongside of which it was met 
with." 

Garrulax tibetanus, sp. n. (Plate V. fig. 2.) 

Adult male (Tsangpo Valley, Tibet, 25th Sept., 1904).— Upper 
}iarts dark brown with a tinge of olivaceous, the ci'own slightly 
dai'ker ; lores and a patch through the eye with the ear-covei-ts 
blackish chocolate ; quills blackish, externally margined with slate 
or dai-k lavender-grey ; wing-coverts like the back ; tail graduated, 
blackish brown broadly tipped with white ; under parts rather 
paler than the upper parts ; a broad white stripe below the eye, 
and a few white featheis above the eye indicating a stripe ; under 

* For e;qj];uuitioB of tlie Plates, see p. 55. 



^ 

p 



'o 

> 

r-O' 
O 
CD 

oO 

w 




a 
w 
o 

Q 

X 

< 

< 
pq 



PZ.S. 1905,vol.l.RAr 




H.Gronvold del .et lilln . Mintern Bros . imp . 

1. LANIUS LAMA. 2, GAURULAX TIBETANUS . 



1905.] BIRDS FROM TIBET. 55 

tail-coveros and lower flanks chestnut-red. Bill and legs dark 
plumbeous, iris dull ciimson. Total length about lO'oO inches, 
culmen 0*90, wing 4-50, tail 6-40, tarsus 1-50. 

From its nearest ally Garrtdax sannio, this species differs in 
having the upper parts much darker and moi-e uniform in colour, 
the crown not chestnut -bi'own, the under parts darker, without 
any white or ochraceous on the belly, and in the tail having a broad 
white terminal band. Ool. Waddell informs me that " it is called 
by the Tibetans ' Jomo^ or the Lady ; it is found in the same 
poplar and alder thickets as the Babax, but also comes up quite 
close to the villages. It has the characteristic habits of a Babbler 
in a marked degree, roves about in parties of eight or more 
individuals, chatters more noisily, uttering its fluty call of 
Whoh-hee, ]V}ioh-hee, is always on the move scampering along the 
branches, is very secretive, seldom showing itself, and flying veiy 
low across a clearance to the next cover." 

Lanius lama, sp. n. (Plate V. fig. 1.) 

Adult male (Tsangpo Yalley, Tibet, Sept. 1904). —Head, nape, 
and upper parts generally dark plumbeous, much as in Lanius 
algeriensis ; a narrow line across the forehead, the lores, and a 
broad band through and behind the eye deep black ; lower rump 
and upper tail-coverts rufous ; wings black, the inner secondaries 
and larger wing-coverts narrowly margined with dull white ; tail 
uniform blackish brown, rather pale at the extreme tip ; under 
parts white, the breast, flanks, and under tail-coverts washed with 
rufous fawn. Total length about 10' 10 inches, culmen 0'83, 
wing 4-20, tail 5-0, tarsus 1-12. 

Lanius schach appears to be the nearest ally to the present 
species, but the latter has only a narrow black line across the 
forehead, the upper parts are much darker, it has no rufous on the 
back or scapulars, but only on the lower rump and upper tail- 
coverts, and has no trace of a white alar speculum. 

The other birds sent are Pica hottanensis, Turtur orientalis, 
Otocorys elwesi, a young Lark which I cannot separate from 
Alaiida arvensis, and Parus cmere?is, which, however, has a slightly 
larger bill and longer wing than typical examples, but without a 
series it is impossible to say if it can be regai'ded even as a 
subspecies. 

All the above-mentioned birds were obtained in the Tsangpo 
Valley, near the Chuksam Ferry, at an elevation of 12,100 feet 
above the sea-level. 

EXPLANATION OP THE PLATES. 

PiATE IV. 

Saiax waddelli, p. 54. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Lanius lama, p. 55. 

Fig. 2. Garridax tibctanus, p Si. 



56 MI!. K. ir. BUHXE OX THE AISCEKA \Fvh. 7, 



Febvimry 7, 1905. 

HoAVARD iSauxders, Esq., F.L.S., Vice-President 
in tlie Chair. 

The Secretary exliibitecl, on behalf of the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, F.Z.S., a pair of Gorillas, mounted by Mr. Rowland 
Ward. He remarked tliat these Gorillas appeared to be on the eve 
of becoming adult, and that they were pi-obably from twelve to 
thirteen years old. He added that Mr. Rothschild had called his 
attention to the unusually large red patch on the head of the male, 
and to the absence of the patch in the female. This diflerence in 
the coloration of the sexes confirmed Mr. Rothschild's opinion 
that Gorilla castmieicej^s of Slack Avas not a valid species or 
subs23ecies, but w^as based on individual variation. 



Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S., exhibited some mounted heads of 
the Rocky Mountain Goat {Haploceros montanus). and made the 
following remailvS : — 

"I have brought here to-night, specimens of the Rocky Mountain 
Goat, Avith the object of pointing out a gland Avhich lies at the 
base of each hoiii and acts, one might almost sny, as a pad to it. 
Under the external skin these glands consist of a soft red tissue 
saturated Avith a milky substance, like the udder of a cow. In the 
specimen at our Gaixlens these glands are partially covered up by 
long hair at the present time, but in Octobei' and ISTovember they 
are more conspicuous. The older the animal, the more pronounced 
:a-e the glands." 

Mr. R. H. Burne, F.Z.S., shoAved specimens made for the 
Royal College of Sui-geons Museum from the Adscera of the Indian 
Rhinoceros {B. tmicornis), knoAvn as "Jim," that had lately died 
at the Society's Gardens, and made the folloAving remarks : — 

The specimens include parts of the folloAving organs : 

Stomach *. — A section shoAving the line of demarcation betAveen 
the cardiac and glandular regions. The epithelium of the cardiac 
region, as in other Pei-issodactyles, is similar to that of the 
(esophagus — a stratified epithelium Avith easily separable corneous 
superficial layer. The deeper parts of the epithelium project into 
the submucosa in the form of elongated papilla^. These are 
peculiarly long and I'esemble very closely those in the cesophagus 
of the Horse. A microscopic section taken from the glandular 
i-egion of the stomach, 1 ft. in front of the limit of the loAver parts 
of the cardiac region, shows a deep layer (6 mm.) of peptic glands. 
The gland-tubules Avere about -04 mm. in diameter. 

A section taken about 1 ft. 6 in. in front of the last, from the 

* Owen, "Asiatomy of the liuliiiii Kliiuoceros," Tvaiis. Zool. Soc. \ul. iv. 1802. 
p. -l-O. 



1905. J OF AX IXDIAX RHIXOGERUS. 57 

pyloric diJatation (Owen, I. c. pi. xi. figs. 1 & 2), shows a layer of 
pyloric glands 2 mm. thick. The gland-tubules have about twice 
the diameter of those of the peptic glands, but are far shorter and 
more branched. They are sepai-ated into groups of various size by 
septa running up from the submucosa. 

Duodenum. — A poi-tion, taken about 1 ft. 6 in. from the 
stomach, showing the papilliform valvulae conniventes (Owen, I. c. 
pi. xii. figs. 1 & 2). Microscopic sections show that the papilliform 
processes are covered with villi. The interior of each process 
contained a number of follicles belonging to Brunner's glands. 
The ducts from these open upon the surface of the process 
between the villi. Brunner's glands were only observed within 
the papilliform pi'ocesses, and not in the general submucosa of the 
intestinal Avail. With h?ematoxylin they stained a vivid blue, in 
marked contrast to the pinkish purple of the surrounding tissues. 

Gervais, who describes the histology of the small intestine 
of the Bhinoceros *, makes no mention of Brunner's glands ; 
probably his sections were taken from a point fui'thei- down the 
intestine below the level of these glands. He, however, speaks of 
Crypts of Liebei-kiihn lying between the papilliform processes. 
These were not seen in the present sections. 

Iletmi. — Owen, I. c. pi. xii. fig. 3. 

Ccecmn. — Tiiis organ is lined by a voluminous mucous 
membrane, separated from the muscular wall by an extremely 
loose submucosa, and thus easily thrown into ti-ansient folds. 
The mucous membrane consists, as usual in this part of the gut, 
of an even and^ close -set series of Crypts of Lieberkuhn. They 
are "25 mm. long, only about half as long as in the cpecum of the 
Horse. 

The Larynx. — (Owen, I. c. pi. x. figs. 1 & 2, pi. xv. figs. 1 & 2.) 
The epiglottis is inti-anai-ial. The outer walls of the ventricles 
and lateral pouches are covered by gland-tissue. The two folds of 
mucous membrane that run upwards, outwards, and backwards 
from the anteiior attachment of the vocal cords and form the 
a-nterior lips of the ventricles (Owen, p. 48) are strongly developed ; 
they are even more marked in the Sumatran Rhinoceros, but are 
absent in the Tapir and Horse. Above the anteiior point of 
luiion of the vocal coi'ds is a vei'tical indentation of the mucous 
membrane of the epiglottis. In this position in the Horse and 
Ass there is a definite median saccus. 

The Pao-aihyroid Body. — The external appearance and position 
of this body are accurately given by Owen {I. c. p. 48). In 
histological structure it conforms to Welsh's type 4t, consisting of 
small cells clustered so as to form globular alveoli. In some pai'ts 
the masses of cells apparently do not surround a lumen, and in 
these places there is more resemblance to Welsh's type 3. The 

* Gervais, " Structure cle Fintestinc grelc clicz le Rliinoceros," Jouru. de Zool. t. iv. 
(1875) p. 465. 

t Welsh, "Concerning the raralhvroid Glands," J oura. Anat. & Pliysiul. vol. xxxii. 
(1808) p. 392. 



58 MR. NELSON ANNANDALE ON [Feb. 7, 

individual alveoli and cell-masses ai-e separated from one another 
by a delicate packing of connective tissue. 

The Kidney. — (Owen, I.e. p. 44, pi. xiv. fig. 3.) Except at the 
hylus the kidney is not lobulated. Thickenings of the capsule 
along certain anastomosing lines give it, however, superficially a 
lobulated appearance. 

In the entire absence of any pyramids projecting into the pelvis 
there is more resemblance to the Tapir than to the Horse. 

The Bladder and Urethra. — (Owen, I. c. p. 49, pi. xvi.) The 
seminal vesicles and prostate are more complex than one would be 
led to suppose from Owen's description and figure. When fully 
dissected out, the seminal vesicles can be resolved into a number 
of convoluted tubes, that converge towards the neck of the 
bladder and unite to form a pair of common ducts which open 
into the vasa deferentia shortly before their entry into the 
urethra. This condition is similar to that desciibed by Forbes * 
in the Sumatran Rhinoceros, but is very different to the 
ai'rangement seen in the Sondaic Rhinoceros by Beddai'd and 
Treves t, whei'e the seminal vesicles and prostate are quite simple 
and compact, more nearly resembling the same organs in the 
Tapir. 

The pi'ostate is largei' and more branched than I'epi-esented by 
Owen. 

There was a well-marked uterus masculinus, not noted by Owen. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On Abnormal Eanid Larvte from North-Eastern India. 
By Nelson Annandale, B.A., Deputy Superintendent 
o£ the Indian Museum, Calcutta J. 

[Received December 13, 1904.] 

(Plate VI. §) 

The two specimens on which the following notes are based were 
found in a bottle of miscellaneous specimens in the Indian 
Museum, which had been purchased in 1893 and were said to have 
come from Northern Cachar, in Assam. Unfoi'tunately no 
information can be obtained as to the environment in which the 
tadpoles (which are not in a good state of preservation) were 
found. They were the only Batrachians in the bottle, but the 
Museum also possesses a number of specimens from Tenasserim of 
what I take to be the normal form of the same larva. Some of 

* Foi'bes, '■ On the Male Generative Organs of the Snmatran Rhinoceros," Trans. 
Zool. See. vol. xi. p. 107. 

t Beddard & Treves, " On the Anatomj' of the Sondaic Rhinoceros," Trans. Zool. 
Soc. vol. xii. p. 195. 

X Communicated by G. A. Boulengek, V.P.Z.S. 

§ For explanation of the I'latc, see p. 61. 



PZ S.I905,yol.I.Pl,VI. 




A.C.Chowdhary.del. Bale &Danielsson.L" 

ABNORMAL RANID LARV^^. 



1905.] ABNORMAL RANID LARV^. 59 

these have been submitted to Mr. G. A. Boulenger, whom I have 
asked to add a note as to their identity. I need only say that 
they appear to belong to the genus Rana *. My observations are 
of necessity confined to the external appearance and osteological 
characters of the abnormal specimens, with a general considei-ation 
of theii- visceral anatomy, for their muscular tissues ai'e too 
decomposed for proper investigation. Even cartilaginous struc- 
tures have degenerated greatly. 

As regai'ds visceral anatomy, the more advanced of the two 
tadpoles (which I shall call A) has an alimentary canal resembling 
that of a young frog, well- developed and apparently healthy. 
The tongue and palate are as in an adult. The lungs are large, 
extending nearly to the posterior end of the body-cavity ; the 
kidneys seem to be normal, but I cannot trace any part of the 
generative system. The heart and larger blood-vessels are 
apparently normal. The condition of the viscera is less advanced 
in the other specimen (B), in which the mouth is that of a 
typical Ranid lai'va, except that there are no horny teeth. The 
intestine is still coiled in a spiral, and the lungs are small. 

It is in the structure of the limbs and axial skeleton that the 
main abnormalities are found in both specimens. Figs. 1, la, 2, 
2 «, of PL YI., show that there is no hind limb in either specimen, 
and that while the fore limbs are well-developed in A, they can be 
seen through the skin in B. 

The dimensions of the two specimens are : — 

A. B. 

mm. mm. 

Total length 78 82 

' Snouttovent 42 28 (ap.). 

Tail 35 54 

Right arm 30 16 

Left arm 25 17 

Before dissecting A, I was led by deceptive appearances to 
believe that the hind limbs were developed beneath the skin, and 
I have to thank Mr. G. A. Boulenger for suggesting a further 
examination, which showed that I had been wrong in this belief, 
A dissection of the pelvic region led to an examination of the 
skull and vertebral column of A ; in B I could find very little, 
owing to the fact that its skeleton had been chiefly cai'tilaginous. 

Although the head of A looked like that of a young frog, the 
lower jaw was quite unossified and soft, and the cranium was in a 
very simple condition. The cranial box was well ossified above 
and on the sides, the bone being stout and sculptui-ed on the 
surface. Its floor was represented by a delicate membrane, 
through which the I'emains of the brain could bo seen. Below 
this, but not in close contact with it, lay a large, well-ossified 

* [They arc uudoubtcxllj^ referable to Baiia alticola Blgr., of which larvie are 
tiu-uved in the Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Batrachia Ecaudata, p. 63. — G. A. B.] 



60 MR. NELSON ANNANUALE ON [Feb. 7, 

parasplienoid, extending along nearly the whole length of the 
cranium. The auditory capsules had fused with the cranium and 
were well-developed, although there was no external tympanic 
membrane visible. The orbital arches were not formed, but the 
structui'es connected with the gills had entirely disappeared. The 
dorsal surface of the cranium is divided longitudinally by a simple 
suture, which expands behind into a wedge-shaped cleft. 

The first seven vertebrae ai'e normal in structure and, with the 
exception of the neural spine, thoroughly ossified ; those of the 
tail are impei-fectly ossified and retain their identity. The eighth 
and ninth vertebrae are abnormal ; they are fused together, the 
anchylosis being complete on the dorsal surface but incomplete on 
the sides and below. The doi-sal surface is nearly flat, but a slight 
ridge can be detected running along the mid-dorsal line, and there 
is a small mound-like elevation towards the left side on the eighth 
vertebra. The transverse and articular processes are deformed 
and asvm metrical in a manner and to a degree best shown in 
Pl.VLfigs. le, 1/, Ir/. 

On the right side the only trace of the pelvic arch that can be 
distinguished is a minute, irregularly-shaped fragment of bone 
imbedded in a. broad ligament which is attached at one end to the 
light transverse process of the ninth vertebra and ends in the 
muscles of the body-wall at the other. On the left side, in the 
coi'responding position, there is a sac lined with connective tissue 
in the body- wall ; it does not communicate either with the 
exterior or with the body-cavity. Its shape is an elongated oval, 
sloping from near the doi'sal suiface forwards and downwards 
towards the belly in front of the vent. A hernia, not strangulated 
but containing a portion of the intestine, projects into it in front. 

Lying in this sac, but terminating above and below in the body- 
wall, is a sickle- shaped bone, which appears to have been provided 
with muscles not continuous with those of the body-wall. Un- 
fortunately they are much decomposed. The bone is only fixed 
to the walls of the sac by adhesions of connective tissue. Above it 
is attached to the left ti'ansverse process of the ninth vertebra by 
a ligament resembling that on the right side. It slopes downwards, 
forwards and inwards, terminating in an expansion lodged in the 
muscles of the belly just in front of the vent, which has a mesial 
position. Its curve is slight, as is shown in fig. Ij, which 
represents it as seen from in front when held vertically ; fig. 1 h 
gives a view of the inner surface when the bone is lying in a 
horizontal position. The relationship between it and the eighth 
and ninth vertebi'Pe is accurately i-epresented in fig. If, but the 
ligament has been omitted. 

Considering the form and relationships of this bone, there can 
be no doubt that it i-epresents the left ilium, though its position 
and forward slope are abnormal. The ligament which attaches it 
to the vertebra must represent not only its own head but also the 
distal extremity of the transverse process. The fragment of bone 
and the ligament on the other side of the body similarly represent 



1905.] ABXORMAL RANTD LARV.E. 61 

the corresponding bone on the riglit. A distorteil fragment of 
cartilage in the muscles of the belly near the inferior termination 
of the left ilium represents the os pubis ; but I can find no trace of 
the remainder of the pelvic girdle or of the skeleton of either leg. 

The skeleton in B seems to have been entirely cartilaginous and 
is so distorted that no satisfactory account of it can be given. I 
can find no trace of the pelvic girdle or the hind limbs. 

The fore limbs in A are well developed but not symmetrical. 
The right hand, measured from the wrist to the tip of the 3rd 
(morphologically the 4th) finger, is 17 mm. long; the left only 
15 mm. Otherwise the limbs appear to be normal. The pectoral 
girdle is naturally to a great extent cartilaginous. In abnormal 
larvfe of the kind it is difficult to know what stage of development 
to expect in any given organ or structure ; but, on the whole, I do 
not think that this girdle is so advanced in development as the 
condition of the arms and of the first seven vertebrae would lead 
one to expect. It is quite symmetrical and not remarkable in any 
other respect. 

In B the fore limbs lay on the chest beneath the skin, which 
had ruptured in the region of either hand. I do not think that 
the spiracle had persisted, and both of the apertures may have 
been posthumous or of traumatic origin. The arms were readily 
freed by cutting through the skin. The measurements of them 
given above were taken after this had been done. Their bones 
appear to be more fully ossified than those of the remainder of the 
skeleton. 

To sum up :— These two tadpoles, evidently belonging to the 
same species and possibly taken together, are abnormal in the 
absence of the hind limbs and, in at least one case, in the partial 
suppression, distortion, and asymmetry of the pelvic girdle. In the 
same specimen there is a less remarkable deformity of the fore 
limbs and the cranium is in an extremely piimitive condition. 

The drawings for the Plate have been prepared under my 
supervision by Babu A. C. Chowdhary, to whose accuracy I am 
indebted. No attempt has been made to depict the specimens in 
a natural condition ; they are represented as they were found in 
the Museum. The bodies are shrivelled and distorted, and 
probably the fin-membranes, at any rate in B, were more 
extensive dviring life. The ventral integument in this specimen 
is torn, and I cannot locate the position of the vent with 
certainty. 

EXPLANATIOX OF PLATE VI. 
Abnormal larvae of Mana alticola. 

Figs. 1, 1 rt. A from the right side and belo"W. Natural size. 

Figs. 1 6, 1 (?. Cranium of A from above and below. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 e. 8th and 9th vertebra of A from above. X 4. 

Fig. If. Do. from left side, with left ilium in natural position. X 2. 

Fig. 1 f/. Do. from right side. X 4. 

Figs. 1 'h, IJ. Left ilium of A. X 2. 

Figs. 2,2 a. B from the right side and below. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 6. Arms of B dissected out. Natural size. 



62 MR. G. A. BOULENGER OX FISHES [Feh. 7, 

2. On a Second Collection o£ Fishes made by Mr. S. L. 
Hinde in the Kenya District, East Africa. By G. A. 

BOULENGEE, F.R.S., Y.P.Z.S. 

[Received December 29, 1904.] 

(Plate YII.*) 

Nearly three years ago 1 1 had the pleasure of reporting on a 
small collection of Fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Mathoiya 
River, among which were examples of four new species. The 
Bi'itish Museum is indebted to Mr. Hinde for a second collection 
made in the Kenya District, partly again in the Tana River 
system, partly in the wholly unexplored Nyiro River system, which 
takes its source in the Aberdare Range and loses itself in the 
Loriaii Swamp. This second collection contains examples of only 
five species, two of which had been previously discovered by 
Mr. Hinde, the three others being new to Science. 

1. DiscoGNATHUs HINDU, sp. n. (Plate YII. fig. 1.) 

Body feebly compressed, its depth 5 to 5g times in the total 
length. Head broader than deep, once and ^to once and | as long 
as broad ; snout rounded, projecting very strongly beyond the 
mouth ; interorbital region flat, its width not quite half the length 
of the head ; eye supero-lateral, not visible from below, in the 
middle of the length of the head, its diameter 4 (young) to 5 times 
in the length of the head and twice to twice and a half in the 
interorbital width ; width of mouth about |- the length of the head ; 
upper lip well developed, fringed ; lower lip forming a mental 
disk which is broader than long ; two barbels on each side, 
measuring ^ to f the diameter of the eye. Dorsal equally distant 
from the centre or the anterior border of the eye and from the 
root of the caudal ; first branched ray longest, as long as the head 
or a little shorter. Anal II 5, first branched i-ay longest, about 
# the length of the head. Pectoral nearly as long as the head, not 
reaching the ventral, which is situated below the middle of the 
dorsal. Caudal fin deeply emarginate, i\ s long as the head. Caudal 
peduncle once and ^ to once and | as long as deep. Scales 38-42 
^i, 3^ or 4 between the lateral line and the ventral, 16 round 
the caudal peduncle. Dark olive above, whitish beneath ; usually 
a few black spots on the base of the doi-sal fin ; young with a 
more or less distinct yellowish, dark-edged bar at the root of the 
caudal fin. 

Total length 70 millimetres. 

Numerous speeimeus from the head- waters of the Nyiro River, 
at an altitude of 7000 feet. 

In these ' Proceedings ' for 1903 (ii. p. 531) I have given a 
synopsis of the African species of Discognathus. The species now 
added is most nearly allied to D. hlavfordii, which has a lo\\ er 
number of scales in the lateral line. 

* For explanation of the Plate, see p. 64. f P- ^- S. 1902, ii. p 221. 



> 

I — I 



o 

> 

O 
LO 







1900.] FROM THE KEXYA DISTRICT, E. AFRICA. 63 

2. Barbus tiiikensis, sp. n. (Plate YII. fig. 2.) 

Depth of body equal to length of head, 3^ to 3| times in total 
laagth. Snout rounded, as long as the eye, which is contained 3k 
to 4 times in length of head ; interorbital width 2| to 2| times in 
length of head ; mouth small, terminal ; lips feebly developed, 
lower interrupted on the chin ; barbels two on each side, anterior 
g length of eye, jDosterior a little shorter than eye. Dorsal III 7, 
equally distant from eye and from root of caudal, with a straight or 
slightly convex border ; last simple ray bony, strongly serrated, 
about I length of head. Anal III 5, longest ray | length of head. 
Pectoral | to f length of head, not reaching, or nearly reaching 
ventral ; latter below anterior rays of dorsal. Caudal peduncle 
twice as long as deep. Scales 33-35 |f, 3 or 3j between lateral 
line and base of venti'al, 1 2 or 1 4 round caudal peduncle. Brownish, 
with a more or less distinct dark streak along the middle of the 
side ; lateral line often blackish ; fins grey ; a blackish spot some- 
times present at the base of the anal fin. 

Total length 55 millimetres. 

Numerous specimens from the Thika River, Tana system, 
3000 ft. 

This species agrees very closely with the description and figure 
of B. (jibbosus Peters*, which differs principally in having the 
caudal peduncle more than twice as long as deep. The name 
gibbosus being preoccupied (Ouvier and Valenciennes), I propose to 
designate Peters's Barbus fi-om the Zambesi as B. longicauda. 

I also avail myself of this opportunity for changing the name 
Barbus miolejns, which I bestowed on a species from the White Nile 
in 1893, but which is preoccujjied by a Congo a^ecies, to B. iverneri, 
in Jionour of Dr. F. Werner, who has i-ecently rediscovered the 
fishatWady Haifa. 

3. Barbus hindti Blgr. 

Fort Hall, Kenya (Tana sj'stem), 4400 feet. Crows toa leugtli 
of 390 millimetres. 

4. Barbus pbrplexicans Blgr. 

Fort Hall and Thika River. Grows to a length of 350 

millimetres. 

5. Amphilius grandis, sp. n. (Plate YII. fig. 3.) 

Depth of body 5| to 6 times in total length, length of head 4 to 
41 times. Head not or but slightly longer than bi-oad ; eyes small, 
in the second half of the head, 2^ or 3 diametere apart ; inter- 
ocular width I or i length of snout; latter broadly rounded, 
projecting but slightly beyond loAver jaw ; posterior nostril midway 
between eye and end of snout ; prasinaxillary teeth forming a 
crescentic band, measuring ^ or |- width of mouth; maxillary 
barbel measuiing about f length of head, nearly reaching root of 
pectoral ; outer mandibular barbel | length of head, innei' 4. 
Doi'sal I 6, in the middle of the space between bases of pectoi'als 

* Reise u. Mossamb. iv. p. 52, pi. xi. fig. 2. 



G4 OK FiRiiF-.s Fiiojr tt;e kkxya uistiuct, v.. aftjicv. [Feb. 7, 

and ventrals, equally distunt from end of snout and from middle 
of adipose fin ; fiist branched ray g length of head. Adipose fin 
5 or 6 times as long as deep, twice and ^ as long as rayed dorsal. 
Anal III 6, midway between root of ventral and root of caudal. 
Pectoral a little longer than ventral, ^ length of head. Caudal 
moderately emai'ginate. Caudal peduncle as long as deep. Olive- 
brown above, with very indistinct darker marblings, brownish 
white below. 

Total length 180 millimetres. 

Three specimens, from the Chania River of Tetse, Tana system, 
in cold water, at an altitude of 7000 feet. 

This new Amphilms is the largest yet described, exceeding in 
size the A. lo7igirostris of South Cameroon (originally described 
from an immature specimen), which grows to a length of 140 milli- 
metres. 

The genus Amphilms Gthr. [Anoplopierus Pfefi"., Chimarrho- 
glanis Yaill.), imtil quite lately represented by two known species 
only, now includes as many as seven, the characters of which may 
be thus contrasted : — • 

I. Dorsal above the space between pectorals and ventrals. 

A. Head not or but slightly longer than broad ; snout broadlj' roundt-d, its 
length not more than twice interocular width ; base ot adipose iin much 
longer than that of rayed dorsal. 
Length of head at least 5 times in total length; 

maxillary barbel extending beyond posterior 

border of head ; caudal peduncle not longer 

than deep ^4- uranoscopus Pf'tflT. 1896. 

Length of head 4 times in total length ; maxillary 

barbel not reaching posterior border of head ; 

length of snout once and f to twice interocular 

width ; caudal peduncle not longer than deep ... A. gvandis Blgr. 1905. 
Length of head 4 to 4^ times in total length; max- 
illary barbel not extending beyond posterior 

border of head ; length of snout once and :^ to 

once and ^ interocular width ; caudal peduncle 

hniger than deep A. jiJatt/chir Cjt\\\\lS%\: 

B. Head longer than broad ; snout obtusely 
pointed, its length 2 (} oung) to 3 times inter- 
ocular width ; base of adipose fin not more 
than once and a half that of rayed dorsal... A. loiir/iroslris Hlgr. 1901. 

II. Dorsal above the ventrals. 

Length of head 4 to 4j times in total length ; snout 

broadly rounded ; interocular width 2^ to 3 times 

diameter of eye; caudal peduncle a little longer 

than deep ; caudal forked, with rounded lobes ... A. atesnensis Blgr. 1904. 
Length of head 3| to 3$ times in total length ; snout 

broadly rounded ; interocular width 2^ to 3 

times diameter of eye ; caudal peduncle as long 

as deep ; caudal feebly emarginate A. hrevis Blgr. 1902. 

Length of head 4 to 4^ times in total length ; snout 

pointed ; interocular width not greater than 

diameter of eye ; caudal peduncle more than 

twice as long a-s deep ; caudal emarginate A. aucjvstifronx Blgr. 1902. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. Discognathus hindii, p. 62. 

1 rt. ,, „ Upper view of head. 

1 h. „ „ Lower view of head. 

2. Barhus thikensis, p. 63. 

3. Amphilins f/randis, Tp. 63. 

3 (I. „ „ Upper view of head. 



1905.] ON THE MAMMALS OP SOUTHERN CAMEROONS. 65 

3. Notes on the Mammals of Southern Cameroons and the 
Benito. By George L. Bates *. 

[Received January 10, 1905.J 

It does not seem worth while to repeat here the description 
of the Cameroons-Gaboon forest given in connection with 
Dr. Shai-pe's paper on the Birds of this Region in ' The Ibis' (1904, 
pp. 592-595). But it is necessary to bear in mind that the whole 
face of the country is absolutely covered with forest, consisting of 
tall trees standing close together, with the spaces between their 
stems filled with saplings and underbrush, and the whole bound 
together by vines and creepers, many of them thorny. This mass 
of vegetation excludes the sunlight, except in rare openings or 
rifts. Walking through it is difficult, except by following the 
paths. Clearings have been made for villages and plantations, 
and these when abandoned do not immediately return to forest, 
but for several years are possessed by a thicket of grass, bushes, 
and small trees of quick gi'owth. Thus in the more thickly 
inhabited parts of the countiy there are considej-able areas 
covered by this smaller growth instead of forest. But as these 
are near villages of men, and are avoided by the large animals, 
they may be almost ignored in considering the nature of the 
country as a habitation for mammals, though they are the 
favoui'ite haunts of many birds. 

The dense and impenetrable nature of the forest, with but few 
human dwellings and paths, makes it an admirable hiding-place 
for animals of all kinds. Furthermore, the fact that everything 
larger than a mouse or a sparrow, whether beast, bird, or reptile, 
is constantly hunted for food by the natives, makes the animals 
afraid of man. Hence it comes that observation of animal life 
is peculiarly difficult here. The statement is often made with 
reference to the animals of West Africa, in books of Natural 
History, that almost nothing is known of their habits in the wild 
state, because travellers have failed to record their observations. 
But the truth seems to be that travellers have seen little to 
record. 

The remark has been made by more than one person who has 
journeyed through this forest region, that animal life in it is 
scarce ; yet it really abounds in wonderful variety. Com- 
paratively few white men, and not all natives, have seen an 
Elephant in this country ; yet their trails through the forest, 
the broken and uprooted trees where they have been feeding, and 
even the mud-puddles where they have wallowed, are often seen. 
Leopards may be said to abound, judging, from their ravages 
among domestic animals, and the frequency with which their 
tracks or droppings or leavings of their prey are found in the 

* Communicated hy Olditeld Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I, No. V. 5 



66 MR. G. L. BA'lES OX THE [Fell. 7, 

forest ; yet, except in a few cases where they have been trapped, 
no white man I know has ever seen one alive. No white man I 
know ever saw a Buffalo ; but their tracks are often seen, and 
natives sometimes kill them and sometimes are killed by them. 

The Red River-Hog does great damage to crops, and many of 
them are killed by the natives with their guns and in pitfalls ; 
yet I never distinctly saw one running wild, though I have often 
heard them, and seen places where they had been. 

It is doubtless true that one walking along the paths through 
the forest is never far- from a company of monkeys feeding in the 
tree-tops ; but a person who is not thinking of monkeys may some- 
times go many days' journey without catching a, glimpse of one. 
ISTo white man I know has ever seen a Gorilla wild, plainly enough 
to be sure that that was what he saw ; yet in certain localities 
there ai'e, at times, many of them. I once tramped around with 
a native guide for several days, seeing recent tracks of Gorillas 
and beds where they had slept, without once meeting one. 

The natives of the country hunt the animals for food, and have 
the inherited keenness of sight and hearing of savages, improved 
by practice, the immense advantages of dark skins, rendering them 
inconspicuous in the darkness of the forest, and a noiseless step, 
by which they can approach game without alarming it ; they 
thus learn far more about the animals of the countiy than any 
white man learns. I have no doubt that most of the scanty 
information hitherto published about animal life in the Guinea 
forest has been obtained from natives. Even Du Chaillu, who 
gained more knowledge of this forest than any other man, must 
have based his accounts on information obtained fiom natives. 
It was the opinion of some of the old missionaries, whose guest he 
was at times while in Afilca, that many of the adventures he 
relates were taken from the hunting-tales of natives, and that, 
although in representing them as his own personal adventures he 
may have been untruthful, he probably took conscientious care to 
tell only what he believed really had happened to some one, and 
hence was not untruthful Avhere the facts of natural histoiy 
were concerned. 

These remarks about the difficulty of observing animal life here 
are intended to furnish some excuse for the scantiness of the 
information in the notes that follow. They are intended also as 
an apology for recounting things told by natives. Of course not 
everything told by natives has been accepted as true. A tendency 
to exaggerate could be detected by comparing different accol^nts ; 
and sometimes statements in which all accounts agree were found 
to be the least trustworthy of all, since they v.-ere found to be 
merely taken from tradition and not from actual observation, like 
many popular beliefs about animals among white races. But 
such worthless statements should be sifted out, and the statements 
here given from native testimony are such as seem worthy of 
belief. 

Befoi'e coming to notes about particular animals or groups of 



1905.] >rAinrALS of souruF.RX cameijooxs. 67 

animals, one more peeuliaiity about the nature of the forest rany 
be mentioned hei-e, and tliat is the way in which th6 coloui-ing of 
certain animals is adapted to make them invisible or inconspicuous 
in it. It is a matter of common observation by all who practice 
shooting in this forest, that the dark skin of the naked native 
men is better fitted to make them inconspicuous than any sort of 
clothing a white man may wear. The dark colouring of many 
animals doubtless has the same eftect. But an acquaintance with 
the forest shows also the moi-e remarkable fact that animals with 
spots or patterns of dark and bright colours, like Leopards, Monitor 
Lizards, Snakes, &c., are perfectly adapted to escape observation 
so long as they are motionless ; for the dark and sombre ground- 
colour, formed by the dead leaves on the ground and the black 
stems of trees, is dotted with innumerable bright spots. In i^ainy 
weather the light glistens from the wet leaves, both above and 
below ; and in fair weather the sunshine, where it gets tlirough 
the foliage at all, makes bright flecks on the dai-k ground and 
trees. Then there are other bits of brightness : sometimes golden- 
yellow flowers grow right out of the black tree-trunks, yellow 
fungi deck the decaying logs, yellow withered leaves may at all 
seasons be seen among the black aiid brown ones on the ground. 
Some trees have sap of an intense yellow colour that flows out 
and makes yellow streaks or blotches below every cut or insect- 
puncture in the black bark. 

Another thing must often sei've to make the i-ed wild hog 
inconspicuous ; that is, the red colour of the soil. I have seen 
bare places on the ground, as in a path, or where a tree has 
fallen tearing up the soil with its roots, where the Red River- Hog 
might lie and not be noticed because it was of the same colour as 
the ground, and in some of such places hogs had actually recently 
lain. 

The Gorilla {Gorilla). 

Gorillas generally keep to the depths of the forest. When tliey 
come into the outlying clearings of human settlements, it is 
because they are attracted by some fruit or succulent plant. The 
commonest attraction is the fruit of a tall cane-like endogen 
(^Amomuni sp.) growing thickly on abandoned garden-land. At 
one very small isolated village the people told me that they often 
both saw and heard Gorillas, which actually sometimes came and 
broke down the plantain-stalks behind the village, to eat the 
tender heart. At that village there were only two or three men, 
and they had no guns. 

Usually Gorillas are very wary when they approach human 
dwellings. Once I spent several days, with a native guide, 
tramping about in old clea,rings overgrown with "mejom" (the 
cane-like plant above-mentioned), looking for Gorillas. We saw 
many tracks, showing the imprint both of tlie soles of the hind 
hands or feet and of the backs of the fingei-s of the front ; we 
sav/ also many hulls of the fruits of "mejom," and shoots toi'u 



G8 MR. G. L. BATES ON THE [Feb. 7, 

open nnd the tender inside eaten ; and we saw many old beds of 
" mejom "-stalks broken down and matted together ; but we did 
not get sight of a Gorilla. The tracks and beds on that occasion 
showed that there was a family of three or four individuals there, 
some of them small. On another occasion 1 saw a single bed, that 
had been used by a solitary Gorilla only the night before. A 
woman had heard the animal the evening before, breaking down 
the stalks for his bed. I was told that Gorillas sleep on these 
beds, which are thick enough to keep them a foot or two up from 
the ground, in a sitting posture, with the head bent forward on 
the breast. The people say they sometimes hear them snore. 
Even when sleeping Gorillas ai-e hard to approach, as they waken 
easily. An attempt, made at early dawn, to surround the one the 
woman heard making his bed was unsuccessful. 

In most of the cases of which 1 have heard, of Gorillas being 
killed by natives, they were met with accidentally in the daytime, 
on the ground or in low trees in the outlying clearings. Many 
natives do not venture to molest a male Gorilla, even when they 
see one, as he is dangerous when woimded. I was told of a boy 
having been killed by one, and I saw the severe wounds in a 
man's thigh made by the biting of a wounded Gorilla. 

The only case of a white man's killing a Gorilla of which I 
know is that of the German trader Paschen, in the Yaunde 
country, to the north of where I have been. 

They say the male Gorilla sometimes utters a deep gruff call, 
but I have not heard it. 

The Chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus). 

Chimpanzees are much more frequently killed by native hunters 
than Gorillas, and nearly always in the forest, not in clearings. 
When found in the forest, they are usually in companies of half- 
a-dozen or so, in the trees or on the ground. They often make a 
noise in the forest, which sounds very like the hallooing or excited 
talking of men. Once even my guide w^as fooled by them, and, 
on hearing them, inquired who those men hunting porcupines 
could be. 

Once at a certain village, just as people were going to bed, a 
Chimpanzee was heard in the forest near by, making a most 
unearthly yelling. It slept in a tree near the village, and early 
in the morning men went out with bows, and punctured its skin 
with some poisoned arrows, before it had left its bed. "When I 
went out a little later, I was shown the bed where it slept, made 
of branches bi"oken and laid together, some 20 feet from the 
ground. The animal had by then retreated into the top of a very 
high tree, from which it could not escape except by coming nearer 
the ground, and this it was afraid to do on account of the people 
beneath. It was walking backwards and forwards along the 
branches, screaming and beating them with its palms ; this it 
kept up for an hour or two. It then became stupid and sat still 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERN CAMEROOXS. 69 

for a few moments, when it slid off the branch, and first catching 
it with one hand and hanging a moment, it dropped to the 
ground, dead. It died about 8 o'clock, and must have been first 
shot with the poisoned arrows a little before 6. 

This animal was wandering alone ; it was an old male. 

The Drill (and Mandrill ?). 

The Bulu name "sek" is applied to the Drill. The name 
" zombo " seems to signify a large old male of the same species ; 
though possibly the Mandrill is found here also, and confounded 
with the Drill. 

These baboons are not plentiful, and seem to keep to the 
depths of the forest, remote from villages. In such places they 
are often found in large companies, though they are some- 
times seen only three or four together. I have seen a place 
where the dead leaves had been scratched around as if by hogs 
rooting, and been told that it was where a troop of "sek" had 
been feeding, hunting among the leaves for nuts or roots. I have 
seen places also where little shrubby stemless palms had been 
grvibbed or pulled up by the roots, and this, I was told, was the 
work of " sek" that were seeking the tender terminal bud which, 
in the case of larger palms, is eaten by men. 

Natives have told me that if a company of these animals is 
sui-rounded while on the ground, they cannot quickly escape by 
climliing trees ; they are certainly not such agile climbers as the 
smaller monkeys, but they do climb trees. I have known all but 
one of a company of them, that were discovered in the tree-tops, 
to get away by running along the branches and hiding in the 
foliage, like small monkeys. I have been told that they sleep in 
the tree-tops, as other monkeys do. 

A wounded male I saw looked very ferocious, and the native 
hunters seemed afraid he would kill a small dog they had. But 
I never heard them speak of the " sek " or " zombo " as being 
dangerous to man. 

A female killed in the month of August was accompanied by a 
sucking young one. 

The Oercopithecus Monkeys. 

The genus Cercopithecus comprises all the common species of 
Monkeys of this country. Shooting these monkeys afibrds much 
sport to white men who get out into the forest, and is the 
principal occupation of native hunters. They are not easily 
approached, for they have keen sight and hearing and are shy. 
They go about in small companies of a dozen or less, with one old 
male for leader. Often an old male is found alone, probably a 
defeated candidate for the place of leader, who has gone ofi" by 
himself. The leader may often be heard calling in a loud, gruff, 
barking tone, to keep the company together. Except for the 
occasional call of the leader, the company feeds silently, and the 



70 MR. G. L. BATES OX THE [Feb. 7, 

only sound tliat betrays the presence of monkeys is the rustling 
of boughs as they pkick fruits or jump from branch to branch. 
Only when they discover the hunter and become frightened, do 
they utter a little cackling sort of chatter ; then they scurry 
away, and if they are in thick foliage they hide and remain 
hidden securely as long as the hunter has patience to wait for 
them to come out. But if they are in an open tree they may be 
shot while running, if a man is quick enough. If the leader has 
passed ahead, sometimes the others will venture out in plain sight, 
in order to follow him. 

These monkeys very rarely come to the ground ; I myself have 
never seen one on or even near the ground, except when wounded. 
They can pass from the branches of one tree to those of another, 
not touching it, by jumping ; they jump upon and grasp the 
swaying outmost twigs, which bend far down with the weight, 
and then spring up. The monkey merely holds on as the branch 
sways down, but with the rebound he scrambles along to the 
larger branches. Monkeys can cross any but the largest rivers in 
this way, on the nearly meeting tree-tops. 

These monkeys sleep in the trees, but do not make rude beds 
of the branches as does the Chimpanzee. I have asked many 
natives hoAv monkeys manage to keep from falling while asleep, 
and the answers are various. But there seems probability in the 
account that they sleep sitting, and holding on to branches or to 
each other. 

The habits of the three commonest kinds of Cercopithecus are 
very similar, and what is said above applies to all of them. The 
" osok" (C. cejjiuts) seems to be the most nimble, and the white- 
nosed " avemba" (C. nic^itens) the least so; the latter kind is 
rather oftener killed than the others. Different kinds are often 
found together in the same company. The calls of the three 
kinds, the two mentioned and the "esvima"(C erxlebeni), are 
very much alike, but one can learn to distinguish them. 

The habits of the little " ozem " (C. tcdapoiii) differ in some 
respects from those of the other kinds. It is never found far 
from a large stream of water, and generally keeps to the trees on 
the very banks of streams. At villages situated near rivers I 
have been told tbat these little monkeys steal coi-n from the 
gardens. They are quicker in their movements even than the 
others. Their call is veiy different, being a little explosive 
'' k-sss ! " that sounds like the splash of a stick thrown into the 
water. 

The only remaining species of Cercointliecus that I collected is 
C. iieglectus, called "avut" or "fuii." I obtained it only near the 
river Ja, as I did also Cercocehus agilis, called " nsak." But I 
heard of them both on the Benito. They seem to be found only 
near large rivers. Hunters at the Ja told me that they find both 
these kinds only on the banks of streams. They hunt them on a 
small tributary of the Ja, near its mouth, by wading in the 
stream when the watei' is low. 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERN CAMEROON'S. 71 

I obtained a number of specimens of embryos taken from the 
bodies of monkeys killed by natives. These were mostly brought 
in May, June, and July, though some came also in October and 
November. 

Other Monkeys. 

The monkeys I have collected, not of the genus Cercopithecus, 
are Colohus satanas and two species of Cercocebus, besides Cerco- 
cebus agilis mentioned above. 

The Colob is of local distribution, and I know nothing to tell 
about it except some doubtful statements of natives. The same 
is true of the Cercocebus called "kak" (? C. cdbigena). 

The " eka'afun " {Cercocebus coUat^is) is a little better known. 
Monkeys of this species are not rare, but are not often killed. 
They differ from those of the common kinds in that they often 
descend to the ground to feed. Their call is very different from 
that of the Cercopithecus monkeys. It is rather shrill, and ends 
in an after-sound like that made while drawing in the breath or 
gasping. 

The Galago Lemurs. 

These little creatures have a wonderfully tight grip ; their 
clammy flattened fingers resemble the toes of tree-frogs. 

The " emam " (Galago alleni) is found in the daytime in hollow 
trees, three or four huddled together asleep. The little " ojam " 
{G. demidoffi) is similarly found asleep, three or four huddled 
together in old nests of the squirrel " osen." Some people have 
told me that the little Lemurs make their own nests, but it seems 
more likely that these are only old squirrels' nests. The other 
species, G. pallida, called " nsae," uses neither hollow tree nor old 
squirrel's nest for a hiding-place in the daytime. They are found 
sleeping in bunches of as many as half-a-dozen, clinging with their 
arms around each other's bodies and around the branch of a tree. 
A shrill squeaking or chirping, often heard at night among the 
tree-tops of the forest, is referred by the natives to the " nsae." 
They say that this noise is heard oftener near morning, and that 
then the " father " is calling together the rest of the company, to 
gather them into a huddle for the daytime. 

An " ojam " that I kept alive once for several days made a 
chirping noise at night, as shrill as that of a cricket. In grasping 
anything with its hind hand, the clawed finger was always folded 
in the palm, under and not over the thing grasped. 

An " emam" that was brought to me alive showed great powers 
in jumping. A monkey can jiimp outwards and downwards and 
catch a branch, but this Galago could jump out and up and catch 
hold of a branch. It died in the hot sunshine when I was away 
from camp ; it had probably never felt sunshine before. 

The Pottos. 
The two or three species of Ferodicticus of which the names 



72 MR. G. L. BATES ON THE [Feb. 7, 

have been sent to me I have not learned to distinguish with 
certainty ; in the little I have to say about them I must mention 
them together. 

They are found in the daytime curled up asleep in the trees, 
tightly clinging to a branch. So tight is their grip of the branch 
that specimens have sometimes come to me mutilated in the 
hands, the natives who captured them declaring that it was only 
by cutting the fingers that they could loosen the animal's hold. 

Pottos are sometimes caught in traps placed on a horizontal 
pole or bridge crossing an open space between two pieces of forest, 
such as a narrow place in a garden clearing or a stream. The 
animal ci-osses on the pole in preference to descending to the 
ground. One specimen was killed at night on the roof of a 
house, to which it seemed to have wandered from the overhanging 
plantain-tops. 

A suckling female was caught in January, along with a half- 
grown young one. 

The single specimen of Arctocehus aureus that I sent to the 
museum is the only one of this animal I have ever seen. I 
found it in a village on the Benito River, where it had just been 
killed by a native, who did not know what to call it. However, I 
have sometimes heard from natives of a rare beast like the Potto, 
which must be the same. 

The Fruit-eating Bats. 

The commonest species of Epomophorus (? E. franqueti), called 
" endem," probably makes more noise at night than any other 
creature of this country. Their monotonous croaking racket may 
be heard in the bush-growth about villages any night — at least if 
any of the wild trees growing in such places are in fruit. They 
were especially abundant about my house when an " Udika " tree 
near by was bearing. Their noise, consisting of a sort of croaking 
bark repeated many times in a monotone, was generally heard 
coming from a thicket where the bat seemed to be hanging. But 
sometimes, at dead of night, the sound was heard passing over- 
head, from a bat flying. Whenever a bunch of ripe bananas was 
hanging on my porch, it was visited by the bats at night. When 
the bananas got very soft, the bats would eat several of them in a 
night and bite many more. They took their bites on the wing 
while flying to and fro. 

Boys would sometimes find these bats hanging on bushes in the 
daytime. On the last day of August and the first of September 
two females were biought to me, each with a half-grown young 
one, which had been found clinging to the mother. 

The big Hypsignathus monstrosus was very abundant in the 
mangroves and palms along the banks of the Benito River, where 
it made a noise like that of the " bindem," but still louder. 
In the Bulu country, where there are no large stieams, they are 
not common, but are sometimes found hanging in the forest, 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERN CAMEKOOKS. 73 

especially in swampy places. One so found was discovered through 
the little birds twittering around it, as they do around an owl or 
a snake. 

The Horseshoe Bats. 

The big Hipposideros commersoni I have sometimes seen flying 
about over villages at evening twilight, catching insects in the 
air. While doing this it makes a little squeaking sound in a 
very high key, that some people (natives) said they could not 
hear. 

Hipposideros cyclops is very frequently found in hollow trees, 
along with Idiihrus and some species of Muridce. 

One or two species of Nycteris have been found also in hollow 
trees. 

The Vespertilionid^. 

The little Bats of this family are generally found hanging on 
bushes in the daytime, or seen flying around villages at evening. 
Some of them seem to be partial to the plantains and bananas 
at the back of villages, hiding under the big leaves. 

Two adults and a young one (in the month of October) were 
caught together, entangled in a spider's web. 

One very little bat was found in a knot-hole in a small tree 
that had been cut down and carried come distance to form the 
post of a house ; the little bat had not been disturbed by the 
cutting or the carrying of the tree, and was found by boys who 
were peeling the bark. 

The Wrinkled-lipped Bat. 

The Bat called " efefae " is a member of the genus Nyctiiwrnus. 
" Bifefae " are found in the holes bored in dead tree-trunks by 
the Barbets called " ovol " {Heliobucco bonapartei). The bats and 
the birds seem to live in the holes at the same time. They are 
so often associated that the white eggs of the Barbets are said by 
the natives to hatch out Bats. 

The large Taphozous peli was obtained only on one occasion, 
near the Benito River, and must be rare or local. 

The Potamogale. 

Most of the specimens I have obtained of the " jes " {Potamo- 
gale velox) were caught in snares set on the banks of streams, at 
places were the animal's excrement was seen. It seems to have 
the habit of resorting always to a certain spot to void excrement. 
The " jes " is also occasionally killed by women when fishing out 
little pools in the streams. When one is discovered in the pool it 
is surrounded, and all the women strike at it with their cutlasses 
as it darts hither and thither in the water, till it is killed. One 
specimen (a pregnant female) was said to have been dug out of a 
hole in the bank of a stream. 



7 A MR. G. L. BATKS ON THK [Feb. 7, 

Two rather small young onesj also said to have been dug out of 
a hole in a bank, were brought to me in the month of March. 
They lived three days, drinking a little milk, and one of them 
eating also bits of boiled egg, which it seized in its mouth with a 
sudden motion, as if afraid they would get away. When not 
curled up asleep they were continually squirming and gliding 
over each other with a motion that made one think of snakes. 
Their movements were very quick. They occasionally uttered a 
little squeaking noise. 

As to the time of breeding, it may be remarked that two 
females, each with embryos in the body that would have been 
born in a shoi't time, were caught in the month of June. 

The Leopard {Fells pardus). 

As already stated, traces of Leopards are often seen, and theii' 
ravages are frequent, though they are seldom seen theiD selves. 
When the natives do find them in the forest, they are usually 
hidden in the closest thickets, and their presence is indicated 
by the alai'med chattering of squirrels and birds about them. 
Hunters often find partly-eaten carcasses that leopards have left. 
They say that of monkeys the Drill is most often found thus. 

Leopards are said to hunt in pairs, a male and a female togethei-. 
If three are together, they are a mother and two well-grown 
cubs. The she-leopard brings forth two cubs, sometimes three, 
in large hollow logs or hollows under rocks. 

I have often seen droppings of leopards in the path. The kind 
of hair in them shows on what the leopard has been feeding. 
Sometimes the long roan hair of the tail of cei'tain antelopes is 
recognised, and sometimes the quills of porcupines. I have seen 
the marks of leopards' claws on the bark of trees. Once a soft- 
wood tree on old cleared land was seen with scars of claw-marks 
in the bark at regidar intervals clear up to the first branches, 
1 5 or 20 feet from the ground. There appeared to have been two 
animals, and the natives with me remarked that the scai'S were 
made by a male leopard chasing a female up the tree. 

The natives consider the flesh of the Leopard the best of 
eating. 

The Civet {Vive^'ra civetta). 

I have more than once heard in a thicket in the forest a 
snarling noise like that of clogs fighting, and been told that it 
was made by two " bezoe." " Zoe " is the Bulu name of the 
Civet. I once saw a " zoe " trotting along in the forest with its 
nose to the ground, apparently smelling for worms or other 
creatures under the dead leaves. 

The " zoe " hides also in the big grass {Panicum maximum) 
that comes up on old cleared ground about villages. A boy cutting 
grass on tlie outskirts of the Mission premises found an old white- 
whiskered female curled up asleep, and killed her with his cutlass. 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERX CAMliROONS. 75 

She had milk in two teats ; that was in October. In April a 
man showed me a young " zoe " the size of a two-week's-old 
kitten — one of three found in a lair not far from a village. 
About August a man shot a mother that had two or three little 
ones in a nest in the same big grass mentioned above. 

The Civet visits the fields of growing corn (maize) at night, 
and breaks down the stalks and eats the tender ears. It prowls 
about chicken-coops at night, and sometimes catches poultry. 

The Genet (Genetta). 

The " nsifi," as the Genet is called, is the greatest poultry 
thief of the country. From its proverbial shyness, it occupies 
the place in popular talk and tales that the fox does in Europe. 
It hides in the thick bushes about villages, ready to snap up any 
fowl that wanders too far away. But it is also an inhabitant of 
the big forest, for it is often killed far from any human habitation. 

A female killed in January was suckling. 

POIANA filCHARDSONI. 

This rather I'ai'e little beast is called " cyan." It is found only 
in the forest, sleeping in the daytime on thick tangled vines, and 
walking only when disturbed. A female brought me in October 
had milk in two teats. A native hunter told me that the " oyan " 
produces two young. 

The Nandinb {JVandinki hinotata). 

The Nandine, or " mvae," lives on vegetable food, such as the 
fruits of the " aseh " tree and the little gourd-like fruits of a vine 
{Liiff'a hatesii), and these are used by natives to bait traps for 
catching it. It forages at night and sleeps in the daytime, in thick 
tangles of vines in the tree-tops. It is sometimes seen at dusk, 
either in the forest or in village clearings, creeping along the 
branches of a tree. One evening, at my camp in the forest, two 
were heard in the tree-tops near by, calling to each other in a 
small, faint voice, like a kitten mewing. 

Though it is thus arboi-eal, it often runs around on the ground 
at night and also visits villages. It is frequently caught at 
night in dead-fall traps near villages. Once in a village where I 
was staying, happening to be up in the early morning before the 
people had come out of their houses, I saw a " mvae " trotting 
along in the street. Another morning soon after that I noticed 
that something had been gnawing during the night at the bits of 
flesh left on a, skeleton of a chimpanzee I had hanging up in the 
palaver-liouse to diy. The skeleton was hung farther away from 
the post of the house, but still the next night it was gnawed 
again, though the animal had to go along the under side of the 
ridgepole to reach it. The third night the bush- rope by which 
the skeleton was hung was leng-thened, so that the animal had 
also to descend the bushrope ; and still the skeleton sho^\■ed in the 



76 MR. G. L. BATES ON THE [Feb. 7, 

morning further marks of gnawing. The next night, after 
watching for it till past midnight, I had just gone to bed when 
the boy, who took my place watching, fired ; he missed the 
animal, but he saw it, and it was undoubtedly a "mvae." 

Though that one was hunting for meat, there is no doubt that 
the usual food of the Nandine is vegetable. It never catches 
chickens, as do other Viverridce. 

Crossarchus obscurus. 

Three young of this little animal, which is called " nyameso'o," 
were once brought to me by a man who said he found them in 
a hollow tree with the opening near the ground. They were 
probably two or three weeks old. They lived only a few days, 
though they drank a little milk and ate bits of meat and egg. 
First, one that looked puny at the beginning died. Then one of 
the others was accidentally killed, and the remaining one after 
that cried continually till it died. "When awake and stirring, 
these little creatures made a little squeaking noise like the twit- 
tering of small birds. When running about on the ground they 
kept close together, one behind the other, generally with the nose 
of one touching the rump of the one ahead. Once, when a gun 
was fired not far ofi", the three instantly crouched down behind a 
stick at the sound. 

Mr. Johnston, when hunting in the forest, once killed two of 
these little animals at one shot. He said they were making the 
same squeaking noise my young ones made. Native hunters say 
these animals always go in companies one behind the other, like 
my young ones, sometimes a dozen together ; and that they root 
among the dead leaves and vegetable mould of the forest, looking 
for worms to eat. 

The Mongooses. 

The larger Reiyestes {H. naso), called " mvak," is one of the 
small animals most frequently killed by the natives. Yet I have 
nothing to record about it except that it is found in the forest in 
swampy places or near streams, and is said to eat crabs. 

The small Herpestes gracilis, on the contrary, lives not in the 
forest, but in the thick bushes about villages, and is seldom killed, 
though it does not seem to be rare. That it is so seldom killed 
seems to be because of its extreme wariness. It is a great poultry 
thief. 

The Bdeogale nigripes seems to be found in the same kind of 
place as Herpestes naso, but more rarely. 

The Larger Hoofed Animals. 

The Hoofed Animals form the most interesting group from the 
sportsman's point of view. So it is with regret that I have to 
confess my failure to learn much about them. 
' The small Buflalo of this part of Africa, and the two species of 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERN CAMEROOjSTS. 77 

Antelope of the genus Tragelaj^JiiijS, of which the larger is called 
" emvul " and the other " iikok," all prefer the parts of the country 
in which there are open grassy places. Hence they are more 
commoTi near the coast, where, for a mile or two back, there is 
much grass, than further inland, where there is scarcely a break 
in the forest ; and far inland, where again there are extensive 
grassy places, they are likewise more frequently met with. 

The Buffalo is not absent, however, from the most densely 
wooded parts of the country. Sometimes a number of them 
come to feed at night in the grassy sites of deserted villages. 
In such places some native hunters are bold enough to shoot 
them, but they do so at considerable risk to their lives. I have 
healed of more than one case of a man being killed by a Buffalo. 

A large Antelope called " ezona," of which I have seen strips 
of the skin and the spiral horns, must be the Boocercus eurycerus. 
I have heard of it only in the interior, about the River Ja. 

The Duykers {Cephalophus). 

The six species that I know of the genus Cephaloj^hus, though 
they differ considerably in size and colour, are much alike in 
their habits. They are all inhabitants of the deep forest, coming 
around village clearings only when attracted by the growing 
crops. When the people find that their patches of maize or 
peanuts are being visited at night by antelope, they build light 
fences around them. A small gap is left in the fence, and a 
snare with a strong noose of vine is fixed in the gap. In this 
way they not only protect their crops, but often secure meat 
besides. 

When anyone finds fresh tracks of one of these antelopes in 
the forest, he follows it to some thicket ; and if he sees tracks 
entering and none leaving the thicket, he goes to the village and 
gets help. Then the men go with a long net they make and 
keep for the purpose, spread it in a suitable place, and try to 
surround the antelope and drive it into the net. Many are caught 
in this way. Many are caught also in pitfalls. 

The red " so " {Cephalophus castanetts) is reputed to be less wary 
than the others. It is sometimes found in the forest or the 
borders of clearings, lying curled up, asleep. " The sleep of the 
so " is proverbial among the Bulu for soundness. 

Young of different species of Duyker are often found asleep in 
the forest, where they have been hidden by their mothers. A 
female " so " caught on September 25th would have bi-ought forth 
one young in less than a month. 

The commonest of these Duykers is the smallest one, the 
" okweii" {Cephalophus melanorrheus). The next in abundance is 
the " mvin" \C. callipi/giis). 

The Pigmy Antelope. 
The diminutive " ojoe " {Neotragus batesi), unlike the Duykers, 



78 MR. G. L. BATES OX THE [Feb. 7, 

is found only in the vicinity of village clearings, and never in the 
depths of the forest. Hence it is most abundant in parts of the 
country where there are large and old settlements. Sometimes 
when it is seen and chased by natives in the grass or thick sweet- 
potato vines about villages, it becomes entangled and is caught. 
It is especially fond of eating the growing peanut-tops, and is 
caught in noose-tvaps set at the edge of peanut-patches. 

The Chevrotain. 

The curious little hoofed animal called " vioii " {Dorcathermm 
aquaticum) is found only along the banks of streams of consider- 
able size. The only use I have learned that it makes of the 
water is as a refuge when pursued. It is said to be unable to 
run fast like an antelope, and if found far from the water is 
easily caught by dogs. It is hunted by a company of men with 
dogs, as is the porcupine. The dogs start it up and the men run 
along the bank, and either intercept it, or, if it gets into the 
water, shoot it as it swims or stands with only its muzzle out. 

The " vion " is said to make a rather loud noise, something 
between the little whistling bellow of antelopes and a loud- grunt. 

Its meat is very white and very tender. 

The Red River-Hog {Poimnochoe.rus porcns). 

In July 1902 several little pigs just born were brought alive 
to the Mission. They had been found and caught in the forest, 
in one case four in a litter. In 1903 some were brought in 
August, Out of several that were brought to the Mission, the 
only one to survive was " Pet." He early took to human ways, 
anfl delighted in the company of the little native school-boys. 
He was fond of sleeping with them, and squealed angrily when 
shut up in his pen alone at night. 

In his third month he had lost all his stripes, and was coloured 
like his adult kind. The stripes began to disappear low down on 
his sides when he was only two or three weeks old ; the last stripe 
to go was the black one along the middle of the back. 

When "Pet" was three or four months old, a companion was 
caught for him in the forest. This pig, a female, being about the 
size of " Pet," must have been born also about July. " Pet " had 
become so accustomed to human society that he would not own 
kinship with the new-comer ; though in the same pen with her, 
he took no more notice of her than of an animal of another kind. 
She, in turn, did not take kindly to her surroundings, and when 
let out of the pen made for the " bush," and was not caught 
again. 

As " Pet " grew large, he began to grunt or " mem," a peculiar 
emphatic sound of which the domestic pig's grunt is only a faint 
imitation. " Pet's " grunt expressed lusty strength and self- 
satisfaction, with the suggestion of a threat to any one who 
should molest him. As he grew he also developed carnivorous 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHERX OAMEEOOXS. 79 

propensities, in so far as to catch and eat chickens. When a 
chicken or well-grown hen approached too near, to share his corn, 
he whirled suddenly and caught her in his mouth. Then he 
learned to take fowls from the roost at night, and showed much 
ingenuity in getting into the chicken-house for the purpose. He 
became such a nuisance on this account that he was made into 
pork before he reached his full size. 

The wild Red Hog's fondness for cassava-roots causes it to do 
much damage to the gardens. But what the people lose thus 
they more than get back in meat by killing the hogs in pitfalls 
dug where they must pass to get to the cassava. Once, in June, 
there were caught in two pits near the village whei'e I was stay- 
ing two adult males, one adult female, and three half- or two- 
thirds-grown young ones, probably nearly a year old. They 
belonged to one band, or " sounder," that was found in the day- 
time in the neighbourhood of a clearing, and was surrounded by 
men and driven into the pits. 

These wild hogs forage both by day and by night. Their 
incursions into the gardens are generally made at evening. 
Hunters tell me that they sleep in the latter part of the night 
and in the heat of the day. 

I have seen a nest or bed in the forest where a family of these 
hogs had slept. It was in a damp place, and was composed of a 
mass of endogenous plants such as grew there, pulled up by the 
roots and piled together. Natives say the hogs do not use the 
same sleeping-place more than one or two nights or days. Even 
the small pigs follow the sow from place to place, and may be 
heard squealing as they run after her. 

These hogs are fond of dampness and of mud, as are all their 
kind, and many other animals besides. But they find damp places 
anywhere in the forest, and are by no means partial to the banks 
of rivers. 

The meat is tender and good, but with little of the character- 
istic pork flavour. 

The Tree Dassie {Dendrohyrax dorsalis). 

This little animal, called "nyok," utters at intervals during the 
night a loud, long-drawn, trilling or rattling cry. This is repeated 
several times in quick succession, with increasing loudness, so that 
you think the animal nearer when he finishes than when he began. 
The sound always comes from high up in a large tree. Natives 
hearing" it at night locate it in a certain tree, and go next day 
aiad chop the animal out of the hollow high up the tree-trunk, 
where it lives, and catch it alive. Sometimes two are found 
together : and they say when the shining of their eyes is seen in 
the darkness of the hollow tree, one eye only of each animal is 
seen ; if two eyes appear, there must be two animals. 

The people all tell me the "nyok" descends to the ground to 
feed at night, and that it feeds on the leaves of bushes ; a certain 



80 MR. G. L. BATES OX THE [Feb. 7, 

shrub, a species of Vitex, lias been pointed out as its favourite 
food. That it eats leaves is certain from what I have seen in the 
stomachs of specimens. That it goes about on the ground at 
night is proved by the fact that specimens have been brought to 
me caught in dead-fall traps on the ground at night. The 
" nyok" seems to be silent when on the ground, and utters its cry 
only when up a tree. 

While it is certain that this animal constantly ascends and 
descends trees, it seems singularly ill-constructed for climbing, and 
one seeing it would almost as soon expect a pig to have arboreal 
habits. Its descent is easy, however, if it is true, as the natives 
tell, that it merely lets go and tumbles down. I have seen, indis- 
tinctly, an animal of the size of the " nyok" tumble from a leaning 
tree-trunk to the ground and rush off through the undergrowth. 
Its mode of ascent is difficult to explain : the fact that many 
trees stand leaning may help to account for it. I have been told 
more than once that the "nyok" reaches its high door by means 
of a ladder of tangled vines such as hang from every large tree, 
sticking its feet through the loops to climb. The long projecting 
front teeth look as though they might help it to climb. But a 
young specimen, the tusks of which did not project at all, was 
said by the man who brought it to have been shot while climbing 
a vine. The rubber-like surfaces of its long soles may help it 
to keep from slipping while climbing. 

This animal seems to be a favourite prey of the Leopard and 
of the Crowned Hawk-Eagle. 

The Elephant (Elephas africanus). 

In this forest country Elephants are seldom seen. Their paths 
are in the most remote parts of the forest, but they often come 
on moonlight nights to outlying gardens or to deserted village 
sites where a few plantains and bananas are still growing. These 
they tear open, eating the tender heart. When th^y are feeding 
the noise of the breaking of branches can be heard to a consider- 
able distance. The only sight I have obtained of elephants wild 
was at early dawn, in an abandoned garden, which they were just 
leaving for the forest. I was then struck by the ease with which 
one bounded over a large log. Many things go to show that 
elephants wild are far from clumsy, and are even agile in their 
movements. Their tracks often lead up or down steep hills. 
They range far through the forest and travel far in a day. 

The natives hang a" small log, with a large iron spear-head set 
in the lower end, over a place where an elephant is likely to pass, 
in such a way that in passing he throws a trigger connected with 
the vine by which the log is suspended, and lets it drop on his 
back. When an elephant has been wounded in this way it is 
tracked far through the forest, sometimes for several days, and 
occasionally it is at last found dead. With the inferior guns the 
natives possess, they wisely refrain from shooting elephants, even 



1905.] MAMMALS OF SOUTHEU:^: CAMEROOXS. 81 

when they come upon them. But some men I found in the region 
of the Ja bohl enough to slioot darts headed with broad and sharp 
chisel-like blades from their guns, and thus kill elephants. When 
a native kills an elephant he secures a great prize, for a pair of 
good- sized tusks are a small fortune to him, and the supply of 
meat is enough for many villages. 

At a village on the Benito River I saw where the people, a 
few months before, had constructed a strong fence at the outskirts 
of their clearing, where a herd of elephants had been coming of 
nights to feed. Into the enclosure thus made they had managed 
to get the elephants, and had killed six or eight of them, shooting 
them from behind the stockade or from stations in Iai"ge trees. 

Natives sometimes find elephants dead. These may sometimes 
be such as have been wounded by spears of the kind described 
above ; but I think that they are those that have died a natural 
death. 

A Inrge elephant-skull that I once saw lying by a, path in the 
forest had no socket? for the tusks, but only rudimentary holes 
the size of one's finger. The people say elephants are often 
destitute of tusks. 

The Species of Anomalurus. 

The Anomaluri, which have in Fang and Bulu the generic name 
" iigui," are among the most strictly arboi-eal animals that exist. 
I never saw one, or heard of one having been seen, on the ground ; 
and I know that when one falls to the ground wounded, it is 
helpless, and does^ not try to run away. They can ascend and 
descend large smooth tree-trunks or the inside of hollow trees, 
where an ordinary squirrel could not go. In such places they 
have a humping mode of progress like that of a Geometer cater- 
pillar, and the sharp-pointed scales on the underside of the tail 
are pressed against the tree to aid them. They must be much 
aided also by 'the wonderful sharpness and strong curve of their 
claws. The claws of dead specimens were continually catching on 
things — on other specimens, the side of the vessel, or even my 
hand when handling them — and holding so that they were not 
easily shaken oS". I have never seen these Flying- Squirrels on the 
small outer branches of trees ; but they must go on the outer 
branches, for they leap or sail through the air from one tree to 
another. 

I have often asked the natives what these animals eat. The 
answers showed ignorance : it was commonly said that they eat 
fruit or nuts ; I was also told that the " aA^emba ngui " (^1. hee- 
crofti) eats "the flesh" of trees, that is, the soft cavibkim-l&yer 
under the bark. A greenish pulpy mass I have seen in the 
stomachs of some specimens seemed to confirm this. 

The species just referred to is generally found in the daytime 
clinging to the inside of large hollow trees, though sometimes, espe- 
ciall}^ towards evening, it is seen crouching against the oiitside of 

Proo. ZooL. Soc— 1905, Vol. No. YI G 



82 MR. G. L. BATES ON THi: [Feb. 7, 

the trunks of trees. Tlie " owos ngui" (A. heldeni) is not found 
in hollow trees — at least, not usiially. It is found even in the 
daytime, crouching flat against the trunks of trees, but is oftenest 
seen towards evening. The rare A. fulgens seems to be like 
A. heldeni in habits. The small A. batesi, which seems also to be 
rather rare, has been found in hollow trees, like A. heecrofti. 

I have more than once heard a low noise in the forest at night, 
between a whistle and a hoot, or like the sound of a switch rushing 
through the air. It was like that made by an owl, though I know 
of no owl's cry of one syllable as this is. This noise the natives 
believe to be made by the "avemba ngui" (^A. heeci^ofti). 

The Smaller Anomalurid^. 

The two species of Idiurus, the rare Zenkerella, and the Dor- 
mouse are all called by the same Bulu name " osi'i-ndan." None 
of these, except the Dormouse, has ever been found, so far as I 
know, in any other place than hollow trees. As they seem to 
spend the daytime in hiding, they must feed abroad at night. 
Whenever a hollow tree is chopped down, some of these little 
animals, together with bats, especially the " angoii " {Hlpposideros 
Cyclops) and certain species of Muridfe, are found in it. Often 
boys insert burning plantain-leaves into an opening in a hollow 
tree near the ground, and the smoke ascending suffocates the little 
creatures above, so that they drop down and are cavight. 

The Squirrels. 

Several of the species of Squirrel are quire abundant. The 
commonest of all is the small striped one called " osen," or rather 
the two called " osen." This name is applied both to Sciurus 
isabella and S. levmiscciMs, and as these are very much alike, and 
I have not usually distinguished them, they must be spoken of 
together. The "osen" is found both in the forest and in the 
bushes of old clearings. Nests of the " osen" are often found, of 
dry leaves and fibres woven into a complete globe. One I once 
found, with two young ones in it, had no opening apparent, and 
the little mother seemed to have closed it after her when she left. 
These young ones were found in February, and in the same month 
I was shown other young " osen " by boys who had found them. 

About nests of the other Squirrels I can say nothing. But I 
have seen aii " ovae" [Scmrus rufohrachiatus) carrying a spray of 
green leaves in its mouth as it ran along the branches. 

The two large Squii'rels {S. nordhqffi and S. unlsoni) a.re much 
alike, though always distinguishable, if seen plainly. The former 
(called " mvok ") is the commoner ; the other (called " nsem ") is 
said to descend to the gTOund, which the " mvok " seldom or never 
does. These two ai'e said by the natives to be able to gnaw 
thi^ough the flinty shell of the " ngali" nut, the hardest vegetable 
substance I have ever seen ; while other Squirrels are said to be 
unable to do this. 



1905.] MA:\nrALs of souihern camsucoxs. 83 

TI18 " ecloa" {S. pi/rrhopus) is often seen running on the ground 
or on logs. The same native name is applied to the less common 
>S'. auricidaius. S. inystax, which is a third species closely re- 
sembling the last two, was common along the banks of the Benito 
Rivar, in the Pandanus bushes growing by the water's edge. It 
is absent or rare in the Bulu country, where there are no large 
rivers and no Pandanus. 

Some of the Squirrels, at least, are able to pass, like monkeys; 
from one tree to another, by jumping across and catching them- 
selves in the foliage. An " ovae " was seen to spring from a limb 
where it was running, outward and downward, 6 or 8 feet, into 
the thick foliage of another tree, and citrdi itself on the leaver 
and small twigs. An " osen " was seen to do the same, but not 
jumping so far. 

I have learned to distinguish the commonest kinds by their 
chatter. The little " sep " (*$'. poensis) makes a sibilant noise of 
one syllable, which may be written " pish ! " The " osen's " chatter 
is that most often heard, and varies a good deal. The natives 
represent it by the word " kenge," which does veiy well, only that 
often a syllable is rapidly repeated many times, somewhat as a 
person who stutters would do in saying '■ kenge." The " edon " 
separates the syllables more, uttering only one or two together, 
thus: "ka-paka.'' The noise the "ovae "makes is peculiar aiid 
unlike a squirrel, being guttural. The " mvok " makes a noiso 
with somewhat of the same guttui-al tone, though less so than 
the " 6vae," and with the syllables more separated and the voice 
stronger and grufTer. 

All the commoner kinds of Squirrels have been seen joining in 
coTiipanies with little birds in the forest. It is the habit of many 
kinds of little birds to feed thus in companies scattei-ed over 
several neighbouring trees, moving loosely together, and such 
companies very often have a Squirrel or two in them. 

The Murid.e. 

The majority of the little animals of the Rat and Mouse family 
are inhabitants of gardens a,nd the neighbourhood of villages. 
This is the case with all those belonging to the genus Mtts ; these 
are all trapped by boys, with various devices, in and ai-ound 
cassava-gardens. 

The " mven " (3£as univittatus) is reputed to be the most 
destructive of all to cassava-roots. It is the animal proverbial 
for greediness, as the pig is among us. It lives and breeds in 
burrows. It is bolder, and oftener seen running around in the 
daytime, than the others. 

The " ndaji " [Mas tuUbergi) lives in hollow logs and such 
places. It often comes into houses to find food an 1 to nest, and 
becomes a house-mouse. 

The " abok " {^'Enomys hi/poxanthns) lives in the bushes growing 
on waste ground immediately' around villages. It makes nests of 

6* 



84 ON THE MAMMALS OF SOUTHERN CAMEKOONS. [Feb. 7, 

dry grass in bushes, 4 or 5 feet from the ground. When meat is 
scarce, the village boys often hunt " mebok " for food. They 
generally hunt them at dusk, when they (the rats) begin to stir 
abroad, killing them with sticks or with bow and arrow, or sur- 
rounding them in the weeds and driving them into a net, or under 
an old cloth or piece of bark. This hunting "mebok" is a gi-eat 
sport with the village boys. Owls often come around villages at 
dusk, probably for the same purpose. 

The tiny Dendromus messorius likewise makes a nest in the 
weeds and grass around villages ; its nests are nearer the ground 
than those of the " abok," 

The pretty little striped Arvicanthis pulchellus also lives in the 
weeds and grass around villages, often coming right into the 
village street, when that is weedy. It is not found within 60 or 
70 miles of the coast, where the village clearings are smaller and 
more scattered than they are farther inland. The people call it 
" ze-fo," or leopard-mouse, from its bright colour. There is a 
proverb to the effect that " you do not need to tell the leopard- 
mouse where to turn off the path." 

The little red Lophuromys sikapusi is another inhabitant of the 
bushes and grass tliat grow only about villages. It is a curious 
fact that most of the examples of this species caught have stumpy 
tails or no tails at all. The notion of the people about it is, that 
Avhenever the " ekui " (as they call this mouse) crosses a path it 
loses its tail. 

The " nsomian" {^Deotnys ferrugineiis) is trapped, as the others 
thus far mentioned are, in old cleared land about villages ; but it 
seems to live also in the forest. I have seen one caught by 
smoking it out of a hollow tree. 

The " ndon " [Malacotnys longipes) is an inhabitant of the 
forest, where it is often caught in dead-fall traps set for the lai-ge 
rodent " koe." 

The " koe " {Cricetomys gamhianus) lives in burrows in the 
forest. Ti'apping it is considered a pui'suit worthy of men, while 
other Muridpe are left for boys. Men go on camping-trips far 
into the forest for this purpose, finding a place where the " koe " 
are abundant, and there setting many traps and staying several 
days, drying the bodies of their catch over the fire, to take back to 
the village and store for future use. I have heard, when passing 
along a forest-path at dusk, a little piping or squeaking noise that 
my guide said was made by the " koe." 

The Black Rat has been introduced, and has established itself 
in the villages at and near the coast. It has not yet got more 
than fifty miles inland. 

The Brush-tailed Porcupine {Atherura africana). 

Porcupines hide in rocky places, under and between the rocks, 
and in hollow logs. They are found in such places in the day- 
time, and are said to walk abroad only at night. They are hunted 



1905.] ON THE FUNCTIONS OF THE ANTENNAE IN INSECTS. 85 

with dogs, the small native dogs enteiing their holes and diiving 
them out. Often the dogs themselves catch and kill the Porcu- 
pine, seizing it by the throat, where there are no quills. If it 
escapes the dogs, it is driven by men, with much hallooing, to a 
place where a net is stretched, into which it runs and is. caught. 
Often several are caught at once in this way. 

The Pangolins {Manis). 

The one or two small species of Maiiis are called " ka," and 
the large one, which I have heard of but not seen, and suppose 
to be Manis gigantea, is called " avi." 

They all burrow in the earth. The " ka " must be mainly 
nocturnal. One brought to me was said to have been caught 
walking on the ground in the forest at early morning. Another 
wa,s found in the daytime on top of one of the ants' nests, like 
huge hornets' nests, that are found adhering to the trunks of 
trees. Those I have received as specimens have generally been 
brought alive and curled up tightly. It takes much strength 
to unroll them, and they are hard to kill. When forcibly un- 
rolled they eject in small quantities a very pungent yellow liquid ; 
some of this that fell on a porch at the Benito mission-station 
permanently discoloured the paint. 



4. A Conlribution to the Study o£ the Function of the 
Antennse in lusects. By Macleou Yearsley, F.R.C.S., 
F.Z.S. 

[Received January 20, 1905.] 

The true function of the antennse of insects has for many years 
been a disputed point. As early as 1838 LefebAn-e (1) disagreed 
with Oken, who regarded them as auditory organs, and attributed 
to them the olfactory sense. In 1847 Erichson (2), by reason of 
his anatomical studies of the antennae, adhered to this view. 
The subject was also investigated by Leydig (3) in 1855, who 
traced the antennal nerve to the organs discovered by Erichson. 
He also (4) described what he considered to be auditory end- 
oi'gans. Lowne (5) pointed out that one anatomical fact (first 
noted by Diette (6) in 1876), viz., the similarity of structure 
between the antennal ganglion and the olfactory bulb of 
vertebrates was in itself a guide to the function of the antennse ; 
and Perris (7) made systematic investigations by experiments on 
living insects and established their olfactory function. It would, 
however, be fruitless to attempt to mention all who have ex- 
pressed opinions — supported by more or less evidence — upon the 
subject. Indeed, Kraepelin gives references to more than 100 
papers dealing with the question between 1730 and 1883. 
Certain observations have been made by Kirby (8), Meyer, 
Lehmann (9), Leydig, Gruber, Hurst (10), Hammond, and others 



.^^ MR, MACLEOD YEARSLEY ON THE [Feb. 7, 

in favour of an auditory function ; but a perusal of tlieir in- 
vestigations does not convince. A more favourable verdict can 
be accorded to the conclusions of Perris (11), Hausa (12), Forel 
(13), and Plateau (14) in support of an olfactory function. 

Lowne (15), in discussing the whole matter, thought it im- 
probable that the antenna? contain organs of audition in insects, 
and remai-ks : " I think it more probably a balancing organ than 
an auditory organ in the strict sense of the word." 

Lord Avebury (16) describes an individual ant {Myrmica 
ruginodis) which had lost the terminal portion of both her 
antennfe : " She seemed to have lost her wits. I put her into 
a nest, but the others took no notice of her ; after wandering 
about a little, she retired into a solitary place, where she remained 
from 3 P.M. to 8 p.m. without moving. The following morning I 
looked for her at 5.30, and found her still at the same spot. 
She remained there till 9, when she came out. She remained 
out all day ; and the following morning I found her dead." 

Latreille (17), quoted by Lord Avebury, says: " Le sens de 
I'odorat se manifestant d'une maniere aussi sensible, je voulois 
profiter de cette remarque pour eu decouvrir le si^ge. On a 
soup9onn6 depuis longtemps qu'il rdsidoit dans les antennes. 
Je les arrachai a plusieurs fourmis fauves ouvriferes, aupr^s du 
nid desquelles je me trouvois. Je vis aussitot ces petits animaux 
que j'avois ainsi mutiles tomber dans un ^tat d'ivresse ou una 
esp^ce de folie. lis erroient qi et la, et ne reconnoissoient plus 
leur chemin. lis m'occupoient ; mais je n'etais pas le seul. 
Quelques autres fourmis s'approchk'ent de ces pauvres affligees, 
porterent leur langue sur les blessures, et y laisserent tomber une 
goutte de liqueur. Get acte de sensibilit6 se renouvela phisieurs 
fois ; je I'observai avec une loupe." 

The " condition of intoxication or species of madness " exhibited 
by Latreille's ants, bereft of their antennee, is at least suggestive 
of support to Lowne's surmise ; moreover, the results of" experi- 
ments carried out by Yves Delage (18) upon Cephalopoda and 
Crustacea and by Clemens (19) upon Samia cecropia support it 
yet more strongly. 

■ With a view of obtaining further evidence upon the matter, 
I recently (1904) made a series of experiments upon "Wasps. 
I captured at different times a number of specimens (30 in all) 
of Vespa vulgaris, and subjected them to removal of their antenna?. 
My method was to confine each wasp under a small inverted 
wineglass, beneath which was placed a little powdered sugar. 
By cautiously introducing a pair of fine angular scissors under 
the_ tilted edge of the glass, I was able to snip off each antenna 
at its base. The insect thus mutilated was then carried into the 
garden and its movements carefully watched. 

Experiments^ thus made on 30 wasps gave uniform results. 
On first losing its antennae, each wasp kept passing its front legs 
between its jaws and then rapidly drawing them over the tiny 
wounds left by the scissors. Each wasp continued this manfeuvre 



1905.] FUNCTION OF THE ANTENNJi: IN INSECTS. 87 

for fi'om 5 to 10 minutes, after which it ceased to pay attention 
to its injury and tried to fly. Attempts at flight generally 
occupied another 5 minutes, and were invariably attended with 
the same result. Each time the wings were opened, the insect 
was raised for about an inch from the gi'ound and then turned 
a somersault headforemost, like an acrobat. These somersaults 
were always headforemost, the animal aHghting on its back and 
struggling to its feet again. 

Each wasp made some score or more attempts at flight, always 
with the same result. They then desisted and wandered slowly 
about as if uncertain of their bearings, blundeiing up against 
obstacles. Several were placed upon a window-sill, and each one 
so placed, if it reached the edge in the course of its wanderings, 
immediately fell ofT. 

Summarised, the results of the removal of the antennae in the 
30 wasps were : — 

1 . Loss of the power of flight. 

2. Loss of the sense of direction. 

3. Very no'.iceable slowness in all movements. 

It has been suggested to me that the loss of flight and the 
somersaults made lieadforemost evei-y time that flight was 
attempted might have been due to the loss of a balancing weight 
occasioned by the removal of the aiitennse, and that the experi- 
ment should be made of fixing on false antennas in order to 
ascertain whether the insect would thus regain its power of flight. 
Whilst admitting that this explanation is possible, 1 would point 
out that, if the want of balance were due to the absence of the 
anterior weight of the antennfe, the insect would be more likely 
to turn over backwards, on account of the over-balancing weight 
of the abdomen, whereas the wasps experimented upon invaiiably 
turned over headforemost. 

The conclusion to be drawn from these experiments is that, in 
wasps, the antennae are equilibrating in function, and in this 
respect they agree with Lowne's surmise, quoted above, and with 
the experiments of Clemens on Samia cecropia, already cited. 

References. 

1. " ISTote sur le sentiment olfactif des Antennes." Ann. Soc. 

Entom. France, torn, vii., 1838. 

2. Die Fabrica et usu Antennarum in Insectis. 4to. Berolinii, 

1847. 

3. " Zum feineren Bau der Arthropoden." Miill, Archiv, 1855. 

4. " Ueber Geruchs- und Gehororgane der Krebse und Insecten." 

Miill. Archiv, 1860. 

5. ' The Anatomy of the Blowfly,' vol. ii. p. 590. 

6. " Die Organisation des Arthropodengehims." Zeitsch. f. w. 

. Zool., Bd. xxvii. 1876. 

7. " Memoire sur le Siege de I'odorat dans ks ArticuKs." Ann. 

Sc. Nat. ser. iii. Zool. torn. xiv. 1850. 



88 MR. G. T. BETHUNE-BAKEK ON [Feb. 7, 

8. ' Introduction to Entomology.' 

9. ' De antennis insectorum dissertatio posterior, usum anten- 

narum recensens.' 12mo. Hamburgi, 1800. 

10. " On the Life-history and Development of a Gnat {Culex)." 

Trans. Manchester Microscop. Soc. 1900. 

11. Loc. cit. 

12. " Physiologische und histologische Untersuchungen iiber 

das Geruchsorgan der Insecten." Zeitsch. f. w. Zool., 
Bd. xxxiv. 1880. 

13. "Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Sinnesempfindungen der In- 

secten." Mitt. d. Miinchener entom. Vereins, Bd. ii. 
1878. 

14. Ann. Soc. Entom. Belg. xxx. 1886, p. cxx. 

15. Loc. cit. p. 592. 

16. 'Ants, Bees, and Wasps,' p. 96. 

17. ' Hist. Nat. des Fourmis,' p. 41. 

18. Arch, de Zool. 2'' series, torn. v. 1887. 

19. Journal of the Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, vol iv 

pp. 158-160. 



5. Notes on a small Collection of Heterocera from the Fiji 
Islands, with Descriptions o£ some New Species. By 
G. T. Bethune-Bakek, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

[Received November 29, 1904.] 

(Plates VIII. & IX.*) 

In the early part of last year I received, through the kind- 
ness of my friend Mr. Waterhouse of Sydney, a small collection 
of Heterocera from the island of Yiti Levu (the largest of the 
Fiji group), among which are several interesting new species and 
some new records. The measurements of the specimens are taken 
by measuring the length of the wing from the centre of the thorax 
to the apex of the primary and doubling it. All the insects were 
taken at Nausoii on the Rewa River. 

Sphingid^. 

PSILOGRAMMA JORDANA, Sp. nOV. (Plate VIII. fig. 1.) 

(^ . Head and thorax pale grey ; patagia edged laterally with 
black, below which is a whitish stripe, the black stripe is continued 
through the metathorax and meets in the centre. Abdomen grey 
with a dark central dorsal stripe, a broad lateral rust- red patch 
on each side which merges into the dark lateral wedge-shaped 
spots of the posterior segments. Palpi grey, with a broad lateral 
dark rust-coloured stripe below the tip. Primaries whitish, basal 

* For exiilauatiuu of Hit I'latc.'^, see ji. 95. 



P.Z.S. 1905. vol. I. PI. VIII 




E.Ci&iiglit deLetlitK. West,Newmanimp. 

HETEROCERA EROM THE EIJI ISLANDS. 



p. Z.S. 1905, vol. I. PI. IX. 




E.C.Eniglit del.etlitli. 



WestjINewmaii imp. 



HETEROCERA EROM THE FIJI ISLANDS. 



1905.] HETEROCERA FROM THE FIJI ISLANDS. 89 

area suffused with grey, with a dark spot on the costa at the base 
and another at a fifth, a small rust-red patch at the base of the inner 
margin ; a medial large grey patch to vein 2 and bounded on the 
costa by two short blackish stripes, the one nearer the base 
touching a whitish spot near the end of the cell and encircling it, 
a double postmedial strongly serrated line terminates this medial 
patch ; a subterminal deeply arched interrupted blackish dentate 
line rising in a heavy black costal dash, beyond which is a wedge- 
shaped dark grey patch with a white outer margin ; from the apex 
a dentate black oblique stripe meets the costal dash ; between 
veins 3 and 5 are three dark marginal patches, the uppermost one 
obsolescent ; cilia white, broadly intersected with rust- colour ; 
between veins 3 and 4 a black, slightly curved stripe from the cell 
to the subterminal line ; there is a slight grey scaling beyond the 
basal grey area ; secondaries rich deep i-ust-colour, with a broad 
obscure black termen interrupted by the ground-colour at the veins, 
three pale lavender-greyish patches in the tornal area. Under 
siirface : both wings rusty reddish, primaries with a broad ish 
postmedial line, secondaries with a broad medial and postmedial 
line. 

Expanse 106-110 mm. 

The type fi-om Nausori is in my collection. 

Ohromis erotus (Oram.). 

My specimens are somewhat different from ordinary specimens 
from Australia and Kew Guinea (fcc.,the brown oblique nebulous 
stripes in the primaries are absent, giving them an unusual 
appearance ; there is, however, a trace of the stiipe in one 
specimen. 

Hepialid^. 

Phassodes, gen, nov. 

Palpi porrect, end segment depressed slightly ; antennfe short, 
filiform ; all the legs fringed with hair on each side, hind legs with 
the tarsus perfect ; tibiae and femoiu short. Neuration as in the 
genus Phassus Wlk., but with two bars close together from near 
the base of vein 12 to the costa in the primaries; vein la free, \c 
of moderate length, a bar from 1ft to Ic and to the median vein ; 
veins 9 and 10 in both wings forming a long fork on a long stalk. 
Primaries more or less excavated in both sexes below the apex, 
and decidedly longer than the secondaries ; near the base of the 
inner margin of the primaries in the S is a large gland (evidently 
a scent-gland), with a semicircular opening towards the cell. 

Type, Phassodes odorevalvula B.-B. 

In section B the neuration and other characters are precisely 
the same except that the scent- valve is absent. I am strongly of 
opinion, however, that a genus should not be created on a purely 
sexual character. 

All the species are strongly scented. 



90 MR. G. T. BETHUNE-BAKER ON [Feb. 7, 

Section A. 

Phassodes odorevalvula, sp. nov. (Plate IX. figs. 1, 2.) 

c5" . Head and thorax brownish grey, abdomen paler. Primaries 
pale grey, almost entirely sufiiised with darker grey and closely 
covered with spots not quite so dark ; a large scent-valve occupies the 
basal area of the inner margin, with a crescentic opening towards the 
costa, two parallel marks on the valve, a series of antemedial spots, a 
medial series from the costa to vein 4 ; a silver spot at the upper 
angle of the cell proper and also in the angle of vein 6, beyond which 
is the postmedial series of spots from the costa to just in front of 
the tornus, followed closely by a very irregular series to vein 3, 
the subterminal row somewhat confluent with the terminal row ; 
a pale spot on the costa above the silver spot, and two pale patches 
in front of apex. Secondaries uniform pale ochreous, tornus 
darkish grey. 

Expanse 70-102 mm. 

The type is in my collection from Nausori. 1 have also a 
mvich smaller specimen from the same locality, in which the spots 
ai-e somewhat obsolescent and obliterated, the patches on the 
costa are paler and contrast strongly Avith the darker areas, whilst 
there is a broad pale patch on the inner margin in front of the 
tornus. There is no doubt, however, that they are both the same 
species. 

Section B. 

Phassodes guthrei, sp. nov. (Plate IX. fig. 3.) 
c? . Head, thorax, and legs pale reddish, abdomen darker. 
Primaries greyish, covered nearly all over with ochreous-reddish 
spots ; base entirely so covered for a fifth ; a narrow irregular 
silvery white streak across the cell to vein 2, followed by the 
confluent spots across the cell, with a silvery wedge-shaped 
patch below, touching which is a long subovate spot to beyond 
the middle of the inner margin ; a silvery patch in the upper part 
of the cell, enclosing two small confluent spots (the lower of which 
is shifted outwards) except as to their lower margin, following 
which are three large confluent spots, the lower of which touches 
the subovate spot ; a silvery patch margins the upper spot and is 
followed by two pairs of confluent spots, divided by another silvery 
patch, below which is a long spot in the angle of veins 5 and 6, 
with an irregular series of four roundish spots below it to the 
tornus ; above the two pairs of spots is a small one margined laterally 
with silvery, with a larger spot beyond and two smaller below it ; 
a postmedial series of eight irregular spots from vein 8, above which 
to the costa is a short twin series of three spots, the lowest spot being 
the largest ; a subterminal series of spots, those near the tornus 
being darkly pupilled ; termen spotted with fair-sized spots separated 
by silvery patches ; a large silvery twin patch margins internally 
the subterminal spots between veins 5 and 7. Secondaries uniform 
creamy ochreous. 



1905.] HETEROCEllA FROM THE FIJI ISLANDS. 91 

5 . Entirely brownish grey with paler spots darkly- pupillecl. 
Expanse, S 100-105, § about 120 mm. 

The types are in my collection and weie taken near the Rewa 
River in Viti Levu. 

Phassodes bimorpha, sp. nov. 

(S . Head, thorax, and abdomen brown. Primaries darkish 
brown, with the spots obsolescent ; a darkly-pupilled obscure spot 
outside the cell in the angle of veins 3 and 4, and two spots equally 
obscure near the termen between veins 4, 5, and 6 ; two slightly 
paler patches on the costa towards the apex. Secondai-ies pale 
ochreous. 

Ex|)anse 114 mm. 

The type from the Eewa River, Viti Levu, is in my collection. 

I have a second smaller specimen which may be of the same 
species, from the same locality, but it is very much paler, and the 
spots are more distinct, but the three dai-kly-pupilled spots are 
present as in the type. 

More material may prove this species to be a dark form of 
the preceding one, but it is so different in colour and general 
appearance that we miist treat it as distinct until proved to the 
contrary. 

Phassodes nausori, sp. nov. (Plate IX. fig. 4.) 

S ■ Head and thorax pale brownish grey, abdomen pale ochi'eous 
grey. Primaides pale grey, almost eutii'ely covered with spots and 
patches of the same colour, finely and darkly margined, and 
separated by metallic sil'v er markings, which are more pronounced 
and larger in the posterior third of the wing. In the upper part 
of the cell are three of these silver dividing lines which are fine ; 
at the upper angle of the cell there is a silver spot, followed by a 
double mark like the letter H without the central bar ; abo^^e and 
below this is another ; there is a very interrupted and bi-oken 
posterior line of these silver marks, and a double, less irregular 
subterminal line, and also a terminal row. Secondaiies ochieous 
grey. 

Expanse 119-125 mm. 

The type from Nausori on the Rewa River (Yiti Levu) is in 
my collection ; and I have a second specimen which I believe to be 
this species, also a male, but which has no trace whatever of the 
silveiy markings. 

Phassodes rewaeksis, sp. nov. (Plate IX. fig. 5.) 
S . Head, thorax, and abdomen dusty grey. Primaries pale grey, 
with the basal area covei'ed with crowded spots bai'ely paler tliair 
the ground-colour ; an. irregular medial series of three large spots ; 
a double postmedial series of spots, the outer series slightly smaller 
than the inner, in the latter the spot between veins 3 and 4 is 
darkly pupilled ; a short row of three or four spots from the costa 
to vein 6 ; a double subterminal row, the inner of which extends 
only to vein 4. and the spots are small and isolated. Tei-men 



92 MR. G. T. BETHUNE-BAKER ON" [Feb. 7, 

spotted ; the upper part of the cell is closed by a silver spot darkly 
margined, from which a dark line runs along vein 6 to a smaller 
silver spot in the postmedial outer series. Secondaries ochreous 
grey, slightly darker beyond the cell. 

Expanse 110 mm. 

The type from Nausori is in my collection. 

Phassodes vitensis, sp. nov. (Plate IX. fig. 6.) 

S . Head, thorax, and fore legs orange-brown, abdomen brownish. 
Primaries orange-yellow, with the spots very obsolescent, except a 
sharply defined silver spot closing the upper part of the cell and 
an irregular ill-defined silvery dash from vein 6 to below the apex ; 
beyond the first of these is a very obscure curved row of spots on 
each side of which the ground is slightly paler ; in front of the 
silvery dash is another obscure row, the spots over the wing being 
almost the same colour as the wing. Secondaries pale ochreous. 

Expanse 114 mm. 

The type from ISTausori is in my collection. 

Thyridid^. 
Rhodoneura myri'^a Drury. 

One specimen in which there are four hyaline spots in the 
primaries, the uppermost and the two lowest being quite small. 

Lymantriid^e. 
Dasychira vitexsis, sp. nov, (Plate VIII. fig. 3.) 

cJ . Head, thorax, and legs whitish grey ; abdomen probably the 
same colour or a little darker, but only a portion of the abdomen 
remains. Antennae with white shafts and reddish-brown cilia. 
Primaries greyish white, with basal and subbasal lines indicated 
only by two costal dots and one or two obscure marks in the cell ; 
antemedial line very fine, serrate, pale reddish brown, rising in a 
dark grey costal spot ; medial line fine, obscure, second medial line 
double for its upper portion, serrate, inwardly oblique, fine and 
paler for the lower half ; postmedial line irregular, serrate, curved, 
fine, pale brown ; subterminal line dark, irregular, interrupted at 
the veins ; fringes white. Secondaries very pale brownish white, 
darker in the subapical area ; fringes white. 

Expanse 44 mm. 

The type fi-om Nausori is in my collection. 

Arcxiid^. 
Deilemera fasciata. 

I received a single specimen of this insect. 

OEoNiSTis entella Oram. 

One specimen of Cramer's species which is quite typical, and not 
delia Fab. 



1905.] heterocera from the fiji islan'ds. 93 

Utetheisa pulchella L. 

One specimen in which the red stripes are ahxiost obsolete. 

NOCTUID^. 

Arcilasisa plagiata Wlk. 

One specimen of this very variable insect. 

Stictoptera describens Wlk. 

This is, I believe, a new locality for this species. 

Argyrothripa nigrostrigata, sp. nov. (Plate YIII. fig. 4.) 

Head and thorax whitish grey, abdomen darker grey. Primaries 
pale grey, with a slightly darker basal patch on the costa having 
a prominent black edging all round except on the costa ; medial 
and postmedial lines very irregular and dentate, almost parallel, 
the area between being slightly darker in colour ; subterminal line 
prominent, black, slightly excurved, a small apical black spot ; 
termen finely dotted with black. Secondaiies whitish sub-hyaline, 
with the costa and termen grey, the latter tapering rapidly towards 
the tornus. 

Expanse 34 mm. 

The type is in my collection from the Kebea Range, British 
New Guinea, where it flies in July at an altitude of 3600 ft. In 
the National Collection, however, is a single specimen from Fiji, 
which is almost identical with the New Gvxinea specimens, the only 
diiference being that it is slightly paler. 

Hyp^na masurialis Guen. 

One specimen of the iovxn. ferriscitalis Wlk. 

Geometrid^. 
Alcis vitexsis, sp. nov. (Plate YIII. fig. 5.) 

S . Head and thorax ochreous brown ; abdomen grey, scaled 
with ochreous brown. Both wings warm ochreous brown. 
Primaries with basal line blackish, irregular, outwardly produced 
in the centre ; median line angled at the cell, then receding slightly 
basewards and slightly inteiTupted ; postmedial line fine, black, 
dentate, angled outwards at veins 6 and 7, then receding rapidly 
basewards ; a trace of a subterminal pale line which is interrupted 
and irregular ; termen finely darkly-dotted. Secondaries with median 
dark line from upper margin of cell slightly curved ; a darkish in- 
definite small cell-spot pupilled with whitish ; postmedial line 
blackish, crenulate, with a slight outward curve in the median area ; 
Riibterminal pale line more distinct than in the primaries, with 
indefinite dark spots on its inner margin. Abdominal fold whitish. 
Both wings are somewhat irrorated with fine blackish scales. 
Under surface of primaries dark brown, with blackish cell-spots, on 
each side of which is a pale patch and another small pale patch at 



94 MR. G. T. BETHUNE-BAKER 0^' [Feb. 7, 

the apex. Secondaries with the basal half of the wings pale, with 
a blackish cell-spot ; outer half dark greyish brown, with a pale 
patch on the inner margin above the tornns. 

Expanse 46 mm. 

The type from Nausori is in my collection. I have one speci- 
men which is uniformly paler, but otherwise not different from the 
type. The species is nearest tongaica Btl., but the lines differ in 
shape and ai-e single, not double, the wings are broader, and the 
colour quite clifierent. 

Alois i^ausori, sp. nov. (Plate VIII. fig. 6.) 

(S . Head and thorax pale ochreous grey, abdomen paler ; legs 
pale grey, scaled with darker lilac-grey ; fore tarsi blackish, palely 
ringed. Both wings pale ochreous grey, finely and sparingly 
irrorated with grey. Primaries with a broad oblique basal band 
of lilac-grey ; a trace of a median line and a broad curved post- 
medial line, a trace of a subterminal line ; a short terminal blackish 
dash on vein 5, with two shorter ones above it, at the same spot is 
an indefinite lilac-grey small terminal spot ; termen darkly dotted. 
Secondaries with an oblique dark line just before the whitish cell- 
spot ; postmedial line angled about vein 5, then receding basewards 
in a slight curve, the area between these two lines being filled in 
with lilac -grey; termen strongly crenulate, darkly dotted in the 
vein interspaces. The whitish cell-spot in both wings is finely 
edged with blackish. 

Expanse 46 mm. 

The type from Nausori is in my collection. 

Larein^tia rewaexsis, sp. nov. (Plate YIII. fig. 7.) 

Primaries pale brownish ochreous, with the base and postmedial 
area dark brownish, the latter being somewhat wedge-shaped in 
form, broad on the costa and narrow on the inner margin, both are 
finely edged with white ; subterminal line ^narrow, brown, from 
which to the termen the colour is pale brownish. Secondaries 
uniform pale grey. 

Expanse 18 mm. 

The type is in my collection from Nausori ; the sex is uncertain 
as the abdomen is pai-tly broken oflf, and the antennas are also 
missing. 

Anisodes pori'Hyropis Mey. 

This species is represented by a single specimen. 

Thalassodes veraria Guen. 

One specimen only. 

PVRALIDiE. 

Locastra drucei, sp. nov. (Plate YIII. fig. 8.) 
2 . Head chestnut-brown, with frons darker ; thorax pale 
chestnut-biown finely irrorated with darker chestnut-brown ; 



1905.] HETEROCERA FROM THE FIJI ISLAKDS. 9'5' 

abdomen pale greyish ochreous-brown ; legs chestniit-bi'own banded 
with black, with blackish tarsi palely ringed. Primaries reddish 
brown, finely scaled more or less all over with black ; base pale with 
a trace of a pale basal dentate line ; a darker wedge-shaped costal 
patch edged by a white stripe right across the wing, rising in an 
indefinite costal patch, beyond which is a black spot at the end of 
the cell, the median area below it being pale and only slightly 
scaled with black ; postmedial line white (rising in a whitish costal 
patch), strongly serrate and curved outwardly ; terminal area 
greyish ; termen darkly dotted in the nerve interspaces. Second- 
aries with the basal half of the wings pale greyish ; costa and 
terminal half dark brownish, with a W-shaped mark on veins 2 
and 3. Fringes pale, darker near the termen. 

Expanse 46 mm. 

The type from ISTausori is in my collection. 

DiciiocROSis sect. Dadessa FLUMraALIS Btl. 
One quite typical specimen. 

Glyph ODES c.esalis "Wlk. 

Glyphodes psittacalis Hb. 

Neither of these two species appears to have been recorded from 
Fiji before. 

Strepsimela pseudadelpha May. 
Three specimens. 

EXPLANATION OP THE PLATE8. 

Plate YIIL 

Fig-. 1. Tstlaqramma jordana, p. 88. 

*2. DeiJepJiila pJacida-forenia Druce. 

3. Dasi/cliira vitensis. p. 92. 

4. A7\(/i/}-of7n-ipa nigrostrigata, p. 93. 

5. Aids viteiis's, p. 93. 

6. Aids naiisori, p. 94. 

1 . Larentia reivaensis, p. 94. 
8. Locastra clrncei, p. 94. 
*9. UJicri/torna lieterodnxa Meyr. 
*9 a. „ „ antenna enlarged. 

*10. Margai'ona oceanitis Mej'r. 

Plate IX. 

Fig. 1. Phassodes odorevaJvida, $ , p. 90. 

2. ., „ . var., (?. 

3. PJiassndes c/nfJirei, ^, p. 90. 

4. P/iassodes nausori, ^ , p. 91. 
6. Pliassodes reivaensis, $ , p. 91. 
6. Thassodfs vitensis, $ , p. 92. 



* The species marked with an asterisk are not mentioned in the text, hvit being 
not well known I have taken this opportunitj- of figuring them. 



96 BR. n. BROOM ox THE [Feb. 7, 

6. On Rome Points in the Anatomy of the Tlieriodont Reptile 
Diademodon. By R. Broobi, M.D., C.M.Z.S., Victoria 

College^ Stell(mboscli. 

[Received December 29, 1904.] 
(Plate X.*) 

Mr. Alfred Brown, of Aliwal Noi'tli, to whom science already 
owes so much, has recently made another discovery of considerable 
importance. In the neighbourhood of Aliwal he has found a very 
well-preserved Theriodont mandible with a number of other well- 
preserved bones, all belonging to the same individual ; and these 
he has kindly forwarded to me for examination and description. 
"When the remains were fully developed it was found that we had 
two dentaries, two ilia, two ischia, a. pubis, a femur, and a lumbar 
vertebra of Diademodon mastacus Seeley. Though the type 
specimen consists of only a fragment of maxilla with some molar 
teeth, the molars in the present mandible agree so closely in 
structure and size as to leave little doubt that the remains are 
those of D. mastacus. 

With the exception of the anterior pai't, both dentaries are well 
preserved, the hinder part of the left being in almost perfect 
condition. The symphysis is missing, but from the impression 
left it is pi'etty manifest that the two dentaries have been 
anchylosed in front. The dentary resembles that of Gomplio- 
gnathus and Trira"hodon in the very great development of its 
posterior portion. The coronoid process is of large size, but does 
not terminate in a posteriorly directed point as in most mammals. 
The posterior part of the dentary, as in Cynognathus, probably 
almost reached the articulation, and apparently overlapped the 
articular as in tire better known Theriodonts. A small but distinct 
angle is formed, very similar to, but better developed than, that 
in Trirashodon. 

Behind the canine there is a short diastema of about 10 mm., and 
then a series of four teeth which may be i-egarded as premolars. 
Behind the premolars are seven molars. 

The first premolar is smaller than the others, but is imperfectly 
preserved. It probably, however, does not differ from the others 
in structure. Each of the posterior of three premolars is a 
rounded tooth in which the height is about twice as great as the 
antero-posterior measurement. When viewed from the outer side, 
each tooth appears to be a simple pointed cone, but in reality the 
top is about as broad as the base, owing to there being on the 
inside of the tooth a second cusp only a little shorter than the 
outer. The outer cusp in the unworn condition is probably finely 
serrated on both its anterior and posterior edges. The foui'th 

* For explanation of the Plate, see p. 102. 



P Z.S. 1905, voll p] X. 




H. Broom del. 
M.P. Parser lilh. 



DIADEMODON MA STAC US. 



Parkier & "^ATeat, imp. 



1905.] TtlEUIODONr REPTILE DIADEMODOX. 97 

tooth on the right side shows the anterior serrations, and the 
second tooth on the right side bears indications of the posterior 
serrations. At the base of the posterior edge of the onter cusp 
there is seen in three of the teetli what looks like a very small 
secondary cusp, but this may be merely a ridge which joins the 
outer and the inner lai'ge cusps. It will thus be seen that the 
premolars have crowns very like those of the human bicusps, but 
differing in having the cusps more marked and with small serrations 
at least on the outer side. Each tooth that has been displayed 
has a single cylindrical root. 

All seven molars on the right side, and all except the second on 
the left, are preserved. The first four are round teeth with flat 
tops. It is probable that the flattening is largely due to wear, 
and the enamel seems to have been worn off the tops of at least 
the first four. In the fifth much of the enamel is worn off, but 
in the sixth and seventh teeth there is no evidence of wear. In 
removing the matrix, which is a fine-grained calcareous sandstone, 
the processes of the enamel were found very apt to adhere to the 
matrix and to become detached from the dentine, but fortunately 
almost every feature of the sixth and sev^enth molars is preserved 
on either one side or the other. 

The sixth molar, when viewed from above, has an almost 
circular crown, being only very slightly broader transversely than 
antero-posteriorly. There is a single prominent cusp on the 
middle of the outer edge, and a second similar but slightly smaller 
cusp on the middle of the inner edge. Between these two there 
is a well-developed, slightly concave ridge interrupted in the 
middle by a slight elevation, and dividing the crown of the tooth 
into almost equal anterior and posterior portions. The anterior 
poition, which is moderately flat, slopes down from the median 
ridge to the anterior edge, which is slightly elevated and supported 
by three small cusps. These cusps are arranged as follows : — 
one between the middle of the anterior edge and the large 
external cusp, but nearer to the middle line ; the other two 
immediately in front of the large internal cusp. The posterior 
half of the crown is somewhat similar to the anterior, but rather 
more concave ; it has the posterior edge supported by a series of 
small cusps. On the two sides the ariungement is slightly 
different : on the right side there are four subequal cusps close 
together ; on the left side one larger cusp takes the place of the 
centre two. 

The seventh molar is considerably smaller than the sixth, but 
fairly similar in structure. The posterior part of the crown is 
narrower than the front part. There are two cusps on the 
anterior edge, and two, with possibly a small third, on the posterior 
edge. 

When the lower molars are compared with the upper molai's 
described by Seeley, it is seen that they fit satisfactorily — the 
transverse ridge on the lower molars fitting between two upper 
molars, and the ridge of the upper between two lower molars, 

Proc Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. YII. 7 



98 DR. R. BROOM OX THE [Feb. 7, 

The outer cusp of ihe lower molaT would fit into the hollow on the 
inner side of the outer cusps of two upper molars. 

The molars of Diademodon are ^compared by Seeley with 
the molars of Oi'nithorhynchtLS, Ctenacodon, Plagiaulax, and 
Tritylodon, and by Osborn with the molars of Microlestes. 
Although there is some superficial resemblance between the 
tuberculated molars of the multituberculate mammals and those 
of Diademodon, it seems to me more probable that there is no 
close affinity between the teeth, and that those of Diademodon 
have originated in quite a different manner from those of the 
Multituberculata. The structure of the premolars in Diademodon 
gives us a clue to the way in which the molars have been formed. 
There we find an outer and an inner cusp, which we may perhaps 
call the "protocone" and the " deuterocone." In the molar we 
find evidences of the same two cusps, but instead of being long and 
sharp they are here obtuse, and by the sides of the molar we have 
a number of small other cusps. Like the premolars, the molars 
are single-rooted, and they bear almost the same relations to each 
other as do the molars and premolars in Cynognatlms. Diade- 
modon and the allied GomjjhognatJnis aiid Trirachodon are so 
closely allied in the structure of the skeleton to Cynognathiis as 
to suggest that the foims with broad molars are descended with 
only slight modifications from carnivorous types. Among mammals 
we occasionally find flat-ci'owned teeth in types closely allied to 
others with sharp teeth — as, e. g., in the Sea-Otter {Enhydra) 
and the Common Otter {Lutra^, or in the Bear (Ursus) and the 
Dog (Canis); and though in Diademodon and Cynognathus the 
difference probably is greater in- degree, it does not seem to be 
different in kind. 

GomphognaiJiKs and its near allies are regaided by Seeley as 
herbivoi'oifs forms, and I aufcuot aware that this view has been 
questioned by any later worker. There is something, however, to 
be said against it. Gomphognathths, Trirachodon, a,nd Diademodon 
have all powerful canine teeth, and in Gemj^hogvathtis and 
Trirachodon, at least, these are sepai'ated by small incisors. 
The condyle of the jaw is in a, line with the molar teeth. There 
is a very large -coronoid process and the temporal fossa is of laxge 
size. These prove conchisiA-ely that the forms with flat molars had 
at least powerful temporal muscles, such as are rarely or never 
found in herbivorous mammals. We have also evidence that 
Gomphognaihus was able to open its jaws very widely, as in the 
type specimen the mandible is found open at about 90° without 
much dislocation of the joint. When we look at the teeth we find 
that they do not seem suited for a vegetable diet. The second 
last molar in the above-mentioned specimen of Diademodon must 
have been for a considerable time in use, but the enamel has not 
yet begun to wear off; ai:id as the layer of enamel is not thicker 
than a sheet of notepaper, it will be manifest that whatever it 
was used to crush it is not likely to have been vegetable fibre. It 
seems to me pi-obable that Diademodon and Gomphognaihus fed 



1905.] THERIODOXT REPTILE DIADEMODOX. 99 

largely on carrion — possibly the carcases of the large Dicynodons 
that had been killed by Cynognathi. 

It seems to me unnecessary to discuss the supposed relationships 
between Diademodon and Trit)/lodo7i, n.s I have recently elsewhere 
endeavoured to show that Tritylodoii is, as beheved by Owen, 
Lydekker, Cope, and others, a true Mammal, and probably not at 
all nearly related to the Theriodonts. 

The following are the principal measurements of thp jaw and 
teeth :— « 

miUini. 

Leng-tli from tip of coronoid process to angle ... 61 

Depth of jaw at m 6 22 

Depth of jaw at m 3 20 

Length of seven molars 35 

Width of m6 6-7 

Length of m 6 6 

Both ilia are well presei'ved, but unfortunately only the inner 
sides of each are displayed, and owing to the softness of the bone 
it does not seem advisable to remove the matrix from the outer 
side of either. The most striking character of the ilium is the 
great antero-posterior development of the crest. From the 
constricted part above the acetabulum the ilium extends upwards 
and forwards to end in a rounded anterior expansion, and also 
extends backwards to form a sharp posterior portion. The 
anterior pai't has its anterior edge turned considerably outwards, 
so that a deep concavity is apparently formed on the front part of 
the outer side of the iliac expansion. Below the constriction the 
ilium expands again to form the upper part of the large 
acetabulum. In Cynog)iatha% the anterior part of the ilium is 
missing, but the parts preserved are very like those of Diademodon, 
and it is thus probable that Seeley's restoration of the anterior 
part is too small. 

The most uuportant diflerence between the INIammalian ilium 
and that of the Theriodont is that, owing to the pelvis in the 
mammal lying more antero-posteriorly. the anterior part of the 
ilium is itself sufficient for the attachment of the sacrum, and 
hence the posterior part becomes usually greatly reduced or lost 
completely. In Orycteropus the posterior part of the ilium is 
unusually well developed, and not unlike the Theriodont condition, 
but in most Marsupials it is pi-actically absent. In the Monotrenies 
and in the Wombat there is a small but distinct posterioi' 
portion. 

The pubis is a little imperfect, as a portion of the anterior part 
is missing. In general structure it is very mammal-like. Imme- 
diately below the acetabular portion, the bone is somewhat 
constricted, and at this point there passes inwards and forwards 
a plate which is probably of a similar nature to the anterior part 
of the pubis in Cynognathus ; but in Diademodon it seems to be 
directed more inwards than in Cynognathus. Whether it is a 



100 DR. R. BROOM ON THE [Feb. 7, 

pectineal process entirely, or a process for the attachment of a 
cartilaginous prepubis, the evidence does not show. The sym- 
physial portion is typically mammalian. 

The ischium is, on the whole, fairly like that of the mammal. 
The acetabular portion is large, and there is no evidence of a 
cotyloid notch in the articulation. A little distance below the 
articular portion the bone is considerably constricted, and then 
widens out into a broad fan-like expansion. The posterior border 
of the b(Ae is nearly straight, being only slightly concave at its 
upper part. It is fairly broad and slightly hollowed out. Pro- 
bably the anterior half of the lower border of the bone formed 
part of the symphysis with its neighbour. If this is so, then the 
pait of the symphysis formed by the ischium in Diademodon 
would be considerably less than in Cynognathws. 

The obturator foramen is of large size, as in mammals 
generally. It is relatively about as large as in Echidna, and 
I'ather larger than in Gynognathus. 

The following are some of the principal measurements of the 
pelvis : — 

millim. 

Antero-posterior length of iliac crest about 68 

From lowest point of ilium to nearest point of 

iliac crest 40 

Width of acetabular portion of ilium 30 

Greatest length of pubis 38 

Greatest length of ischium 47 

The femur is fairij well preserved, and is especially interesting 
since the Theriodont femur has not hitherto been very well 
known. The imperfect proximal end of the femur of Cynognathus 
has been described by Seeley, and he has also described a fairly 
good femur of Triholodon showing the anterior and outer 
surfaces. The femur of Diademodon as developed shows the 
posterior, outer and inner sides, so that it fills up the blanks in 
our knowledge of the bone. The proximal end of the femur is, 
as in Gynognathus, greatly expanded owing to there being no neck, 
and the large trochanter major being thus continued on to the 
articular head. If we regard the condyles as pointing backwards, 
then the expanded proximal end of the bone is directed backwards 
and outwards from the head, and the trochanter major, which 
forms the outer end of the expansion, points almost directly out- 
wards. There is thus left in front of the trochanter a concavity. 
Along the posterior pai't of the inner side of the upper third of 
the shaft there is developed a prominent ridge which is directed 
backwards and slightly inwards. Superiorly it ends abruptly about 
the level of the lower part of the head and forms the trochanter 
minor. It will thus be seen that the upper part of the Therio- 
dont femur bears a gi-eater resemblance to that of the mammal 
than to that of either the Therocephalian or Anomodont. In 
Oudenodon the proximal end of the femur agrees with that in 



1905.] THERIODONT REPTILE DIADEMODON. 101 

Diaclemodon in having no notch between the head and the tro- 
chanter major, but differs in having the trochanter minor very 
feebly developed. On the whole the mammalian femur which 
most resembles that of Diademodon is the femu.r of Echidna. In 
Echidna, however, the trochanter major is less strongly developed, 
the head has a distinct neck, and the trochanter minor is directed 
more inwards than backwards. But these points are not of much 
importance, as they are found to vary greatly according to the 
habits, in even closely allied mammals ; and there is little doubt 
that the femur in Echidna is fundamentally similar to that in 
Diademodon. In Phascolomys the small trochanter gives the 
proximal end a superficial resemblance to that of Diademodon., 
but the two bones are not very closely related. A more important 
affinity is seen in the femur of Dasypus. Here the small tro- 
chanter resembles considerably that of the Theriodont, and the 
trochanter major is similarly directed forwards. The presence of 
the third trochanter, however, and the deep depression in the 
head for the teres ligament show that the two bones are possibly 
not any more nearly related than are those of the Marsupial and 
Theriodont. At the lower end of the bone the condyles are more 
developed than in Echidna and less than in Phascolomys. The 
cartilaginous surface can be traced from the one condyle to the 
other over the intercondylar hollow. From the shape of the 
portions of the condyles preserved, I think one is justified in 
concluding that Diademodon stood, when at rest, with the femur 
directed downwards and forwards, making an angle of 45° with 
the surface of the ground. In this respect it agi'ees with Ano- 
modonts and Mammals generally. 

The following are some of the principal measurements of the 

femur : — 

millim. 

Greatest length about 91 

"Width of proximal end ,, 37 

Width of middle of shaft „ 8*5 

The small vertebra which is preserved is believed to be one of 
the last of the dorso-lumbar series. In structure it is exceedingly 
mammal-like. The centrum seems to be about as broad as long, 
but is apparently much broader in front than behind, owing to the 
autogenous tivansverse process or rib being attached to the side of 
the anterior point of the centrum. This transverse process has a 
very large attachment, the lower part of which is anchylosed to 
the centrum and the upper part to the arch. There is apparently 
a small foramen passing from fi'ont to back neai- the line of the 
suture of the arch and the centrum, and in reality making the 
transverse process or rib double-headed. A part of the inner end 
of the transverse process comes a little further forward than the 
anterior end of the centrum and appears to form a slight articu- 
lation with the centrum in front. Passing outwards the transverse 
process becomes slender and is directed forward. Whether it after- 



102 MR. F, E, BEDDARD ON THE [Feb. 7, 

•yv'ai'ds expands and curves backwards as in Cynognathus, the 
evidence does not show. The zygapophyses of the two sides are 
fairly close together, and the aiticidar surface of the post- 
zygapophysis looks downwards and outwards. Below the post- 
zygapophysis is a small but distinct anapophysis. The vertebra 
bears a fairly close resemblance to the posterior dorsals or lumbars 
of Cynognathus and Microgomphoclon, but the base of the transverse 
process or rib is stronger in Diademodon. The mammalian 
vertebra which most closely resembles it is perhaps the presacral 
vertebra of Basyurus. If the transverse process of this vertebra 
be proved to be autogenous as in Phascolomys, then the affinity with 
Basyurus would be very manifest. The lumbar vertebrfe, like all 
the other vertebras in the Monotremes, are so much specialised and 
in some respects degenerate, that they are much less like those of 
the Theriodonts than are even those of the higher Eutherians. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fig. 1. Side view of left dentaiy of Dhidemodoti mastacits. Nat. size. Pm., pre- 
molars ; III., molars. 

Fig. 2. Upper surfaces of the seven lower molars of the right side. Nat. size. 

Fig. 3. Inner view of left ilium. Nat. size. 

Fig. 4, Outer view of left ischium. Nat. size. 

Fig. 5. Inner view of left pubis. Nat. size. 

Fig. 6. liestoration of left side of pelvis of Diademodon. i iiat. size. II. Ilium. 
Is. Ischium. P«. Pubis. 

Fig. 7. Back view of left femur. Nat. size. G.T. Great trochanter. S.T. Small 
trochanter. 

Fig. 8. Upper view of lumbar vertebra of Diademodon. Nat. size. 

Fig. 9. Side view of lumbar vertebra of Diademodon. Nat. size. 



7. A Contribuiion to the Knowledge of the Arteries o£ the 
Brain in the Clasj Aves. By Frank E. Beddard, M.A., 
F.R.S., Prosector to the Society. 

[Received January 19, 1905.] 

(Text-figures 15-20.) 

The course of the arteries of the base of the brain in birds does 
not appear to have been much studied. Dr. Gadow, in the section 
of Bronn's ' Thierreichs ' devoted to birds, figures one brain from 
the ventral surface — a figure copied from a memoir by ISTeugebaur * 
on the vascular system generally in birds. I am not, however, 
acquainted with any comparative sketch of the ceiebral arterial 
system in these animals. I believe, therefore, that the following 
observations, based upon the study of material skilfully injected 
by my assistant, Mr. E. Ockenden, will be of some use as a con- 
tribution to the subject. 

Struthio masaicus <^ .- — I shall give a detailed account of the 
brain of the Ostrich, which will enable me to be more brief iii 

* Nov. Act. Acad. Lcop.-Car. x.xi. 184o, p. 517. 



1905.] ARTERIES OP THE BRAIN IN BIRDS. 103 

the descriptions which follow. This brain is illustrated in the 
accompanying drawing (text-fig. 15), the accuracy of which can 
be tested by a reference to the actual specimen, which I have 



Text-fig. 15. 



H.mi 




Bi'iiin of Sinifhio masaicus (ventral aspect), showing the principal branches 
of the arterial system. 

Axe): Anterior cerebral artery ; A.sp. Anterior spinal artery ; C. Cerebellar arteries ; 
Ca. Carotid arteries; M.cer. Middle cerebral artery; Op. Artery to optic lobe; 
Opth. Ophthalmic artery; P.cer. Posterior curebral artery. 



104 MR. F. E. liEBDARB UN THE [Feb. 7, 

handed over to the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
where will also be found some of the other brains described here. 

The basilar artery and the anterior spinal artery are qviite con- 
tinuous. The junction of the two appears to be marked by the 
exit of what I presume to be the homologue of the mammalian 
vertebral arteries. These arteries join the longitudinal vessel on 
either side in a rather remarkable way. The point of entrance is 
not lateral, but ventral and median, that of the left side entering 
posteriorly to the i-ight-hand vessel. These latter, moreover, give 
off a forwardly-running branch, which diminishes in calibre and 
effects a second junction with the basilar artery just at the point 
where the latter receives the right cerebellar artery ; this entrance 
into the basilar is also ventral and median. The minute details 
being perhaps individual are not shown in the figure. The a^iterior 
spinal ai'tery is double for a considerable distance behind the entry 
of the vertebral arteries ; the two tubes, however, reunite. Both 
the anterior spinals give off a large number of small trunks to the 
adjacent regions of the medulla and spinal cord. 

The cerebellar iivtevYQB (text-fig. 15, C, p. 103) are large and con- 
spicuous; the right-hand artery aiises in front of that of the left 
side ; this asymmetry, it will lie noticed, exactly corresponds to that 
of the vertebral arteries — i. e., the left vertebral artery, like the left 
cerebellar, is posterior to the right. Each cerebellar artery, before 
reaching the cerebellum, gives off a strong branch which forms the 
posterior spinal artery. Of these, at least four I'un side by side 
down the posterior face of the spinal cord, contrasting thus with 
the single or, at least only for a short space, double anterior spinal. 
The cerebellar arteries pass over the summit of the flocculus arid 
supply all parts of the cerebellum. This region of the brain is, 
however, also supplied from other sources, which will be dealt 
with in due course. 

The basilar artery divides into two just in front of the third 
nerves ; but the left-hand branch is much the larger, and indeed 
the right-hand branch might easily escape attention. 

The carotid arteries (text-fig. 15, Ca., p. 103) lie at the side of the 
pituitaiy body, and of course behind the optic nerves ; each artery 
divides into two branches. The posterior branch runs between 
the corpus bigeminum and the cerebellum, and receives immedi- 
ately after its origin the lasilar artery. It supplies both corpus 
bigeminum and cerebellum. The anterior branch curves round 
the optic chia&ma and ends in the ophthalmic artery (text-fig. 15, 
Opth.) of its own side : theie is thus no completed circle of Willis. 
This main anterior trunk of the carotid has three branches. 
The first runs between the corpus bigeminum and the cerebral 
hemisphere, and along the inter-hemispheral sulcus, giving off 
branches also to the cerebellum. The middle cerebral artery is 
rather larger than the posterior. It nuis along the depression 
which has been compared to the Sylvian fissure, giving off branches 
right and left. It bifurcates, just at the junction of the lower 
surface of the brain with the upper, into two main blanches, of 



1905,] ARTERIES OF THE BRAIN IN BIRDS. 105 

which the anterior bends inwards and gives off branches which 
anastomose with those of the anterior cerebral. The latter artery- 
is about equal in size to either the middle or the posterior cerebral, 
and arises along the circle of Willis some way in front of the 
middle cerebral. The two anterior cerebrals anastomose anteriorly 
in the middle ventral line of the brain. 

Dromceus 7iovce-hollandice. — A beautifully injected brain of this 
species shows some differences fi-om that of the Ostrich. 

The space enclosed by the anterior bifurcation of the spinal 
artery and the i-eunion of the vessels to form the basilar artery 
is somewhat more extensive than in Struthio. There is an 
asymmetry in the relations of the cerebellar arteries to the 
trunk of which they are branches ; but the asymmetry is dif- 
ferent. The spinal artery arises from or joins the right cerebellar, 
and both of the cerebellar arteries lie in front of the sixth pair of 
nerves, instead of one in front and one behind as in Struthio. The 
bifurcation of the basilar artery anterioi-ly is rather peculiar in 
the specimen before me. There is the usual asymmetry, but it is 
unusual in its character. Just behind the optic chiasma the 
basilar artery bends to the right side of the brain and becomes 
continuous with the carotid in the usual way. About halfway 
between the point where the basilar artery becomes deflected to 
the right and its bifurcation posteriorly to form the cerebellar 
arteries, an artery of one-half of the diameter of the basilar arises 
from it on the left, and after giving off branches to the medulla 
runs forward and becomes connected with the left carotid. 
Anteriorly the - carotids give off the usual arteries ; but their 
main stem is the middle cerebral artery, which passes along the 
Sylvian fissui'e. The ophthalmic artery arises at the root of this, 
and immediately afterwards, apparently almost by a common stem 
with the ophthalmic, the anterior cerebral. This artery divides on 
each side into two branches, fairly equisized, of which the inner 
supplies the olfactory bulbs, which are here large. It is as well 
developed as in Goura (desci-ibed below), and much more con- 
spicuous than the minute corresponding artery of Struthio. The 
outer bi'anch of the anterior cerebral again divides into two 
equisized branches, as is the case with Stru,thio. 

Ara hyacinthina (text-fig. 16, p. 106). — The anterior spinal artery 
is single throughoiit and slender, but shows no such great dispro- 
portion in calibre to the basilar artery such as is apparent, for 
example, in the Penguin, Spheniscus demersus, desciibed below. 
It is, however, rather more slender than the basilar artery. The 
two aiteries do not pass directly into each other ; for the anterior 
spinal opens into the left cerebellar artery, quite close, however, 
to its point of origin from the basilar artery. The cerebellar 
arteries, with the slight exception just mentioned, are symmetrical 
and arise behind the origin of the sixth pair of nerves. 

It is important to note that in this bird the basilar aitery is 



106 



MR. F. E. BEBDARD ON THE 



[Feb. 7, 



connected with both carotids, and thus the circle of Willis is com- 
Y-)leted posteriorly. Nevertheless there still remains an asymmetiy 
ill that the two posterior commvmicating arteries are of uneqiial 
size. The right artery, in fact, is more than twice the diameter 



Text-fig. 16. 




Brain of Ara htjacinth'ma (ventral aspect), showing the princiijal branches 
of the arterial system. 

Car. Carotids ; other lettering as in text-fig. 15. 

of the left. In both cases the postei'ior communicating artery 
gives off the artery to the optic lobe of its side before joining the 



1905.] ARTERIES OF THE BRAIN IN BIRDS. 107 

carotid. This arrangement contrasts with that to be observed in 
the Penguin, where the origin of the artery of the corpus bi- 
geminum is in front of the junction of the carotid artery with the 
circle of Willis. 

Each artery to the corpus bigeminum divides, first of all, into 
two principal branches, which do not, however, correspond exactly 
with the two branches of the same artery, for example, in Spheniscus 
(described below) ; for in Ara the anterior branch supplies both 
the median and anterior regions of its corpus bigeminum, and the 
general lie of the arteries is quite different, as will be seen on a 
comparison of text-figs. 16 (p. 106) & 18 (p. 110). Both branches 
are equisized and are symmeti'ical on the two sides of the brain. 
They run parallel with each other for a considerable distance after 
the origin of the main stem from the circle of Willis. The circle 
of "Willis has a more markedly triangular shape in this Macaw 
than in many birds ; and the transverse diameter of the triangle 
is gi-eater than its antero-posterior diameter. A comparison of 
text-figs. 16 (p. 106) & 20 (p. 115) will illustrate this peculiarity 
in the circle of Willis of A7'a. 

The middle cerebral arteries are the most important of the 
three cerebi-al arteries arising on each side. Each springs from a 
basal angle of the tiiangular circle of Willis. At the end of the 
" Sylvian fissure " each vessel splits into three or four trunks, of 
which that which bends inwards towards the middle ventral line 
cannot be said to form the main stem of the artery, any more than 
can the others. The posterior cerebral artery arises just behind 
the middle. The anteiior cerebral artery is a much more slender 
artery than either of the others, and it arises further away from 
the origin of the middle cerebral than is usual among birds, where 
the exti-eme opposite is shown in G//mnorhina, by the common 
origin of both anterior and middle cerebrals. 

S^rnmm aluco. — The most characteristic feature of the arteries 
in tliis bird is the mai-ked symmetry of their arrangement, which, 
as will have been and will be noted, is not by any means usual 
among birds. The posterior spinal aitery is only double for a 
shoi't distance. The cerebellar arteries aiise exactly opposite to 
each other and in front of the 6th nerve. The two branches of 
the basilar which form the posteiior communicating arteries are 
perfectly equal in size. The ophthalmic arteries form the anteiior 
termination on each side of the carotids ; they arise from the circle 
of Willis just opposite the middle cerebral arteries, which supply 
the whole of the fore part of the hemisphere ; there are no inde- 
pendent anterior cerebral ai-tei'ies. The broader and shorter 
cerebral hemispheres of Syrnmm are correlated with a somewhat 
different biunching of the middle cerebral arteries. Each ai-tery 
is curved in a semicircular fashion, and follows a transversely- 
i-unning forward branch of the Sylvian fissm-e, to end in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the olfactory lobes. Only one branch 
of imjiortance is given ofl' from the inner side of each semicircle 



108 MK. F. E. 13EDDARD ON THE [Feb. 7, 

thus formed. These are the rather strongly developed olfactory 
arteries, which meet but do not join in the median intracerebral 
fissure, along which they run towards the olfactory bulbs. 

The brain of Asio mexicanus shows no differences, except in the 
merest minutise. 

Text-fie-. 17. 




Braiu of Pelecanusfuscus (ventral asx^ect), showing the principal branches 
of the arterial system. 

Lettering as in text-fig. 15. 

Aquila verrecmxi. — The bi-ain of this bird shows the more general 
avian asymmetry in some of its arteries. Thus the anterior spinal, 
which is double for some distance, enters the left cerebellar artery 
instead of being dii^ectly continuous with the basilar trunk. The 
basilar artery, moreover, is connected with the light carotid only, 
or if with the left also l)y a quite minute ti'unk, which I have not 



1905. 1 ARTERIES OF THE BRAIN IN BIRDS. 109 

been able to see. The middle cerebral (Sylvian) ai'tery curves 
round on each side towards the middle line, but not with so 
marked a flexure as in the Owls. 

The brain of Falco lanarius differs in some few particulars from 
that of Aquila, but agrees in other points. The cerebellar arteries 
are not asymmetrical, but the basilar is, though its asymmetry is 
different. It communicates, in fact, chiefly if not entirely with 
the left carotid instead of the right. The main branch of the 
Sylvian shows the same flexure as that of Aquila. 

PelecamiiS fuscus (text-fig. 17, p. 108). — One marked feature of 
this brain is the absolutely unpaired character of the anteidor spinal 
artery, in the course of which I could detect no bifurcation and 
reunion. The cerebellar arteries arise behind the 6th nerve and 
ai'e slightly asymmetrical, the right being in advance of the left. 
The main peculiarity of these artei-ies is the fact that on the right 
side the posterior spinal artery does not arise as a branch of the 
cerebellar, but as a separate trunk from the basilar artery. On 
the left side the artery is not thus independent, but arises very 
early from the cerebellar. The main trunk of the basilar is con- 
tinued into the left side of the circle of Willis. The circle termi- 
nates on either side anteriorly in an unusual way. The ophthalmic 
arteries (text-fig. 17, Opth.) do not, as is the rule with birds, arise 
in front of the optic chiasma and form practically the anterior 
termination of the circle of Willis. They resemble those of 
mammals, in arising hetioeen the origins of the posterior and middle 
cerebral (Sylvian) arteries. The anterior cerebral artery divides 
on each side into two branches. On the left side the second, 
innermost, branch is the main trunk, and passes along the inter- 
hemispheral groove to the olfactory bulbs, which are very little 
marked. 

Spheniscios demersus (text -fig. 18, p. 110). — In this brain the an- 
terior spinal and the basilar arteries are nearly perfectly continuous, 
and the former is in no place double, as it so frequently is in other 
birds. The junction of the anterior spinal artery with the basilar 
is efiected through the right cerebellar artery, an asymmetry which 
is common in the avian brain. The basilar artery has a much 
greater calibre than the ensuing anterior spinal, quite three 
times as great. The anterior spinal also contrasts, by its 
slenderness, with the two stout cerebellar arteiies, each of which 
is considerably more than half the diameter of the parent basilar 
artery. The cerebellai' arteries arise from the basilar artery 
behind the point of origin of the sixth pair of cranial nerves. 
Anteriorly the basilar ai'tery bends to the left and becomes con- 
tinuous with the carotid ; there is no trace, that I could discover, 
of a bifurcation and a branch to the right carotid. From each 
half of the incompleted circle of Willis four principal arteries and 
one of minor importance arise, before the circle ends anteriorly in 



110 



MR. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE 



[Feb. 7, 



the ophthalmic arteries. The first of these is the artery to each 
optic lobe, which arises anteriorly to the junction between basilar 
and carotid. The artery, after arising from the carotid, divides 
at once into two ; these branches were of equal size on the left 
side of the brain, but the posterior of the two was much the larger 
on the right side of the brain. The two branches supply respec- 
tively the antei'ior and posterior face of each corpus' bigeminum. 

Text-fig-. 18. 




Brain of Spheniscus demersus (ventral aspect), showing the principal branches 
of the arterial system. 

Lettering as in text-fig. 15. 

The three following aiteries which arise from the carotid are the 
posterior, middle, and anterior cerebral. Just in front of the 
posterior cerebral is a smaller accessory trunk, which also supplies 
the cerebrum. The chief trunk of the middle cerebral arteiy 



1905.] ARTERIES OF THE BRAIX IK BIRDS. Ill 

bends inwards and runs in a course which is exactly parallel to 
the anterior cerebral artery. 

Gathartes atratus. — The brain arteries of this New- World 
Vulture difier from those of the Old-Woi-ld Falconidse described 
above in a variety of points. In the first place, the anterior 
spinal artery is single and joins the basilar with the merest trace 
of asymmetry Anteriorly the basilar divides into two branches, 
of which that going to the left carotid is rather the larger. 
Anteriorly, again, the carotid div^ides into the ophthalmic and tlie 
common trunk of the middle and anterior cei'ebrals. In Aquila 
and Fcdco the anterior cerebrals do not arise in this way, but 
separately and anteriorly from the ophthalmics, as is the case 
with many other birds also. The middle cerebrals do not curve 
round to meet each other towards the middle line, but run 
straight forward in a way much more characteristic of the 
Cranes. 

Psophia leuGoptera. — I have examined two brains of this species 
which show an absolute agreement in all characters of importance, 
and indeed only one point of difi'erence that I was able to detect. 
This concerns the junction of the anterior vertebral artery with 
the basilar at the point where the latter is formed by the con- 
vergence and union of the cerebellar arteries. One specimen was 
very nearly symmetrical in this region, the other less so. In the 
former, the anterior spinal artery communicates with the basilar 
only partly and indirectly by way of the left cerebellar. In the 
second specimen, the point of opening of the anterior spinal was also 
into the left cerebellar, but further away from the point of union 
of the two cerebellar arteries. Posteriorly, as in Anthropoides 
paradisea and some other birds, the anterior spinal artery is 
double. I only observed this in one specimen, but should not 
like to record it as a variation, since the apparent difference may 
be merely a question of deficient injection. In both specimens 
the circle of Willis is, as in so many other birds, asymmetrical. 
The basilar arteiy is, in fact, connected only with the right 
carotid, as is the case with Anthropoides paradisea. Just before 
joining it the basilar gives off the artery to the corpus bigeminum 
of its own side. The middle cerebral artery curves round, as in 
the Birds of Prey, towards the middle ventral line of the brain 
to the extremely rudimentary olfactory lobes, nearly meeting its 
fellow. In this feature Psophia distinctly differs from AiUhro- 
poides paradisea. The anterior cerebral arteries arise about 
halfway between the origin of the middle cerebrals and the middle 
line of the brain. They are slender and not conspicuous. 

Tantalus ibis, — The brain of this bird (text-fig. 19, p. 112) which 
I examined is particularly well injected, and shows apparently all 
the small arteries as well as the larger ones. The anterior spinal 
artery (text-fig. \^,A.sp.) is double for a portion of its course, but 



112 



MK. F. E. BEDDARD ON THE 



[Feb. 7, 



only for a short portion, and the two arteries reunite a con- 
siderable distance behind the junction of the cerebellar arteries 
to form the basilar. The anterior spinal arteiy is at its point 
of union with these arteries slightly asymmetrical. In fact it 
joins the right cerebellar arteiy, though only just before the 
union of the latter with the left. The two cerebellar arteries 
are themselves symmeti'ical with regard to the ventral median 
line of the brain ; the right-hand one, at any I'ate, lies in front 

Text-fi^. 19. 




M.ceA 



Brain of Tantalus ibis (ventral aspect), sliowing the principal branches of the 
arterial system. 

Lettering as in text-fig. In. 



of the 6th nerve. I could not detect the nerve on the other side 
of the brain. The cerebellar artery divides into the two usual 
branches. That which supplies the medulla is connected with a 
coarse network of arteries on the upper surface of that part of the 
brain which puts the artery into communication with its fellow 
on the opposite side of the brain. The basilar ai-tery gives off' a 



190o.] ARTERIES OF THE lUlAIX IX BIRDS. 113 

branch on the right side to form or join the circle of Willis ; on the 
opposite side is a very slender equivalent artery. The ophthalmic 
(text-fig. 19, Opth.^ p. 112) arises from the circle of Willis in a way 
which is found in some other birds, but not in all. Each artery 
arises from the circle of Willis before the latter gives ofi' the middle 
cerebral artery. The anterior cerebral is therefore quite indepen- 
dent of the ophthalmic artery, instead of being a branch of it as it 
is, for example, in the Ostrich. Tantalus agrees more neatly with 
Pelecanus than with some other birds in the disposition of these 
arteries. The middle cerebral artery gives ofii" as usual a large 
series of branches, but there is not an especially conspicuous one 
curving round towards the middle ventral line of the brain as in 
so many birds. This region of the brain is, in fact, supplied by 
the anterior cerebral arteiy (text-fig. 19, A.cer^i. Tliis artery has 
two chief branches : the one runs forward towards the olfactory 
lobes ; the other runs along the groove lying in front of the optic 
chiasma and nearly meets its fellow of the opposite side. The 
position occupied by this artery is, in fact, exactly that which is 
often occupied by the ophthalmic arteries in other birds. It is 
remarkable that in the Ostrich (text-fig. 15, p. 103) the ophthalmic 
does occupy this position, and that, furtlier, an artery arises from 
the circle of Willis exactly in the position of the ophthalmic artery 
in Tantalus, and runs to tlie optic nerve on either side. This 
artery lies above the ophthalmic, and is shown on the right side 
only in the figure (text fig. 15, p. 103). 

Anthropoides paradisea. — In this Crane I have been able to 
study the brain arteries in considerable detail ; the injection had 
been very successful. The anterior spinal artery shows the veiy 
usual bifurcation and reunion before uniting with the cerebellar 
arteries to form the basilar. The reunion takes place some little 
way behind the entrance of the anterior spinal artery into the 
right cerebellar artery. This union, it will be observed, is, as in 
so many other bii'ds, the cause of an asymmetry in this region of 
the vascular system of the brain. The basilar artery gives off in 
its course two pairs of quite symmetrically di~ijiosed arteries to 
the medulla. The basilar artery itself ordy supplies the right side 
of the circle of Willis. 

Cariama cristaia. — The anterior spinal artery in Cariama is, as 
is usual among birds, unsymmetrical with regard to the basilar 
artery ; it is not in the same straight line with it, but joins the right 
cerebellar. Towards the end of the medulla the anterior sj)inal 
is double, the right-hand half being, however, the more important. 
The calibre of the anterior spinal is less than that of the basilar 
artery, but the difference is not so great as in some birds, for 
example the Penguin. The basilar arteiy does not bifurcate 
anteriorly, but joins the right side of the cu'cle of Willis only ; 
just before joining it emits the artery to the right optic lobe. 
The cerebellar arteries — at any rate that of the left side — arise in 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. No. YJII. 8 



1 1 4 Mn. F. E. BKDBARD OX THE [Feb. 7, 

fx'ont of tlie sixtli nerves. The arteries of the corpora bigemina 
are neai-ly symmetrical with each other ; each divides into two 
branches just before reaching its corpus bigeminum. Of tliese 
branches the anterior is the smaller. There is nothing specially 
noteworthy to record concerning the cerebral arteries. 

Goura coronata. — In this bird the two vertebral arteries reach 
the brain just behind the medulla ; before passing forward 
they give ofi", as in the case of many mammals (as, for instance, 
Man), a very delicate anterior spinal artery, thereby contrasting 
Avith many birds, where the anterior spinal is of as great a 
calibre as the basilar artery. The vertebrals then run forwarr's 
separately, and unite to form the basilar artery well behind the 
origin of the cerebellar arteries. The latter arise much f ui-ther 
forwards than in the Ostrich (described above, p. 103). Further- 
more, the branch of this artery which runs backward along the 
lateral aspect of the medulla diffei's from that of the Ostrich in its 
relation to the adjacent nerve ; moreover, the main continuation 
of the artery to the cerebellum has also a diffei^ent relation to 
adjacent nerves. A final difierence in the arterial system of this 
region of the bi-ain is that, while in the Ostrich the main branch 
of the cerebellar artery passes over the flocculus and is distinctly 
the most important artery of the cerebellum, in Goura the artery 
which follows the same coiu'se is not derived from the posterior 
cerebellar, but from an anterior cerebellar arising fi-om the basilar 
artery further forwards, and which is of the same calibre as the 
posterior cerebellar. This artery exists in the Ostrich, but is not 
nearly so large as the posterior cerebellar. The posterior cere- 
bellars, it should be observed, arise symmetrically from the basilar ; 
the left anterior cei-ebellar arises in advance of the right anterior 
cerebellar. As in the Ostrich, the left posterior communicating 
artery is much the stronger. The anterioily situated cerebral 
arteries have a curiously asynmietrical and compensative ar- 
rangement. As in other birds, the carotids curve round and 
each ends in the ophthalmic artery. The main cerebral arteries 
are three in number. The first two of these are exactly as in 
Struthio, lying respectively between the cei-ebrum and the corpus 
bigeminum and along the Sylvian fissure. The third artery, 
however, consists of two branches, of which the more important 
approaches its fellow of the opposite side and runs mesially 
forward to the olfactory lobes ; the branch running forwards and 
supplying the under surface of the hemisphere to the side of this 
is less important. In Struthio the precise reverse is the case. 
Moreover, this branch, lying to the side of the olfactory branch of 
the anterior cerebi-al artery, is only well developed on the right 
side ; it exists on the left side, but is functionally replaced on 
that side by a branch of the middle cerebral artery. This branch 
is present on the right side but very small. 

Gymnorhina lencouota. — There are a number of features (see 



1905.] 



ARTERIES OF THE BRAIX IX BlUrs. 



115 



text-fig. 20) in which the encephalic arterial system of this bird 
difters from that of other birds. The anterior spinal is double for 
a considerable distance behind the origin of the cerebellar arteries ; 
but I am unable to be precise as to the extent of this double region. 
The anterior spinal artery is not exactly in the same straight line 
with the basilar artery, but joins directly the left cerebellar artery. 
There is thus, as is so often the case, an asymmetry in the cere- 
bellar arteries ; but the most remarkable peculiarity concerning 
these arteries is that they rise very near to the circle of Willis, 
and therefore well in front of the origin of the sixth pair of 
nerves. 

Text-fig-. 20. 




Brain of Gymnorliina leuconuta (ventral aspect), showing the principal branches 
of the arterial system. 

Lettering as in text-fig. 15. 

The basilar artery joins the right side of the circle of Willis 
only. ^ The latter is more elongated in an antero-posterior direction 
than it is in many birds. 

The posterior cerebral artery among birds usually hides itself 

8* 



116 MU. F. E. BEDBARD ON THE [Feb. 7, 

deep down in the cleft between tlie corpus bigeminum and the 
cerebrum. In Gymnorhina the conditions are rather different. 
The artery in question at least mainly supplies the corpus 
bigeminum of its side, and can be seen I'unning over the anterior 
face of that division of the brain. Another ixnusual chai-acteristic 
shown in the brain is the origin from a common stem of both the 
middle and anterior cerebral arteries. The latter, as will be seen 
from the drawing, are particularly small. The middle cerebral 
arteries have thi'ee main branches ; but it is possible that the 
innermost bi-anch is to be looked upon as the trvie anterior cerebral 
artery, since its distribution agrees very closely with a separately 
arising artery in many birds (see text-figs. 16, 18, A.cer.^ pp. 106 
& 110), which I have ventured to call anterior cerebral. 

§ General Account of the Cerebral Arterial System in Ai^es. 

From the details set forth in the preceding descriptions of 
various types of birds' brains, it is possible to extract a geneiTtl 
accoimt of the artei^ies as characterising birds. 

The circle of Willis is never fully complete ; it is invariably in- 
complete anteriorly, there being no anterior communicating artery 
as in mammals ; posteriorly the asymmetrical disposition of the 
basilar artery usually (but not always) fails to bring abovit a 
direct union between the two carotids. 

The t%oo Carotids are invariably both present and are posterior 
in position, never entering the imperfect circle of Willis towards 
the middle of its course. They are also perfectly symmetrical 
Avith each other and equisized. They lie behind the last cerebral 
artery, and not, as in mammals, between the mitldle and the 
posterior cerebral artery. They are alone concerned wdth the 
circulation in the brain, the vertebral arteries being unimportant. 

The Ophthalmic arteries are always large and symmetrical, and 
their position varies slightly, arising as they do either behind 
the origin of the middle and anterior cerebrals or in common with 
the latter. In the former case, the point of origin of the 
ophthalmic arteries resembles that of the Mammalia. In the 
latter, which is the more usual, the condition is typical of birds 
as opposed to mammals. They are never small and inconspicuolis 
as is the case in some mammals. 

There are invariably three pairs of Cerebral arteries, of wdiich 
the anterior is distinctly less important than the middle and the 
posterior, and its supply of blood to the hemispheres is limited to 
the anterior and inferior regions of the hemispheres and to the 
rudimentary olfactory lobes. The cerebral ai'teries are the only 
arteries snpplj^ing the brain wdiich arise from the circle of Willis. 
The intercerebral region is not supplied, as in mammals, by the 
anterior cerebral artery, but by the middle and posterior. 

There is one pi-incipal Cerebellar artery on each side, arising 
from the basilar artery where the latter becomes continuous wdth 
the anterior spinal artery nt about the middle of the medulla, and 



1905.] ARTERIES OF THE BRAIN IN BIRDS. 117 

as a rule, but not always, in front of the sixth nerves. The 
position of these arteries is nearly exactly that of the middle 
cerebellar arteries in Mammalia. Each cerebellar artery emits 
a considei'able branch to the dorsal side of the spinal cord before 
passing, as it almost always (if not quite always) appears to do, 
over the flocculus. The cerebellum is also supplied with blood 
by a branch of the ai'teiy supplying the corpoi-a bigemina and by a 
branch of the posteiior cei'ebral artery. 

The Basilar artery is short in extent, and is as a rule connected 
with only one carotid, either right or left, though sometimes with 
both. This asymmetrical condition of the basilar artery is very 
rarely to be seen in Mammals, but it is cpiite characteristic of 
Birds. 

The following synopsis shows the connection of the basilar 
artery with the circle of Willis in the types examined : — 

Basilar artery bifurcate anteriorly, completing circle of Willis 
posteriorly. 

a. Branches equal or subequal : Syrnium, Asio. 

h. Left-hand branch larger : Struthio, Cathartes, Goura. 

c. Right-hand branch larger : Droviceus^ Ara, Tantalus. 

Basilar artery connected with right side only of circle of Willis : 
Aquila, Psoiyhia, Anthropoides, Ca7'iama, Gymiiorhina. 

Basilar artery connected with left side oidy of circle of Willis : 
Falco, Pelecanus, Sjjheuiscas. 

I am unwilling to comment at length upon these facts since 
they are but few. They allow, however, of some obvious reflections 
and some generalisations which can hardly be reversed by subse- 
quent discovery. On the assumption (which seems to be reason- 
able) that the complete and equal division of the basilar artery 
anteriorly to join both carotids i^ primitive, it seems certain that 
the production of an asymmetry due to the shrinking or complete 
suppression of one branch has proceeded along several distinct 
lines, quite irrespective of such relationships as other anatomical 
characters allow us to surmise. That Aquila and Falco fall into 
different categories is sufficient proof of this. On the other hand, 
the fact must not be lost sight of that the Crane-like birds 
(viz., Psophia, Cariama, scnA Anthropoides) have apparently followed 
the same path of modification. 

It is furthermore interesting to note that the Striges are unlike 
the Falcones, and that Cathartes is unlike either. 



118 TME SECRETARY ON ADDITIOXS TO THE MENAGERIE. [Feb. 21, 

February 21, 1905. 
Howard Saunbers, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chaii'. 

The Secretary read the following repoit on the additions that 
liad been made to the Society's Menagerie in January 1905 : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of January were 70 in number. Of these 24 were acquired 
by presentation, 3 by purchase, 31 were received on deposit, and 
12 by exchange. The total number of departures during the 
B^me period, by death and removals, was 158. 

Amongst the additions special attention mny be directed to the 
following : — 

1 A Red Teetee (CaUlthrix cuprea) from Brazil, deposited ou 
Jan. 18th. This species is new to the Collection. 

2. Representatives of two unknown species of Lemur from 
Madagascar, deposited on Jan. 25th. ' 

3. A pair of Mouflon {Ovis mushnon) from Corsica, deposited 
on Jan. 21st. 

4. A Prongbuck {Antiloccvpra americana) from North America, 
deposited on Jan. 14th. 

5. An Ethiopian Warfc-Hog {Fhacocherus ciithw2ncus) from 
Africa, deposited on Jan. 13th. 

6. Two Black-and- White Geese {Anseranas semijxdinata) from 
Australia, received in exchange on Jan. 23rd. 



Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S., exhibited on behalf of Mr. Rowland 
Ward, F.Z.S., a mounted specimen of the Blackbuck {Antilope 
cervicajn-a) shot by the Crown Prince of Bhopal in Sept. 1904. 
The animal was remarkable for the extent and depth of the dark 
coloration, which not only covered the body but the whole of the 
face, obliterating the usual white eye-patches. No such case Avas 
mentioned by Mr. Lydekker in. his 'Great and Small Game of 
India,' and the skin was by far the darkest which had passed 
through Mr. Ward's hands. The horns measured' 243" in length, 
with a circumference of 5|" at the base. 



Mr. R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S., exhibited some specimens of the South- 
African Millipede {Spirosirepfus pi/rocephalus), presented by 
Mr. Guthrie, of Port Elizabeth, to the Society's Gardens. These 
Millipedes had bred in the Gardens. 



Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., read a paper entitled " A Con- 
tribution to our Knowledge of the Varieties of Lacerta muralis 
in Western Europe and North Africa." 

This paper will be published entire in the Society's ' Transactions.' 



The following papers were read : — 



-p.Z.S.MOS.vol.I.Pl. XI. 




WWW 



:^ 



Lt^^' 







MinterrL Bros imp. 

GIRAYFA CAMELOPARDALIS TLPPELSKIRCHI . 
(lrmTicuUvc& ferrux^) 



P.Z.S. 1905, vol.I.PI. XII. 



"•'' -^^S -j*^ 







7 




J. Sa-iib del.eblibK 



Tylintern Bros, imp 



Fiqs 1 2 HEAD AT^DTTECKOF GIRAPFA CA-MELOPARDALIS PERALTA. 
Fx3,3.BAGKVIEW0EHEAD OF G.C. COTTOTTI . 



1905.] ON THE XIGERIAN AND KILIMAXJARO GIRAFFES, 119 

1. On tbo Nigerian and Kilimanjaro Giraffes. 
By R. Lydekkkr. 

[Received January 7, 1905.] 
(Plates XI. & XII.*) 

Since the appearance in last year's ' Proceedings ' t of my paper 
on the subspecies of Giraffa ca7nelo2)ardalis, the Biitish (Natural 
History) Museum has received the skins and portions of the 
skeletons of two Girafles belonging to forms hitherto insufficiently 
represented in the collection. The descriptions and figures of 
these two specimens will serve to complete the aforesaid paper, so 
far as anything connected with the zoology of mammals can be 
said to be complete. 

The first specimen comprises the skin, skull, and limb-bones of 
an adult bull of the Nigerian, or western, race of the Giraffe 
{Giraffa camelopardalis pe7~alta), shot by Captain G. B. Gosling 
in Nigeria, and presented by that gentleman to the Museum, 
The head and neck have been mounted, and form the subject of 
PI. XII. figs. 1 (& 2. The second specimen is a female (apparently 
not full-grown) of the Kilimanjaro Giraffe {G. c. tip'pelskirchi)^ 
presented by Mr. T. F. Victor Buxton, by whom the animal was 
killed in British East Africa last year. Of the former i-ace, the 
only example hitherto known is the type female, of which the skull 
and limb-bones were alone preserved ; while of the second no 
coloured figure has, so far as I am aware, been hitherto published. 

Captain Gosling's specimen, which is that of a fully adult, 
although not a very old, animal, serves to show that the Nigerian 
Giraffe belongs to the northern, or typical, group of the species — • 
that is to say, the one in which the bulls have a large median 
horn, and the legs in both sexes are white, or nearly so. When 
describing the skeleton of the type female, Mr. Tiiomas + was 
of opinion that the lengths of the skull and of the hind cannon- 
bone indicated an unusually large form of Giraffe. This, how- 
ever, is not borne out by the corresponding bones of the male. 
The skull of the latter is, for example, not very markedly larger 
than that of a Nubian or Kordofan Giraffe of the same approxi- 
mate age. As regards the hind cannon-bone, this element in 
Captain Gosling's specimen is pi-actically the same length as in 
the type female skeleton ; and both these bones are scarcely 
longer than the corresponding bone in the mounted skeleton of a 
male Nubian Giraffe from Abyssinia in the British Museum. All 
that the Nigeria.n specimens seem to show in this respect is that 
the skull and the cannon-bone have the same respective lengths 
in both sexes. Whether this holds good for other races of the 
species, I have no means of determining. 

* For explanation of the Plates, see p. 121. 

t Proc. Zool. Soc. LondoH) 1904, i. p. 203 et seq. 

X Ibid. 1898, p. 40. 



120 MR. R. LYDEKKER ON THE [Feb. 21, 

The skull shows no very marked diflerence from that of the 
Nubian Giraffe, with w^hich it agi'ees in the comparatively 
slight development of the rudimentary occipital horns. The 
main horns are somewhat smaller and more slender, and the 
I'idge between them is perhaps somewhat less elevated ; while the 
anterior horn is remarkable for the great length and rugosity of 
its base. Whether these features ai'e of any importance can only 
be determined when other specimens are available. All that can 
be said at present is that the skull of the Nigerian race is 
certainly somewhat longer and more slender than that of the 
typical Nubian foi'm. 

As regards coloiution, the most striking feature of the Nigerian 
Gii'afie is its exti-eme paleness — this being very markedly shown 
in the head and neck (PI. XII. figs. 1, 2). This paleness is indeed 
much more marked than in even immature bulls of the Nubian race. 
The whole head may, in fact, be said to be whitish, i-elieved only 
by some pale fawn spots on the side of the face below the line of 
the eye, and by a dash of still paler (sandj^) fawn on the forehead 
and the middle line of the face, Tw^o irregular blotches of darker 
fawn immediately behind each nosti-il are very conspicuous ; they 
occur indeed in the Nubian Giiafte, but in that form they agree 
in colour with, and ai'e joined to, the darker fawn of the middle 
line of the face. 

The Pale-faced, or White-faced, Giraffe would be an excellent 
distinctive name for this race, were we at liberty to ignore the 
term peralta, which, I fear, is somewhat misleading. 

On the neck the blotches are of a somewhat darker fawn on a 
Avhity-brown ground. These blotches are very large, few in 
number, and separated by very wide interspaces, so that the 
coloration can scarcely be described as of the " netted " type. In 
shape the blotches are irregular and much elongated, and at 
their edges they shade off almost imperce23tib]y into the ground- 
colour. They are quite different in size and disposition from 
those of the Nubian Gri'affe. 

The occipital region (PI. XII. fig, 1) is white, with a very 
few large spots ; and below" the eai's is a very large fawn blotch 
covering an area which in the Nubian Giraffe is wdiite, and in all 
other Girafles (PI. XII. fig. 2) is marked with small spots. 

As regards the body-skin, it may be mentioned that the spots 
on the back are pale chestnut-brow- n, with trefoil-shaped dark 
bi'own centres. Towards the hind-quarters the colour of the 
spots gradually lightens, and on the hind-limbs it becomes very 
pale fawn. The spots on the back are darkei- than in the male of 
G. c. typioa figured in the Proc. Zool. Soc, for 1904, vol. i. pi. ix., 
but such a difference may be due mainly or entirely to the 
immaturity of the latter. A constant distinction between the 
two forms would appear to be the much greater number of the 
spots on the back and flanks of peralia, these spots becoming 
much broken up on the thighs. The spots are divided by a light 
network, of >\hich the strands ai-e much broadei' on the foie than 



1905.] NIGERIAN ANB KILIMAXJARO GIRAFFES. 121 

on tlie liind-quai'ters. On the liind-quarters the colour of the 
network is whity brown, but it darkens anteriorly. 

The Nigerian Giraffe is evidently nearly allied to the Nubian 
G. c. typica, from which it is readily distinguished by its generally 
paler colour (especially on the head) and its more numei'ous and 
differently arranged spots. 

The distinctness of this veiy pale-coloured Giraffe from all other 
representatives of the group is thus sufficiently apparent. The 
contrast is most marked between this race (in which it may be 
presumed the two sexes ai'e approximately the same colour) and 
the Baringo Giiuffe {G, c. rothschildi) or " Black Giraffe," in which 
the bulls are extremely dark. It would be interesting to know if 
the countries respectively inhabited by these two races present 
features which would generally accord with these two very 
distinct types of coloration. 

The female of the Kilimanjaro Giraffe {G. c. tijjpelskirchi, 
PI. XI.) requires little or nothing in the Avay of description, the 
Plate " speaking for itself." The specimen exhibits all the 
characteristic features of the typical tippelskirchi, as represented 
in Proc. Zool. fSoc. 1904, i. p. 214, fig. 28. The spots on the body 
are of the characteristic jagged type, with the intervening network 
pattern very narrow. On the neck the spots ai-e of considerable 
size, with wide intervals between ; but they decrease in size and 
become more approximated on the body, and on the limbs they are 
veiy numerous. They cover nearly the Avhole of the inner surface 
of the thighs and both sides of the limbs as far down as the fetlocks. 
On the lower part of the legs the ground-colour is olive- fawn, but 
on the upper part-of the fore legs and shoulders it passes into whity 
brown ; while on the last few inches of the neck and the whole of 
the sides of the face the ground-colouir is white. The spots on 
the sides of the head are blackish brown, but they are elsewhere 
some shade of brown-fawn, dai-kest on the back and gra.diially 
paling on the legs. They nowhei'e show dark centres. There is 
no trace of a third horn, but this is probably merely a character- 
istic of the female. 

Mr. Buxton's specimen emphasises the marked distinctness of 
the Kilimanjai'O Giraffe from all the other races of the species. 
This race is indeed the most beautiful of all the Giraffes, and 
is especially characterised by the fulness of its spotting. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate XL 

Female Kiliruaiijaro Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tiJ^pe!skircJli), from the 
specimen presented to the British Museum by Mr. T. F. Victor Buxton. 

Plate XIL 

Fig. 1. Head and neck of male Nigenan Giraffe {Giraffa camelopardalis peralta), 
from the specimen presented to the British Museum by Captain Gosling. 

2. Occipital view of head of same. 

3. „ ,, „ Giraffa camelopardalis cottoni. 



122 MR. R. LYDEKKER ON [Feb. 21, 

2. On Dolphins from Tiaviincore. By I\. Lydekker. 

[Received December 30, 1901.] 
(Plate XIII.*) 

For some yeai's past all specimens of Dolphins stranded on the 
shore or caught by the fishei-men in their nets in the neighbourhood 
of Trevandrum, Travancore, have been collected and preserved by 
the officials of the Trevandrum Museum. This excellent work was 
begun by the late Director, Mr. Harold Ferguson, and, I ain glad 
to say, is being continued by his successor, Major F. W. Dawson. 
In most cases careful measurements have been taken of the 
specimens in the flesh, whi]e excellent coloured sketches have been 
made of the more important examples by Mr. C. S. Mudalear. 
After the completion of the measurements and drawings, the 
skeletons have been prepared — some of them, I am glad to say, 
having been presented to the British Museum. 

As the result of the diawings and specimens sent to me by 
Ml-. Ferguson, I have (in addition to representatives of other 
genera) been enabled to determine two apparently distinct species 
of the genus Tursiops, of both of which coloured figures have 
been published in the ' Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Society 't. To the one I gave the name T.fergusoni ; while the 
second I identified provisionally with the Austrahan T. caialcmia. 

Since the publication of the second of the papers just referred 
to, I have received from Trevandrum sketches of two other 
Dolphins taken off;' that coast. The first of these (Plate XIII. 
fig. 1) is one of a pair taken in the autumn of 1903; while 
the second (Plate XIII. fig. 2) was captured in October 1904. 
Curiously enough, both appear to belong to the genus Tursiops ; 
and, what is more curious still, they are unhke either of the two 
specimens figured in the papers referred to above. 

Regarding the specimen taken in 1903, Mr. Ferguson wrote to 
me as follows : — 

" I sent off last week a case containing the skeletons of two 
Dolphins caught here lately. They are of the same species, and 
I think of the genus Tttrsiops. They are very closely allied to, if 
not identical with, T. catalania ; but they have no blotches at the 
vsides, and they have a dark blue band running from the eye to 
the front of the adipose elevation, as in the common Dolphin. 
This band is much less conspicuous in the larger and older 
specimen, and may possibly disappear altogether with age. I send 
measurements of the two specimens, and a sketch of the larger 
one, in which the blue line is only faintly shown." 

* For explanation of the Plate, see p. 128. 

t Vol. XV. pp. 41 & 408, pis. I> & C. It may be noticed that in the second of 
llies-e papers no references are made to the tirst ; this is owing to the fact that copies 
of the former had not been received in England at the time the latter was written. 




o 
o 

i 



I 

w 
o 



1905.] DOLPHINS FROM TRAVANCOEB. 123 

The following is the description of these specimens as given by- 
Mr. Ferguson : — 

Descriptive notes on two Cetaceans caught at Villinjam in 

nets by fishermen on October 15th, 1903, and obtained 

by purchase. 

Smcdlei' specwien. 

ft. in. 

Length from tip of snout to the median cleft 

on the tail-flukes 5 10 

From tip of snout to origin of doisal fin 2 8 

„ ,, pectoral fin 1 6 

,, „ genitals 3 10 

,, ,, anus 4 3 

Anterior margin of pectoral fin along the cui'\e . 1 2 

,, ,, dorsal 1 

Tail-flukes along the curve 1 Og 

Expanse of tail 1 6 

Beak from gi'oove which sepaiutes the forehead 5^ 

Genital groove 1 , , , i (0 4.4 

Anus I close together | ^^ q| 

Length of mouth from gape 104 

Greatest bi-eadth 11 

height 11| 

,, circumference 3 1 

Smallest circumf ei'ence, at root of tail 8| 

Height of dorsal fin 7^ 

Length of dorsal fin at base 94 

Lower jaw about half an inch longer than upper. Colour dark 

plumbeous, paler about the sides, reddish ashy below. A dark 

blue band running from the eye to the front of the adipose 

elevation on both sides, one inch bi-oad at the eye, tapei'ing to a 

quarter of an inch at the front. Genital and anal regions fleshy 

pink. Jellyfish in stomach. 

2\ 24 

Teeth -,. and — = 49 and 50. 
2a 26 

Ribs 12 pairs, of which the fii'st four pairs are two-headed. 
One ossified presternum and two mesostei-na ; xiphisternum 
membranous. 

A'ertebr*: C. 7, 1). 12, L. 16, Ca. 23 = 58. 

Pterygoids not in contact. 

Larger s2Jecimen. 

ft. in. 
Length from tip of snout to the median cleft 

on the tail-flukes 6 8 

From tip of snout to origin of dorsal fin 3 

,, ,, pectoral fin 1 8 

,, ,, genitals 3 94 

anus 4 7 



124 MR. R. LYBEKKER ON [Feb. 21, 

ft. in. 

Anterior margin of pectoral fin along the curve. 1 3 

„ ,, dorsal 1 34 

Tail- flukes along the curve 1 3 

Expanse of tail 1 7| 

Beak fi'om groove which separates the forehead 5 

Genital groove 5 

Anal opening 1-j 

Gape of mouth 11 

Greatest breadth 1 Oj 

„ height 1 Oi 

„ circumference 3 2| 

Smallest circumference 10 

Height of dorsal fin 8^ 

Length of dorsal fin at base 1 

Greatest circumfei'ence lOg 

Smallest circumference 6| 

Lower jaw about half an inch longer than upper. Colour blue- 
black, paler at the sides ; beneath fleshy grey. Lower jaw dull 
grey ; a dark blue band, same as the smaller specimen, but less 
clear. Genital and anal regions fleshy pink. 

Teeth ^ and f^ = 55 and 53. 

Zo Zl 

Vertebras: 0. 7, D. 12, L. 16, Ca. 23 = 58. 
Ribs 12, of which five are two-headed. 
Pterygoids not in contact. 

The following are the particulars of the 1 904 specimen sujiplied 
to me from the Trevandi'um Museum : — 

ft. in. 

Extreme length 6 1 

From tip of beak to origin of dorsal fin 2 7^ 

„ „ ,, flipper 1 5 

„ „ anal opening 4 3 

Length of flipper round the outer curve 1 2 

,, dorsal fin 1 1 

Expanse of tail-flukes 1 4| 

Greatest height, including dorsal fin 1 6| 

Height of body 1 

Greatest gii'th 3 3 

Smallest girth 9 

Lower jaw somewhat protruding. 

Colour. Upper surface, flippers, and sides of tail glistening 
dark brown, abruptly passing into dull silvery grey (paling into 
light sea-green after skinning) on the sides ; facial region paler ; 
under side dull pearly white, extending to a little behind the anal 
opening; orbits in a dark brown oval blotch, which gradually 
fuses into a tapering band running above and pai'allel to the basi- 
rostral groove and uniting at the angle of the (V-shaped) prenarial 
adipose elevation, from wliich four dark faint lines diverge towards 



1905. J DOLPniXS FROM TRAVANCORE. 125 

the forehead, the inner enclosing a pale lajopet-shaped zone which 
inclndes the narial apei'ture, and the outer becoming obsolete 
halfway up. 

Eyes dai'k reddish brown. 

Lower jaw lighter than upper. 

Lips dull whitish. Fins falcate. 

Length of skull 16-3 inches; breadth 7-6 inches. Symphysis 
much shorter than one-fourth total length of mandible. 

27 27 

Teeth ^ and -y^. = 54 and 53. Simple, conical, and pointed, 

more or less compressed towards the root ; antero-posterior dia- 
meter 6*5 mm. Two teeth in the premaxillge, and the first two 
mandibular ones, which were concealed in the gum, much smaller 
(diameter 2 mm.). 

In spite of its being a somewhat immature specimen ajjparently 
referable to the genus Tursiops, which it resembles in many 
respects, the pterygoids are widely separated in the middle line, 
with the posterior border divergent. 

Yertebrfe: 0. 7, D. 13, L. 15, Ca. 25 = 60. 

The atlas and axis only fused together. 

Ribs 13, the first four two-headed. 

Other characters as in T.fergiLsoni. 

From the general chai-acters of the specimei-i, the number and 
size of the teeth, the vertebral formula, and the relative shortness 
of the mandibular symphysis, I cannot but conclude that its 
reference to Tursiops is correct. It is true that in the divergence 
of the pterygoids it dififers from the typical T. tursio ; but 
since the same feature occurs in the specimen identified with 
T. catalania, this aflfords no grounds for generic separation. 

In the following table are given the dental and vei'tebral 
formulae of the Dolphins assigned to the genus Tursiojis, inclusive 
of the present specimens : — 

1. Tursiops tuo'sio (Fabricius). 

Teeth || = 44. 

Vertebra;: C. 7, D. 13, L. 17, Ca. 27 - 04. 
Pterygoids in contact. 

2. Tursiops abusalmn (Riippell). 

Teeth :S = 52. 

Yertebrfe : C. 7, D. 12, L. 16, Ca. 2G ^ 01. 
Pterj^goids (?) in contact. 

3. Tursiops sp. (Trevandrum, 1904.) 

Teeth ^ and ^g = 54 and 53. 

Yertebrse: 0. 7, D. 13, L. 15, Ca. 25 = 60. 
Ptei-ygoids divergent. 



126 MR. R. LYBEKKER OX [Feb. 21, 

4. Ttirsiops ferg'asoni Lydekker. 

Teeth ^^ and ^ = 50 and 51. 

Yertebi: C. 7, D. 13, L. 17, Ca. 24 = 61. 

Pterygoids divergent. 

5. Tursiops catalania (Gi-ay). 

Teeth U = 50. 

Yertebr^e: 0. 7, D. 12, L. 15, Ca. 24 = 58. 

Pterygoids divergent (?). 

6. Tarsiops parvimcmus Liitken. 

Teeth f^ = 49. 
Yertebrfe = 62. 

7. Tursiops gilli Dall. 

Teeth z^^ and g = 44 and 45. 
Yertebrfe (?). 

8. Tvrsiojys sp. (Trevandrum, 1903.) 

Teeth ^ and ?^ = 55 and 53, cr (in young) o- and ^ 

= 49 and 50. 
Yertebrfe: C. 7, D. 12, L. 16, Ca. 23 = 58. 
Pterygoids divergent. 

In this table no. 3 is the specimen figured in Plate XIII. fig. 2, 
and no. 8 the one shown in Plate XIII. fig. 1. 

As regards the former, it will be seen that, both in respect of the 
dental and the vertebral formula, it comes nearer to T. abuscdam of 
the Red Sea than to any of the others ; and indeed it would take 
very little (the loss of one tooth a side, which occurs in one instance, 
the transference of a dorsal vertebra to the lumbar seiies, and the 
addition of a caudal vertebra) to make the two identical in these 
respects. On the other hand, T. ahusalmn is said to have the 
pterygoids in contact, or, at all events, it is not stated to ditier in 
this respect from T. tursio, but I do not attach much importance 

to this. 

The colouring of the type, and apparently only known, specimen 
of T. abuscdam is given as follows in the original description :— 
" Upper surface of the head and body, the tail and fins, dark sea- 
green. Margin of the upper lip, and entire under surface of the 
body to the anus whitish fiesh-colour ; belly with small, irregularly 
distributed, dark green spots. Iris dark green." 

With the exception that there appears to be no white margui 
to the upper lip in the Indian specimen, this description accords well 
with the general colour of the former (especially when dried). 
On the other hand, the Indian specimen shows no spots on_ the 
belly (which may be a character of immaturity), and the iris is 
described as brown instead of green. In point of size (that 
is to say, in being smaller than T. tursio) the two agree sufficiently 



1905.] DOLPHIN'S FROM TRAVAXCORE. 127 

well ; and in both there is the same marked projection of the 
lower in front of the upper jaw. The more pronounced elevation 
of the region of the blow-hole in the type of T. ahuscdam * may 
probably be explained by the greater age of the specimen. 

On the whole, I am inclined to regard the specimen under 
consideration as being the immature form of T. ahuscdam, but it 
may be that the absence of spotting on the belly is distinctive of 
the Indian form at all ages, although 1 do not think this probable. 

With regard to the two specimens from Trevaiidrum figured in 
the ' Journal of the Bombay Society ' as T.fergusoni and T. catalania, 
I am inclined to think that the former is the immature form of 
the latter t, despite the difference in the number of the dorso- 
lumbar vertebrae +. Now, if colour be worth anything in this matter 
(and if it be not, we have pi-actically nothing to go upon), the type 
of fergusoni cannot be ideirtical with the specimen here referred 
to ahusalam, as both are immature specimens. Moreover, the 
specimens described && fergusoni and catalania differ from abu&alam 
(type and young) by the general colour of the upper-parts being- 
dark slaty instead of greenish (when the skin is dry) and in the 
orange tinge of the under-parts. Accordingly, if both the former 
belong to catalania (and I have practically no doubt as to the 
correctness of the identification of the adult), that species would 
appear to be distinct from ahusalam. In addition to the difference 
of colour, it would seem to have fewer teeth and one caudal 
vertebra less. 

Turning now to the specimen represented in Plate XIII. fig. 1, 
it might appear at first that this is the adult of the one 
figured in fig. 2 of the same Plate, if we could assume the 
disappearance of the light under-parts with age. In the fiist 
place, there is, however, no evidence that such a change takes 
place in this group of Dolphins ; in the second place, the specimen 
in fig. 1 was accompanied by a younger example which had 
the same coloration ; and, in the third place, the adults of both 
T. ahusalam and T. catalania have light under-parts, as is also 
the case with T. tursio. 

Accordingly, it would appear that the Dolphin shown in fig. 1 of 
the Plate, which is certainly a Tursiops, is distinct from these 
three species. Now the only member of the genus which is 
wholly black, with the undei--parts somewhat lightened, is T. gilli, 
of the Pacific coast of Noith America, described on the evidence 
of the skull, and only known in the flesh by " momentary observa- 
tions " taken by Scammon. If this evidence be trustworthy, I 
cannot separate the Trevandrum specimen from T. giUi, so far as 
colour is concerned. 

As regards the number of the teeth, this is less in the type 
mandible of gilli, which is immature, and also in an aged skull ; 
and it is possible that in the one case the full number may not 



* See True, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. 36, pi. ix. 

t I had not the figure of T.fergusoni when describing T. catalania. 
X Differences in the number of dorso-lumbar vertebra; in several species of Dolphin 
are noticed in Mr. True's memoir. 



128 ON DOLPHINS FROM TRAA^ANCORE. [Feb. 21, 

liave appeared, and that in the other some maj^ have been lost. 
In any case, the difference is not very great or important. 

That a North- Pacific Dolphin should be met with on the coasts 
of India is little, if at all, more improbable than the occurrence 
there of an Australian form {T. catalania). Accordingly (till 
evidence to the contrary be forthcoming) I. propose to regard the 
specimen represented in Plate XIII. fig. 1 as T. gilli. 

If I am right in the foregoing identifications (and the difficulty 
of the subject is so great that every determination must be 
regarded as more or less provisional), we shall have the following 
external characters of the definable species of Tursiops : — 

1. Tursiops tursio. IJuropean Seas *, 

Size large : 9 ft. 6 ni. 
Upper surface blackish. 
Under-parts white and unspotted. 

2. Tursiops abusalam. Eed Sea and Indian Ocean. 

Size smaller : 7 ft. 2k in. (type), 6 ft. 11 in. (India). 
Upper surface dai-k greenish. 

Under-parts whitish and spotted with green in ndult ; 
whitish in young. 

3. Tursiops catalania. N. Australia to Indian Ocean. 

Syn. T.fergusoni. 

Size about the same as last: 7 ft. 8 in. (type), 7 ft. 4| in. 

(India). 
Upper surface dark slate. 
Under-parts yellowish t, flecked with lead-colour. 

4. Tursioj^s gilli. IST. Pacific to Indian Ocean. 

Size, Indian specimen, 6 ft. 8 in. 

Whole surface blackish, tending to lighten slightly on the 
under-parts, with a tinge of reddish in Indian specimens. 

Whether or no I am right in any or all of these identifications, 
the coloured figures of the Trevandrum specimens cannot fail to 
be of great value in future researches on the subject; and I 
venture to hope that the authorities of the Trevandrum Museum 
will continue their excellent practice of sketching and preserving 
evei-y Dolphin that may come to hand. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIIT. 

Fig. 1. Tursiops giUi (7). Adult. 

2. Tin-slops ahusalam f?). Immatnre. 
Both specimens from the Trevandrum district. 



* Till further evidence, I should doubt the occurrence of this species in the Indian 

t In the type the under-parts are said to he whitish ; if the orange tint of the 
Trevandrum specimens is a specific character, then the name T. fergiisoni will be 
available for the Indian form. 



1905.] ox MAMMALS FROM THE TRAXSVAAL, 1 29y 

3. The Rudd Exploration of South Africa.— II. List of 
Mammals from the Wakkerstroom District, South- 
Eastern Transvaal. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., 
F.Z.S., and Harold Schwann, F.Z.S.* 

[Received January 24, 1905. J 

On a previous occasion t we described a collection of mammals 
made by Mr. 0. H. B. Grant in British Namaqualand, on behalf 
of Mr. C. D. Rudd, by whom they had been presented to the 
National Museum. 

In continuation of his scientific exploration of South Afiica, 
Mr. Rudd has now presented to the Museum a further series of 
specimens obtained by the same collector at and near Wakker- 
stroom, S.E. Transvaal, in March, April, and May 1904. 

The importance of an exploration of this region lies in its being 
near the north-eastern limit of South Africa propei', and on the 
eastern border of the Transvaal tableland, thus presenting a 
contrast to the neighbouring area of Zululand, which has a 
warmer climate and lies at a much lower elevation. 

The collection is a fairly large one, and includes specimens of 
twenty-six species or subspecies, mostly represented by series 
of perfect skins, with skulls and measurements, and is a very 
valuable accession to the National Museum. 

Two localities are represented in it — Wakkerstroom itself, at an 
altitude of about 1850 m. ; and Zuurbron, about 20 miles to the 
east of Wakkerstroom, altitude 1600 m. 

While this collection has been under examination, the Museum 
has received from Mr. R. 0. Wroughton, already well known by 
his work in Bombay, a useful series of Mammals obtained by him 
at Estcourt, Natal. These have in many instances proved of 
value in making out the Wakkerstroom species. 

1. PiPISTBELLUS KUHLII FUSCATUS ThoS. 

cJ . 746. Zuurbron. 

This is the first record of any Pi2nstrellus other than P. nanus 
in South Africa. 

The subspecies was described from Naivasha, British East Africa, 
and specimens apparently referable to it ai^e also in the Museum 
collection from Nyasaland. 

So far as a skin can be accurately compared with a spirit- 
specimen, the Zuurbron example appears to agree with the type 
in every respect. 

* [The complete account of the new species described in this communication 
appears here ; but since the name and preliminary diagnosis were published in the 
'Abstract,' the species is distinguishecl by the name being vmderlined.— Editor.] 

t P. Z. S. 1904, i. p. 171. 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1905, A^ol, I. No. IX. 9 



130 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON MAMMALS [Feb. 21, 

2. Rhinolophus denti Thos. 
2 in spirit. Zuurbron. 

Hitherto known only from Kuruman, 

3. Rhinolophus augur K. And. 
c? . 1 in spirit. Zuui'bron. 

This specimen is I'eferred to in Mr, Andersen's original descrip- 
tion of the species*. 

4. HiPPOSiDEROS CAFFER Sund. 
4 in spirit. Zuurbron. 

5. Amblysomus hottentottus a. Sm, 
S . 767. Zuurbron. 

This specimen agrees closely with Dr. Smith's type in the 
British Museum. 

" Apparently common. Forms runs and mounds similar to 
Georychus, but so much smaller as to make these animals very 
difficult to trap. The specimen sent home took nearly a whole 
day to dig out."— (7. H. B. G. 

6. Crocidura flavescens Geoff, 

$, 691, 697, 709, 711, 712 (2 in spirit), $. 680, 682, 688, 
703. Wakkerstroom. 

c?. 758. $. 751,754. Zuurbron. 

"Zulu name in the Transvaal ' ISTgoso.' Almost exclusively 
nocturnal. Its favourite habitat is in the stone walls surrounding 
the farm lands; it is common also in gardens and the thick 
undergrowth in the bush,"' — C. H. B. G. 

7. Mtosorex varius Smuts. 

5 . 747, 753. 2 . 749, 750, 757, 763, 769, 773. Zuurbron. 

6. 716, 741. 2 ■ 742 (2 in spirit). Wakkerstroom, 

Flesh measurements of an adult male : — Head and body 85 mm, ; 
tail 43 ; hind foot 14 ; ear 9. 

On laying out the fine series of Myosorexf obtained from 
difierent localities in South Africa during the Rudd Exploration, 
w^e find there are two vei-y distinct species, of which one, the true 
M. varius, is the smaller, grey in colour, with light-coloured feet, 
and with a comparatively short, well-haired tail, which is brown 
along the top and light on the sides and below. This species, 
besides the localities recorded by Sclater, has been found by 
Mr, Grant at Port Nolloth, in the North-west, Cape Peninsula 

* Ann. Mag. N. H, (7) xiv. p. 380 (1904). 

t 46 specimens from the Rudd collection, added to half a dozen old Museum 
specimens, and seven i-ecently obtained at Estcourt, Natal, by Mr. K. C. Wroughton. 



1905.] FROM THE WAKKEIISTROOM DISTRICT, TRA>rSVAAL. 131 

(Tokai Retreat and Table Mountains), Zuuvbron and Wakkerstroom 
of the present series, and at Sibudeni and Umvolosi in Zululand, 
where it is found side by side with the larger species next to be 
described. 

ISTone of tlie collections made in the central parts of the Colony 
have contained any Myosorex, so that the genus would seem to 
be confined to the coast districts from Little Namaqualand round 
to Zululand, and corresponding to the West Cape and East Cape 
subregions of Dr. Matschie's zoological subdivision of Africa. 

Sundevall's " /S'orea; m/er " * is clearly M. va-rius, as is shown 
by its short tail, and by some measurements of the typical skuU 
kindly furnished us by Dr. Einar Lonnberg. 

"Zulu name in Transvaal ' ISTgoso.' Not common on the high 
veldt, but very plentiful on the low ground under fallen trees and 
in the thick vegetatioji near the bush. Both nocturnal and 
diurnal."— C.i^./i. (7. 

8. MyosoREx TENUIS, sp. n. 

2 . 773. Zuurbron. Type of species. 

This specimen being an isolated one, we have iirst described 
an allied species on a series obtained later by Mr. Grant in Zulu- 
land, as follows : — 

Myosorex sclateri Thos. & Schw. 

Myosorex sclateri, Thos. & Schw. Abstr. P. Z. S. No. 15, p. 10, 
Feb. 28, 1905. 

Size considei-ably larger than in M. varius and tail longer. 
General colour much darker, a warm dark bistre-brown, veiy 
difierent to the grey of M. varms ; approaching black in some 
specimens. Under sui-face but little lighter than upper. Upper 
side of hands and feet brown. Tail longer than in M. varius, 
its hairs closely adpressed and not forming a pencil at the tip, so 
that it looks to the naked eye much less hairy than in the allied 
species ; its colour uniformly brown above and below, or the lower 
side very inconspicuously lighter. 

Skull decidedly larger than in M. varius ; the teeth similar 
except that i' is longer, its main cusp surpassing consideraVjly in 
downward projection the tip of i^, while in M. varius it is barely 
longer than that tooth. [This character is not alwaj^s available 
for distingviishing the species, partly owing to the influence of sex, 
the male having generally a longer i' than the female, and partly 
to age, the tooth being occasionally so worn down as to be useless 
for the purpose.] 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the fiesh) :— 

Head and body 99 mm. ; tail 53 ; hind foot 16 ; ear 10*5. 

Skull — back of condyle to front face of i^ 25'2 ; basal length 22 ; 

* mx. K, Vet,-Ak. Fori!. ISid p, 119. 



132 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AKD II. SCHWANN ON MAMMALS [Feb. 21, 

greatest breadth across brain-case 12-5 ; length of upper tooth- 
series 10 "5. 

Hah. Zuhxland. Type from the ISTgoye Hills ; alt. 250 m. 

Type. S' B.M. Ko. 4.12.3.12. Original number 887. Cap- 
tured 28 September, 1904. Seventeen specimens examined. 

We have named this well-marked species in honour of Mr. W. 
L. Sclater, the Director of the South African Museum, to whose 
kindness Mr. Grant has been very materially indebted for assistance 
in carrying out Mi'. Rudd's exploration of East Africa. 

Returning now to the specimen from Zuurbron, we think that it 
represents a small slender-footed species of Myosm-ex which may be 
briefly described as follows : — ■ 

Myosorex tenuis, sp. n. 

Colours and length of tail as in M. sclateri, but size about as in 
M. varius ; the feet small and slender ; tail close-haired and dark- 
coloured as in the Zululand form. Skull small, narrow. I^ not 
particularly lengthened in the type, which, however, is a female. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — • 

Head and body 76 mm.; tail 45 ; hind foot 14 ; ear 9. 

Skull — back of condyle to front face of i^ 21-7 ; basal length 19 ; 
greatest breadth across brain-case 10-2 ; length of upper tooth- 
series 9-5. 

Hah. Zuurbron, Wakkerstroom Highlands ; alt. 1 600 m. 

Type. Female. B.M. No. 4.9.1.22. Original number 773. 
Collected 15 May, 1904. 

9. Felis ocreata cafra Desm. 

S. 784. $. 776. Zuurbron. 

These specimens are a trifle lighter in general colour than those 
from Deelfontein referred by Schwann to F. o. cafra*, but there 
is not sujfi&cient diflference to warrant their separation. 

" Apparently common, but very wary. Mostly inhabiting the 
thick bush and sleeping in hollow trees. It, however, visits the 
open country at night in search of food, when it is not difficult to 
trap. Food consists of beetles, mice, &c. Is very destructive to 
poultry, visiting the same roost night after night, finally completely 
clearing it, if not stopped." — C. ff. B. G. 

10. Cynictis penicillata Cuv. 

S . 729. $ . 694, 728. Wakkerstroom. 
" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Pipi.' 

" Found on the high veldt, where it digs single holes, which serve 
as a protection when suddenly disturbed. Its food is apparently 

* Anil. Mag-. N. 11. (7) xiii. p. i25 (1901). 



1905.] FROM THE WAKKERSTROOM DISTRICT, TRANSVAAL. 133 

insects, with mice and small birds occasionally. Diurnal only." — 
C. H. B. G. 

11. SURICATA SURICATTA HAMILTONI, Subsp. n. 

6 . 733. Wakkei'stroom. 

On laying out the Museum series of Suricate skins foi- comparison 
with Mr. Gi-ant's specimen, it is at once apparent that they fall 
naturally into four distinct groups or local races, as follows ; — 

1. Central (typical). Cape and Deelfontein. 

2. South-easterly. Grahamstown. 

3. North-easterly. Orange River Colony and Southern Transvaal. 

4. North-westerly. Little Namaqualand (Klipfontein). 

It is possible that sufficient modern material might show that 
the Suricate of the neighbourhood of Cape Town was subspecific- 
ally distinct from all these groups, but our only authentic Cape 
specimen, which was collected by General Hardwicke before 1835, 
is now so worn and faded that it is impossible to separate it from 
the Deelfontein form. 

This being the case, the latter may be referred with the Cape 
one to the typical subspecies. 

The synonymy of this typical subspecies will contain all the 
names hitheito published, owing to the type locality having been 
in each case given as " South Africa," without further details. 

As represented by the specimens from Deelfontein, the typical 
subspecies is characterised by having the head and shoulders " drab- 
gray " and the cheeks and under parts of the neck dirty white. 
The tail appears to be rather more fulvous than in the other forms. 

The other races may be described as foUows : — 

S. s. LOPHURUS, subsp. nov. 

Under this name we distinguish a South-eastern race, re- 
presented by two specimens from Grahamstown remarkable for 
their large size. In colour they most resemble the sei'ies from 
Deelfontein, being drab-grey on the head and shoulders and dirty 
white or grey on the cheeks and throat. The tail is distinctly 
bushy and of the same general colour as the body, not showing 
the yellow or fulvous suffusion toward the tip so generally present 
in the other groups. The lengths of the hind feet are 69 and 
72 mm. in the young and adult specimens respectively, as against 
a maximum of 67 in other membeis of this species in the 
collection. 

The skull is characterised by the marked backward divergence 
of the zygomata and its general large size. 

The younger of the two specimens, No. 97.11.5.11, still retains 
the rounded appearance and open basilar suture indicative of youth, 
but nevertheless measures 69 mm. in greatest length as a,gainst 
the 68 mm. of the oldest male specimen from any other locality. 

Dimensions of the tvpe (measured in the skin) : — 

Head and bodv (c) 340 mm.. ; tail 200 ; hind foot 72 ; ear 18. 



134 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AKD IT. SCHWANN ON MAMMALS [Feb. 21, 

Skull—basal length 61 mm. ; greatest length 72 ; zygomatic 
breadth 50 ; brain-case breadth 33. 

Hah. Near Grahamstown, Cape Colony. 

Type. S. B.M. No. 97.11.5.10. Presented by the Albany 
Museum. 

S. S. HAMILTONI, Subsp. nOV. 

This subspecies is based on specimens collected by Capt. G. E- 
H. Barrett- Hamilton at Yredefort Road, Orange River Colony, and 
the one obtained hy Mr. C. H. B. Grant at Wakkerstroom. 

It is distinguished by its generally lighter colour above and below 
and the stronger fulvous suffusion present on the back. One of 
its best chai-acters is a strongly mai'ked white patch extending 
from the eye to the neck and entirely surrounding the ear. The 
throat is also strongly suffused with white, while it is grey in the 
other subspecies. These characteristics, though not very marked 
in single specimens, are very apparent Avhen a series of skins is 
compared. 

The skull differs in no way fi-om that of the typical subspecies. 

Hah. Wakkerstroom, S.E. Transvaal; alt. 1850m. 

T7j2Je. 6 ■ B. M. No. 4.9.1.31. Collected 8 April, 1904. 

S. S. NAMAQUENSIS, Subsp. nOV. 

Characterised by the silvery tone of the forehead, lips, cheeks, 
and shoulders, these parts being grey in the other subspecies. 
Throat grey as usual. Suffusion on the tail more yellow than 
fulvous, the black tip rather less strongly pronounced than in the 
other races. 

The silvery tone of this animal falls in well with the conclusions 
published in our paper * on Mr. Grant's Namaqualand collection, 
where the paleness of the mammals generally was noticed. 

Hah. Klipfontein, Namaqualand ; alt. 1034 m. 

Tijjje. 5 . B.M. No. 4.2.3.4.2. Collected 13 May, 1903. Four 
specimens examined. 

The following is a rough key to the four subspecies of Suricata 
here recognised : — 

A. Greatest leugtli of skull 68 mm. at most ; hind foot less 

than 65 mm. ; tail less busliy. 
«. Forehead and nape uniformly coloured, white cheek- 
patch not passing over ears. 
a^. Forehead, cheeks, and shoulders with a distinctly 

silvery tone &'. s. namaquensis. 

h^. Forehead and shoulders "drab-grey," cheeks 

dirty white S. snricatta. 

I. White cheek-patch extending above ears 8. s. hamiltoni. 

B. Skull 69 mm. or more ; hind foot more than 67 mm. ; tail 

very bushy S. s. lophtirus. 



* r. Z. S. 1904, i. p. 172. 



1905. J FROM THE WAKKERSTROOM DISTRICT, TRANSVAAL. 135 

" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Cagiti.' Found on the high veldt 
only ; not so common as Gynictis penicillata, to which its habits 
are similar." — C. H. B. G. 

12. Herpestes gracilis punctulatus Gray. 

This Mongoose may be distinguished by its generally darker 
colour and the much brighter suffusion on the head and shoulders 
from its nearest ally, H. gracilis cauui Smith *, which was 
described from Kurrichaine, Western Transvaal t. By the kind- 
ness of Dr. H. 0. Forbes, Director of the Liverpool Museum, we 
have been enabled to examine the type of Heiyestes cauui, and 
find that it agrees in every way with specimens obtained at Essex 
Yale in Matabililand by Mr. F. C. Selous. 

" Zulu naixie in Transvaal ' Cagiti.' It is said by the natives 
to be very fond of snakes, especially the ' Mamba.' They say 
that when it finds the sleeping-hole of one, it digs another 
directly above ami behind the entrance and communicating with 
it, and waits thei-e for the return of the occupant, when it seizes 
it at the back of head and instantly despatches it." — G. U. B. G. 

13. IcTONYX capensis Kaup. 
^ . 779. Zuurbron. 

cJ. 696. $.695,721. Wakkerstroom. 

" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Iqaqa.' Found and trapped in 
the clumps of rocks on the hillsides and under the ki-antzes. 
Very destructive to poultry and occasionally eating carrion." — ■ 
G. H. B. G. 

14. Tatera braktsii Smith. 

J. 692, 701, 710. $.699. Wakkerstroom. 

The typical locality of Smith's Gerbilhts hrantsiit was the 
" hills towards the sources of the Caledon River," that is to say 
along the Basuto border of the Orange River Colony. 

" Not common, nor observed in the low veldt, but seems to 
favour lands that have at one time been under cultivation. 
Apparently lives in pairs with the young in small burrows of five 
or six holes. Nocturnal only and a vegetai-ian." — G. H. B. G. 

15. Otomys irroratus Brants. 

$ . 723, 724 (1 in spirit). Wakkerstroom. 

S . 775, 782. $ . 760. Zuurbron. 

'• Zulu name in Transvaal ' Ibuusi.' Partial to vleis, shuts, and 
all damp places where sufficient cover exists, also found occa- 
sionally in a clump of rocks some little distance from any water 
and in farm lands. 

* Report of Expedition, p. 42 (1836). 

t 25' 40" S., 27' 10" E. 

X Report of Expedition, p. 43 (1836), 



136 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON MAMMAXS [Fdb. 21, 

" This rat builds a dome-shaped nest of dry grass at the foot of 
some bush, where it both sleeps and breeds. It does not seem to 
buiTow, Their nests and runs can be easily seen when the veldt 
has been burnt oS. Apparently diurnal only." — C. H. B. G. 

. 16. Mus COLONUS Brants. 

c? . 768 (1 in spirit). § . 762, 766, 772. Zuurbron. 
J . 681 (1 in spirit). $ . 735. Wakkerstroom. 
" Not common. Seems partial to outbuildings and stone 
walls."— C. H. B. G. 

17. Leggada minutoides Smith. 

S . 698, 702 (1 in spirit). $ . 714, 715. Wakkerstroom. 

2. 781. Zuurbron. 

"Zulu name in Transvaal ' ISTgoso.' Not very common, in- 
habiting the stone walls of the lands and kraals, and the clumps 
of rocks and bushes on the hillsides and flats close to the bush. 

" Exclusively nocturnal." — 0. H. B. G. 

18. Arvicanthis pumilio Sparrm. 

d . 755, 756 764. Zuurbron. 

cJ. 683, 736, 740. $. 686, 704, 717, 726 (1 in spirit). 
Wakkerstroom . 

'* Very common, inhabiting the outbuildings and stone walls 
and grass- lands." — C. H. B. G. 

19. Dendromus mesomelas Brants. 

Dendromus A. Smith, Zool. Journ. iv. pp. 438-439 (1829). 

Dendromys Smuts, Enum. Mamm. Cap. 32 (1832). 

2 . 765. Zuurbron. 

This species was described by Brants as being red-brown on 
the back, with a black stripe down the median line, with which 
particulars Mr. Grant's specimen agrees veiy well, although it 
happens to be in rather poor fur. 

" Zulu name in Transvaal, ' Ngoso.' 

" It is hard to ascertain whether the two species obtained are 
common or not, as they are very difiicult to secure, and it is 
impossible to learn about them from the natives, as they use the 
same name for so many animals. It cannot apparently be 
trapped, and is pi-obably nocturnal. Dilligent search was made 
for nests or other signs, but none were observed." — C. H. B. G. 

20. Dendromus melanotis Smith. 

$ . 727. Wakkei-stroom. 

Hitherto the British Museum possessed only one example of 
this species, the type described by Dr. Smith in 1834, so that 
Mr. Grant's specimen is a veiy welcome addition. 



1905,] FROM THE WAKKERSTROOM DISTRICT, TRANSVAAL. 137 

D. melanotis is easily distinguished from D. mesomelas by its 
grey colour and by the peculiar structure of its hind toes, first 
noticed by Sclater in his ' Fauna of South Africa ' *. 

21. Mystromys albicaudatus pumosus, svibsp. nov. 
c? . 685, 705. Wakkerstroom. 

Similar to the typical subspecies, but larger and darker. 

General colour of the upper surface "mouse-grey" freely 
pencilled with black, flanks rather lighter. Individual hairs 
about 12 mm. long, basal four-fifths slate-grey, terminal fifth 
" olive-grey," tip black. General colour of under surface light 
grey, basal half of hairs dark slate-grey. Forehead, nape, and a 
ring round eyes strongly pencilled with black, lips and cheeks 
lighter ; ears large, rounded, clothed inside with silvery hair, out- 
side with a thick growth of very fine black hair. Fore and hind 
limbs slate-grey, the latter rather darker if anything ; fore and 
hind feet white above and below ; in the hind feet a naked line 
extends from the centre of the foot to the ankle-joint. Tail 
distinctly bicolor, dark gi'ey above, pure white beneath, the line 
of demarcation very distinct. 

The skull, though younger than that of the type of cdbicaudatus, 
is considerably larger. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 161 mm. ; tail 78 ; hind foot 27 ; ear 25. 

Skull — greatest length 38 mm.; basilar length 31*5; inter- 
orbital breadth 4'5 ; zygomatic breadth 20*0 ; length of upper 
molar series 7. 

Hab. Wakkerstroom, Transvaal; alt. 1850m. 

T'l/pe. c?. B.M. No. 4.9.1.72. Collected 18 March, 1904. 

The type of M. albicaudatus Smith is of a light red colour, due 
most probably to fading t, and we therefore do not feel justified 
in distinguishing from that form the grey specimens from the 
Orange River Colony obtained by Oapt. Barrett- Hamilton. 

" Not by any means common, apparently solitary and strictly 
nocturnal. It inhabits the stone walls of the farmlands and 
deserted burrows of Gerbillus. Cats will not eat this species, 
though they often kill it."— (7. H. B. G. 

22. Lepus ochropus Wagn. 

J. 707, 708, 718, 719. $. 730. Wakkerstroom. - 
These Hares, which appear to be confined to the high veldt, are 

easily distinguished from the low-ground capensis by their yellow 

nape and throat. 

* Vol. ii. p. 32. 

t While grey does not appreciably alter under the influence of light, black and 
brown are peculiarly susceptible to changes, and it is the black ends to the hairs 
which we suppose to have faded in the type. (Cf. 'Zoologist,' 1896, p. 406.) 



138 ON MAMMALS FROM THE TRANSVAAL. [Feb. 21, 

Capt. G. E. Barrett-Hamilton obtained specimens at Vredefort 
Road, in the Orange River Colony, that agree well with Mr. Grant's 
skins. 

" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Gwaja.' 

"Common. Found only on the high rolling veldt, devoid of 
stones. It makes a form under a tuft of grass in Avhich it lies 
very close, often rising from under one's feet. In wet weather it 
will not lie down, but remains sitting up in the form. It appears 
to feed during the night only."^ — G. H. B. G. 

23. Lepus saxatilis Cuv. 

$ . 725. Wakkerstroom. 

§ . 777. Zuiu-bron. 

An examination of the incisors of L. saxatilis shows that the 
extra fine line of enamel described by Thomas in L. angolensis * 
also occurs in this Hare. 

24. PRONOLAGUSt, Sp. 

S . 770, 783. Zuurbron. 

We are hoping to obtain specimens from the original locality 
of P, crassicaudatus curry i Thos., of which the typical skin is in 
veiy bad condition. Pending their arrival we do not propose to 
express any opinion about the Zuurbron Rabbit. 

"Zulu name in Transvaal ' Ntenash.' 

" Common, but difficult to secure owing to its lying very close. 
It inhabits all rocky places, both flats, krantzes, and kopjes. 
Feeds at night only."— (7. H. B. G. 

25. Procavia capensis Pall. 

(S . 744. Zviurbron. 

c? . 706, 732, 737, 738. $ . 700,720, 731, 739. Wakkerstroom. 

" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Imbile.' 

" Common. Inhabits the krantzes and rocks on the steep 
mountain-sides, and the locks on the deep gullies thickly over- 
grown with vegetation. In this district there appear to be two 
forms, one distinctly redder than the other, which can easily be 
distinguished in the wild state. These colours are pei-haps only 
due to seasonal changes of pelage. Strictly a vegetable feeder, 
often visiting the Kaffir lands and doing great damage to the 
pumpkins. 

" Exclusively diurnal."— (7. E. B. G. 

26. Cephalophus grimmi Linn. 
$. 780. Zuurbron. 

" Zulu name in Transvaal ' Mpuusi.' " — C. H. B. G. 

* Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) xiii. p. 420 (1904). 

t Lyon, " ClasBification of Hares," Smiths. Misc. Coll. vol. xlv. r, 332 (1904). 



1905.] ON THE GREATER KUDU OF SOMALILAND. 139 

4. Oil the Greater Kudu o£ Somaliland. 
By R. I. PococK, Superintendent of the Gardens. 

[Received Februaiy 7, 1905.] 

In 1891 * Major Inverarity, I.M.S., pointed out that the 
Greater Kudus of Somaliland differ from the typical S. -African 
form in the smaller number of white stripes upon the body and 
hind-quarters ; and his reproduced photograph of a recently killed 
bull shows only four stripes upon the right side of the body. 
This information and the evidence supplied by the much-worn 
skin of an Abyssinian specimen in the British Museum prompted 
the remark on p. 176 of the last volume of the ' Book of Antelopes,' 
" that the sides of the body and hind-quai-ters [in the Greater 
Kudu] are marked with white stripes which vary in number from 
about four in the northern forms to nine or ten in the southern." 
Since these lines were written I have had an opiDortunity of seeing 
three young male Somaliland examples, two of Avhich are still living 
in the Zoological Gardens. The two larger were deposited by 
Capt. Madden in July 1 904 ; the third and smallest was presented 
to the Society by Major Irvine, I. M.S., in November of the same 
year. 

The largest of the three stands at the present time 38| inches 
at the withers. The horns are 5| inches long, show the anterior 
ridge, an incipient twist, and have a basal circumference of 
5 1 inches. The ears are 10 inches long and 4 inches wide, their 
span from tip to tip, when standing at right angles to the head, 
being 23 inches ; and the length of the face from between the 
horns to the tip of the nose is 10 inches. On the right side seven 
stripes are traceable, three close together upon the haunch and 
four, of which the first thi-ee are widely separated from each other, 
upon the body. On the left side also seven sti-ipes are traceable ; 
of these, however, only five are complete, two on the haunches 
and three on the body, the additional two being very short and 
cut off from the dorsal middle line. 

The medium-sized specimen f has the horns about 1 inch 
long. The ear measures 9 inches along the back, 8g on the inside 
space, and 4 inches wide. The face, from between the horns to 
the nose, 8g inches. On the right side there are five stripes, on 
the left six (three on the haunches and three on the body). 

The third and smallest specimen stands about 37 inches at the 
withers and the horns are mere bud-like excrescences. There 
are five stripes (two on the haunches and three on the body) on 
each side. 

Thus in these three specimens the stripes vary in number from 

* Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vi. p. 463. 

t This animal is now dead, and the measurements &c. are takeu from the newly 
stripped ilat skin. 



140 MR. R. I. POCOCK ON THE [Feb. 21, 

five to seven on each side ; but in no case are they strongly definerl, 
and in the example showing seven, two at least are abbreviated 
and only just discernible. Their whole appearance, indeed, sug- 
gests evanescence. 

With these data to hand, there seems to be no cause for further 
delay in concluding that a difference between the Greater Kudus 
of the northern and southern areas of the species' range not only 
exists, but is sufficiently definable and constant to be accorded 
subspecific rank. And since the specific name was applied origi- 
nally to the southern form, which as a subspecies takes a repetition 
of that title, a different racial name must be found for the northern. 
There is no need, however, to publish a new one. In the 'Book of 
Antelopes ' the following thi-ee are cited as synonyms of tStrepsi- 
ceros capensis, the denomination under which the species wrongly 
appears in that work : — 

Antilope tendal Oretzschmar, Atlas to Riippell's ' Reise im nordl. 
Afrika,' p. 22 (1826); Fischer, Syn. Mamm. p. 475 (1829). 

Antilope chora iid. ibid. 

Strepsiceros abyssimcus Fitzinger, SB. Akad. Wien, lix. pt. 1, 
p. 176 (1869). 

Abovit the rightful claims of the first name to stand for any kind 
of Kudu there is, in my opinion, great doubt. The words " in 
desertis" as applied to the habitat of Antilope tendal, sviggest 
rather the Addax, a large-sized, spiiul-horned denizen of the 
deserts of North Africa, which was probably known to the Arabs. 
The name chora, however, is not to be lightly rejected. As in the 
case of A. tendal, the animal is compared to a horse in size and 
the horns are said to be powerful and spirally twisted in the male 
and absent in the female. Moreover, the habitat, " in moritosis," 
accords ticcurately with that of the Greater Kudus of Abyssinia 
and Somaliland as attested by ti-avellers and sportsmen of more 
m.odern times. There is no other African Antelope known to 
which these attributes apply, the absence of the horns in the 
female excluding any form of Eland which might otherwise be 
suggested on the score of size and spirally-twisted horns. 

With regard to the third name, ahyssinicus, there is no room 
for doubt, for, although unaccompanied by a diagnosis, it was 
definitely assigned by Fitzinger to the form of Strepsiceros in- 
habiting Abyssinia, Somaliland, Senaar, Kordofan, and Bogos- 
land ; and these localities do not coincide, as a whole, with the 
geographical range of the Lesser Kudu, the only other member 
of the genus met with in North-east Africa, where it extends 
from Somaliland and the Galla country to the Kilima Nja.ro 
district. Since, however, the name chora antedates ahyssinicus 
by many years, I see no escape from the conclusion that the 
name for the northern race of the Gi'eater Kudvi is Strep)siceros 
strepsiceros chora, with ahyssinicios as a synonym ; and in that case 
the trinominal title for the southern or typical race is Strepsiceros 



1905.] GREATER KUDU OF SOMALILAXD. 141, 

strepsiceros strepsiceros, with, probably, zamhesiensis as one of its 
synonyms. 

In connection with the difference between the two races of the 
Greater Kudu, an interesting point arises for elucidation. It has 
been shown that the northei-n type is distinguished fi-om the 
southern by possessing only about half as many stripes on each 
side of the body. But the Lesser Kudu [S. imbei-bis), which also 
inhabits Somaliland, has even a greater number of stripes than 
the southern race of the Gi-eatei' Kudu — namely, tv/elve oi- thirteen 
on each side. Thus within the limits of the genus the greatest 
contrast in matter of coloration subsists between the two species 
inhabiting Somaliland. And those who believe that the spots and 
stripes of Antelopes have been primarily acquired or secondarily 
retained, as a means of enabling species to distinguish their own 
kind from others of similar or somewhat similar form inhabiting 
the same area, may be tempted to parade the case of these two 
)Somaliland Kudus in support of the theory. 

I have, however, elsewhere* brought together and briefly stated 
a considerable amount of evidence that the significance of the 
variegated pattei-ns of Antelopes in general, and of the Ti-agela- 
phines in particular, is prociyptic or celative — that of the Tragela- 
phines being very obviously correlated with the bush-life affected 
by the majority of the species, and its absence with a life in the 
desert or plains, as attested by the stripeless, dun-coloured Eland 
of the Kalahari and the slate-grey or fawn-coloured Nylghaie of 
India. In connection with the two species of Somali Kudus, I 
cited the published statements of such reliable authoiities as 
Swayne and Inverarity to prove that the very beautifully marked 
Lesser Kudu of that country is found in thick jungle, whereas 
the relatively poorly adorned Greater Kudu frequents mountainous 
broken ground less thickly overgrown with vegetation. In 
confirmation of this, I am glad to be able to quote the testimony 
of Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S., who, without being aware of the 
drift of my question, told me of his own knowledge that the 
Greater Kudu lives in hilly or rocky country and the Lesser in 
the lower ground, very generally amongst the luxuriant growth 
along the river-banks. Thus, since the species do not associate, 
they furnish no case for the advocates of the theory of " recog- 
nition " marks. On the contrary, the difference of habitat, corre- 
lated with the difiei'ence in coloration, practically establishes, in 
the absence of any other explanation, a causal connection between 
the two. This being so, it may be further inferred that the 
similar, though less marked, differences between the northern 
and southern i-aces of the Greater Kudu will be found to be 
associated with a corresponding difference in habitat — the southern 
foi-m appi'oaching more nearly in this respect, as also in coloration, 
to the Lesser Kudu. At present, however, there are not, so far 

* ' Nature,' Oct. lltli, 1900, pp. .584-385. 



142 ON THE GREATER KUDU OF SOMALILAND. [Feb. 21, 

as I am aware, a sufficient number of published data to establish 
the truth of this hypothesis finally. Nevertheless, Selous's * state- 
ment that the S.- African Kudu, although usually partial to hilly 
country covered with dense thickets, is also common in the thick 
bush along both banks of the River Chobe, where there are no 
hills whatever, and Kirby's t corroboration to the eiFect that in 
the heavy belts of bush lining the rivers and watercourses these 
animals ai-e as at home as in I'ocky bush-covered hills, are very 
much to the point, since they testify that the habitat of the Greater 
Kudu of S. Africa embraces the habitats of the two forms that 
occur further north in that continent. Hence, if there is any 
truth in the theory that the markings of these Antelopes are cor- 
related with habitat, we should expect to find the markings of the 
southern form of the Greater Kudu intermediate between those 
of the northern form of the same species and of their smaller but 
more beautiful ally Strej^siceros imherhis ; and this seems to be 
the case. 

* P. Z. S. 1881, p. 752. 

t ' Haunts of Wild Game,' p. 549. 



1905.] THE MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH OF CERTAIN ANIMALS. 143 

Marcli 7, 1905. 

Dr. ^y. T. Blanford, C.I.E., F.R.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

Dr. Albert A. Gray, introduced by Mr. Macleod Yearsley, F.Z.S., 
exhibited a series of lantern-slides made from photographs of the 
Membranous Labyrinth of some animals, and made the following 
remarks : — 

While the labyrinth of the fishes has been investigated by many 
observers and with very satisfactory results, the structure as it 
appears in reptiles, amphibians, bu-ds, and mammals has not been 
so exhaustively treated. This is due to the difficulties of preparing 
the organ. These difficulties recently have been to a certain extent 
removed ; and I propose to describe as briefly as possible some of 
the features wdiich have been discovered. 

In Man there is found in many individuals an accessory ampulla, 
as I propose to term it, at the posterior end of the horizontal 
canal, in addition to the normal one at the anterior extremity. 
This ampulla does not seem to have any special physiological 
significance, since it is not supplied by a nerve, and moreover is not 
found in all individuals but only in four out of six. I have not 
found it in any of the lower animals except the Sturgeon, but it is 
quite probable that with more material at hand it will be found 
in some other animals. 

The labyrinth of the Seal is remarkable on account of its size, 
the irregular shape of the semicircular canals, and most of all on 
account of the presence of otoliths of considerable dimensions. 

It may be that this development of the otoliths in the Seal has 
some relationship to the life of the animal in the water, as it is 
well known that in the fish the otoliths reach a size far greater 
than they do in any other animal. On the other hand, it may be 
that the development of the otoliths, and indeed of the labyrinth 
as a whole, is connected in some way with the migratory habit of 

the Seal. 

The perilymphatic spaces of the semicircular canals of the Seal 
are, like those of Man, of considerable size, and difier in this 
respect from those of the Cat and the Rabbit, 

The Cat has a labyrinth typical in one respect of a large 
number of mammals ; "that is, in the almost com]Dlete absence of a 
definite perilymphatic space in the semicircular canals. Indeed, 
this space is not visible except at the corners where the ampullse 
of the canals debouch from the canals themselves. The cochlea 
of the Cat is part of a cone sharper than that of many mammals, 
but not quite so sharp as that of the Guinea-pig. 

The Rabbit has a labyrinth similar to that of the Cat, but the 
cochlea is blunter in appearance. As in the Cat, there is no 
perilymphatic space in the canals. The ligamentum spirale is 
not so well developed as in many other mammals. 

In addition to the already well-known features of the labyrinth 
Peoc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. X. 10 



144 THE MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH OP CERTAIN ANIMALS. [Mar. 7, 

of the bird, it has to be recorded that these animals have otoHths 
considerably larger than those of mammals with the exception 
of the Seal as noted before. They are two in number and are 
almost in contact. One is a flat plate, and lies in the vipper and 
posterior portion of the vestibule ; the second is round and appears 
to lie on the first. 

Without going into the physiology of the vestibule and canals 
as ascertained by laboratory experiments, I would like to make a 
few remarks on the bearing which these structures may have upon 
the migrations of animals. 

We know, from clinical' and experimental evidence, that the 
semicircular canals furnish the individual with an accurate know- 
ledge of the extent to which the head has been rotated in space, 
whether this has been carried out by a voluntary effoi't on the 
part of the individual or by some external agency. Now, bearing 
this fact in mind, it has long since occurred to me that by this 
means we may, in part, be able to account for that mystery which 
has long puzzled the naturalist : the faculty by wliich many 
animals pursue their long migrations. Almost all birds migrate, 
a great many fishes, and even some mammals such as the Seal. 
That they cannot guide themselves by the sense of sight entirely 
is obvious, since they may pvirsue their flight undeterred by the 
darkest night and through blinding fog. Furthermore, it is . 
difficult to understand how fishes and seals can obtain much 
information by vision ; and, indeed, it is clear that some other 
sense must be employed, though vision may undoubtedly help. 
The same diificulty occurs in the case of the Corn-Crake, which 
appears to do its migration on foot, and vision can hardly avail it 
very much on its journey. 

But the sense of direction may be obtained by other means than 
by the eye, namely by the semicii-cular canals and the vestibule. 
When a particular canal of one side is injured, the animal tends 
to rotate in a particular direction, thus indicating that the canal 
in question regulates the movements of the animal in that 
direction. 

Of course this explanation does not account for the orienting 
process which the bird must go tlirough before it starts its flight, 
but only for the faculty it possesses of pursuing the course 
correctly through the night or fog without having recourse to the 
sense of sight. How the orienting process is carried out, I do 
not pretend to explain, though it may be done perhaps by 
observing the position of the setting sun or by the bearing of 
surrounding objects. 

Few mammals migrate in the proper sense of the term, and even 
those which do appear to do so, go from place to place in quest of 
food. The Seal, however, is one example of a mammal which does 
migrate in the strict meaning of the word, returning to a circum- 
scribed breeding-place every year in a manner similar to the bird 
and the fish. 

Now it is rather remarkable, that of all mammals the vestibule 



1905.] ON OLD PICTURES OP THE ZEBRA . 145 

and canals of the Seal are most like those of the bird and the fish ; 
this fact thus tending to support the view that I have just 
suggested. 

In Man the faculty of directing himself by means of this 
sense seems to have atrophied from want of use, but even in 
this case it has been pointed out that in the savage state the 
faculty is fairly keen. Some mammals display it occasionally in 
a remarkable manner, as in those instances in which cats and dogs 
find their way home from long distances, when the sense of sight 
could not have availed them. The homing of pigeons seems to 
me to be another manifestation of the same faculty. 



Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S., called attention to two illustra- 
tions of a Zebra in Aldi-ovandus (1642) and the ' Oommentarius ' 
of Ludolphvxs, copies of which were in the Society's library. 
Although they diftered so widely, the text seemed to indicate that 
they were intended for the same species — the Abyssinian Zebra ; 
and with respect to the plate in Ludolphus there could, from the 
text, be no doubt that this was the case. A translation of the 
passage in the ' Historia ^thiopica,' giving the description by 
Tellez of this Zebra, had appeared in the ' Proceedings'* (1901, 
ii. p. 2). In the ' Oommentarius,' p. 150, Ludolphus has brought 
. together some references to the Abyssinian Zebra. First he quotes 
Philostorgius (lib. iii. ch. 2), with this Latin version : — 

" Haec ipsa regio fert asinos agrestes maximos, et pelle versi- 
colores admodum, albo nigroque colore baud parum interstinctos : 
sed et zonae iis qusedam sunt a spina dorsi ad latera ventremque 
usque demissee, indeque divisse, et convolvulis quibusdam inter 
se implicatfe, mirum quendam et peregrinum exhibent nexum et 
varietatem." 

Gothofredus (Jacques Godefroy, 1587-1652) translated the 
Greek orovs aypiovs and the Latin asinos agrestes by onagros, as 
did Bochart. But the former added : " Neminem alias varietatem 
eorum ita describere." Ludolphus presses home the argument 
in this wise : If Philostorgius had meant ordinary wild asses he 
would have vised a single Greek word. 

He then refers to Rome, " whither all marvellous things are 
sent," quoting Martial (Epigram, xiii. 101), in which onager with 
the epithet pidcher occurs. It is noted that no one would rightly 
call a wild ass " beautiful," though the word exactly suits an 
Abyssinian Zebra. Virgil (Georg. iii. 409) calls these animals 

" Ssepe etiam cuvsu timidos agitabis onagros " ; 

and in the Vulgate (Osee, viii. 9) the epithet " solitarius " is used. 
Ludolphus anticipated recent writers in suggesting that this 
Zebra had been brovight to Rome ; but he does not mention the 
hippotigris. The collection of all references to the hippotigris 

* The passage is marred by a mistranslation in the English version (1682) by "J. P." 
The sentence, " A present of great esteem, and frequently given to the kings of 
Habessiuia," misrepresents what Ludolphus wrote : "In clonis Eegum Habessinias 
frequens et prsecipuum esse solet." 

10* 



146 ON OLD PICTURES OF THK ZKURA. [Mar. 7, 

is greatly to be desired. The passage from Dion Cassiiis (77. 6), 
Tiypiv (cai [■KTzoTiypiv . . . (povevfievovs kv tm decirpu), is quoted m 
Dindorf s ' Thesaurus,' and tlie Avord is thus rendered : — " Est 
major tigris species, similis onagro, \\t ait anonymus, in cod. 
Augustano, cap. X." Liddell & Scott looked upon the first element 
as qualitative — they seem to have thought that a hippotigris was 
a tiger as big as a horse, not a horse-like beast with tiger-like 
stripes. Camelopard and leopai-d, which have Greek forms, do 
not favour their definition. One would think that " hippotigris " 
must have occurred in Low Latin ; it is not, however, entered in 
Ducange or Forcellini. 

One sentence in Ludolphvis ofiiers some difiiculty : " Attamen 
caput equino aliquanto longius habent, quod hie vidi." It is not 
clear whether he saw a living animal or a picture. It is not im- 
possible that a zebra may ha,ve been sent to Rome ; but Ludolphus 
probably refers to a pictiu^e. Aldrovandus (De Quadrup. i. 416) 
mentions " figura quse in libro Romse impresso patet," and it is 
certain that Father Tellez, S.J., sent home a picture of which one 
would like to know moi'e. 

In 1678, apparently in reply to some inqiiiries, Ludolphus 
received a letter from Emanuel Nawendorf, a native of Altenburg, 
then resident in Batavia. He had seen two of these wild asses, 
brought by an Arab envoy from the Emperor of Abyssinia to the 
Governor of the Dutch East India Company. This personage 
utilised the royal gifts in a strange way. He sent them to the 
Emperor of Japan, getting in return ten thovisand silver taels and 
thii'ty Japanese garments. 

Jean de Thevenot left Rome on his eastern journey in 1655, 
and after some stay in Constantinople went to Cairo, where he 
saw one of these zebras * : — 

" Au mois d'Octobre il arrive au Caire un ambassadeur d'Ethi- 
opie, qui avait plusieurs presents pour le Grand Seigneur, entre 
les autres, un ^ne qui avait une peau fort belle, pourvu qu'elle f ut 
naturelle, car je n'en voudrais pas repondre, ne I'ayant point ex- 
aminee ; cet ane avait le raye du dos noire, et tout le reste du 
corps etait bigarre de rayes blanches et rayes tannees alternative- 
ment, larges chacun d'un doigt, qui lui ceignaient tout le corps, 
sa tete etait extremement longue et bigarree comme le corps, les 
oreilles fort larges par en haut, commes celles d'un buffle, et noires, 
jaunes, et blanches, ses jambes bigarrees de meme que le corps, 
non pas en longue des jambes, mais a I'entour jusqu'au bas, en 
faQon de jarreti^re le tout avec tant d'ordre et de mesure qu'il n'y 
a point Alagia t si bien varie et proportionne, ni de peau de tigre 
ou de leopard si belle. II mourut a cet ambassadeur deux ^nes 

* ' Relatious d'un Voyage,' i. cli. Ixviii. (Paris, 1664). 

f The only suggestion 1 can offer is that this word signifies some fabric with a 
regular pattern [from Turk. aZa7a= spotted, streaked]. The ' Century Dictionary ' 
has aZa4;«, defined as "nearly the same na a latcJia." Under this, one reads: "A 
cotton stuflt' made in Central Asia, dyed in the thread, and woven with white stripes 
ou a blue ground." This has reference to E. Schuyler's " Turkestan." And in 
' La Grande Encyclopedic' this entry occurs : — " Aladja (Comm.). Sorte de bourre 
de soie que Ton fabrique a Magn^sie, et qu'on emploie surtout pour les velours 
d'Orient." 



1905.] MR. J. LEWIS BOXHOTE OX HYBRID DUCKS. 147 

pareils par les cliemins et il en povtait les peaux poui' presenter an 
Grand Seigneur, avec celui qui etait vivant." 

There is no reason to doubt that the zebra which Thevenot saw 
at Cairo eventually reached Constantinople. In the report sent 
to the Superior at Rome, Father Tellez, S.J., gives his description 
of the animal* : — 

" Ce pays nourrit deux especes d'animaux qui hii sont particu- 
liers, le premier qu'ils nomment ane saaxvage est de la grandeur 
d'une moyenne mule, de bon taille, gras, le poil couche, et qui n'a 
rien de Fane que les oreilles. II est sauvage, mais Ton I'appii- 
voise aisement ; ceux qui sont en Ethiopia viennent dans les 
bois qui sont par dela le pays qiie possedent aujourd'hui les Galles ; 
la bigarrure de son poil est singuliere, ce sont des bandes grises, 
noires tirantes sur le roux, toutes de meme largeur et propoi-tion, 
qui se tournent en cercles vers les flancs, et ailleurs en volutes, 
comme la figure vous le representera encore mieux que le discours 
ne le pourrait faire." 

It is perhaps allowable to suggest that the picture here refei'red 
to may have been seen by Ludolphus, and was the original of his 
engraving. 

In continuing his story Father Tellez puts the question of the 
arrival of an Abyssinian zebra in Constantinople bej^ond the 
shadow of a doubt : — 

" L'Empereur d'Ethiopie fit present d'un de ces animaux au 
Bacha de Suaquem [Suakin] qu'un Indien acheta apres de lui 
2000 sequins pour le pi-esenter au Grand Mogol. Le meme 
Empereur en ayont encore envoye un autre a un Bacha de 
Suaquem a cause qxi'il avait laisse passer des Jesuites en Ethiopie, 
sans leur faire tort ; quand il f ut de retour a Constantinople, il en 
fit present au Grand Seigneur, qui en fut si content qu'il donna 
en recompense a ce Bacha une charge bien plus grande que celle 
qu'il avait exercee au par avant." 

It may be pointed out that there is no question as to the 
habitat of this zebra, and, though thei'e are some discrepancies in 
the accounts of the coloration, the authors quoted ascribe to the 
animal characteristics of Grevy's Zebra — large size, equine head, 
and very large ears; and one is definite as to the narrow striping — 
" a finger broad." Till the statement of Father Tellez is shown 
to be incorrect, are w^e not justified in believing that at least one 
living example of the Abyssinian Zebra reached Constantinople in 
the third quarter of the seventeenth century ? 



Mr. J. Lewis Bonhote, F.Z.S., exhibited specimens and made 
remarks with reference to a series of experiments on the hy- 
bridisation of Ducks, which he had been caiTying out for several 
years past. 

The hybrids exhibited dealt mainly with four species, viz. : — 
the Mallard [Anas boschas), the Indian Spotbill Duck [Anas 
pcecilorhyncha), the Grey or New Zealand Duck (^Anas super- 
ciliosa), and the Pintail (Dct/ila actUa). 

* Melcliizedek Thevenot, ' Relations de divers Voyages,' ii. pp. 6, 7 (Paris, 1696). 



148 



MR. J. LEWIS BONHOTE ON HYBRID DUCKS. [Mar. 7, 



The following table shows exactly the various hybrids, and 
examples of all of them were exhibited : — 



N 



OQ 



m 



m 



II 



Ph 



-N 






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W. 



c^ 



II 



-PM 



-Ph 



-N 



N 
m 

% 



m 



o 



CO' 
-Ph 






-pH 



02 
-Ph 



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5J 5J 








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n 


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H 


5 a= ^-' S 


Iz; 






■^ 1=1 "l" _ 
;h .^75 ts] i:;^ 


|3 


03 r^ ^ e3 


;:ii 4^ > +3 


CO 


■^ o £ S 
ScoJz; Ph 


^ 


II II II II 


H 


gasNp^ 


w 




O 





1905.] MR. J. LEWIS BONHOTE ON HYBRID DUCKS. 149 

Mr. Bonhote first dealt in a general way with the appearance 
of the various specimens, pointing out how the three parent 
hybrids between the Mallard, Spotbill, and Pintail tended to 
divide themselves into two distinct forms — a light and a dark, 
which differed chiefly in the amount of white. 

The light forms when bred together produced birds as light or 
slightly lighter than themselves ; a tendency which was confirmed 
in a still more marked manner in the third generation, so much 
so, that in a full-plumaged drake the only sign of its parentage 
was represented by the spotted bill of A . 2^<^ciiorhy7icha and the 
upturned tail-coverts of the Mallard. 

It was fui'ther pointed out that, as in the case of the Mallard- 
Spotbill hybrids*, so in the case of the Mallard-Spotbill- Pintail, 
the drakes in their full plumage showed chiefly signs of the 
Mallard and Pintail, whereas in the eclipse plumage the Spotbill 
was largely predominant. 

Mr. Bonhote then briefly discussed some of the results obtained 
by hybridisation, after laying stress on the antagonism between 
Natural Selection and Variation, and how the one tended to 
keep the species pure and fixed in spite of the innate tendency 
of every individual to vary, and also pointing out how, in spite of 
Katural Selection, marked variations were constantly making their 
appearance among pure species — as, for instance, in the so-called 
Pavo nigripennis, or in Athene chiaradice, a peculiar form of the 
Little Owl (which was described from Italy a few years ago), or, 
again, in the well-known Sabine's Snipe. 

Whatever might be the actual cause, there could be no denying 
the fact that hybrids tended to show^ a considerable amount of 
variation, exhibiting characteristics which might be very mis- 
leading to those who did not know their parentage. 

As a rule, hybrids, while showing on most jDarts of their body 
the characteristics of their parents, exhibited in addition other 
markings. These last sometimes resembled the characters of 
other species, but in certain cases showed affinity with no known 
forms. Further, there was a gTeat tendency to become white, 
and this last feature was ascribed to weakness, as it tended to 
increase in each generation that was further removed from the 
pure wild species. 

Instances were given where, in certain characters, individual 
Mallard-Sj)ot bill- Pintail showed resemblances to Teal, Gadwall, 
Wigeon, etc., and where Mallard-Spotbill-New Zealand crosses 
showed resemblances to Teal and Pintail. 

Other specimens were also exhibited, showing patterns and 
markings that resembled no known species. 

Mr. Bonhote did not believe these resemblances to be due 
to reversion, but merely to variation ; pointing out that in all 
probability the progenitors of the existing Anatidfe had a 
potentiality of variation as great as or even greater than that of 
their descendants of today, and that ovir present species showed 

* P. Z. S. 1902, vol. ii. p. 318. 



150 MR. J. LEWLS BONHOTE ON HYBRID DUCKS. [Mar. 7, 

those varieties which had proved successful. If by hybridisation 
we again gave variation its play, it would be only natural that a 
large number of the varieties produced should bear a resemblance 
to existing species ; but, on the other hand, if this view held 
good, the unsuccessful varieties should also appear, which was 
shown to be the case among those individuals some of the 
characters of which could be referred to no known species. 

Reference was made to a paper by the authoi'*, recently read 
before the Linnean Society, in which he had pointed out that 
patches of colour or absence of colom* tended to show themselves 
first of all on certain fixed parts of the body, on both mammals and 
birds, and for which the name "poecilomeres" had been given. He 
then demonstrated that the variations occurring on these hybrids 
all followed the lines of the poecilomeres. 

As illusti-ating the foregoing remarks, Mr. Bonhote exhibited : 

(1) A male Teal in full plumage, shot wild near Cambridge, and 
showing on the neck the ring of the Mallard. 

(2) A Sabine's Snipe, in Avhich the back and tail-feathers were 
shown to approximate to the Great Snipe rather than to the 
Common Snipe. This was a constant feature in all the true 
Sabine's Snipe that he had examined. 

These were exhibited as being instances of natural varieties, 
showing characters more or less resembling those in other species. 

A duck was also shown which had i-ecently been shot in 
England, and brought to the British Museum. There could be 
but little doubt that it represented a cross between a Pintail and 
Wigeon, since the back, with the exception of the scapulai's, 
resembled that of a Pintail, and the breast that of a young Wigeon 
drake. The head, however, vvas very peculiar, the crown showing 
a mixture of Pintail and Wigeon, while a patch behind the eye, 
resembling that found in the Teal, was of a dull metallic bronze ; 
the sides of the face showed an irregular line of rufous buif, and 
the chin was dull brownish black. It was worthy of note that the 
metalhc patch was clearly noticeable, though not so marked, in 
the American Wigeon ; while the h\if£ stripe across the face 
was found in the New-Zealand Duck. 

Attention was called to a pair of Sheldrake-Call-duck crosses, 
which had been bred at Kilberry, as stated in the ' Field ' of 
the 25th February, 1905, and kindly sent to the author by 
Mr. Campbell. Whether or not they were hybrids, Mr. Bonhote 
could not say ; but the interest lay in the fact that all the Call- 
ducks there were of the colour of the wild Maliai'd, and that these 
specimens (as they could see) differed in having assumed patches 
of white, and these patches all followed the lines of poecilomeres, 
and showed clearly that the metallic patch of the Teal, which had 
been present in so many of the crosses, was in this case visible, 
though to a much slighter extent, as a white patch. 

Lastly, there was exhibited a pair of living birds representing 

* Jouru. Lirm. Soc, Zool. xxix. p. 185 (1904). 



1905.] MR. G. A. BOULEXGBR ON FISHES FROM LAKE CHAD. 151 

a cross between four species, namely, the Mallard, Spotbill, Pintail, 
and New-Zealand Duck. 

In conclusion, Mr. Bonliote said that it was far too early in his 
experiments to do more tha,n quote the bare facts ; but that, from 
the facts he had laid before them, there could be no doubt that 
hybridisation tended to produce variations that followed on the 
lines of the pcecilomeres, and that in so doing resemblances were 
shown towards other species that had no part in their parentage. 



Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., exhibited a series of Fishes from 
Lake Chad and the Shari River, collected and presented to the 
British Museum by Capt. G. B. Gosling, and offered the following 
remarks : — 

The fact that so many species of fishes are common to the Xile 
and the Senegal- ISTiger, now so widely separated, has long ago led 
ichthyologists to assume a former communication, in times geo- 
logically recent, between these river-systems, and to regard Lake 
Chad as probably representing the dwindling I'emains of a series 
of lakes by which this communication was effected. But, with 
the exception of a series sent to the Paris Mviseum a few months 
ago and not yet reported upon in a published form, the fishes 
of Lake Chad and the rivers that flow into it had never been 
collected. Thanks to Capt. Gosling, we are now able to draw up 
the following list of 23 species, belonging to 7 families : — 

MoRMYRiD^. Petrocephalus heme Lacep., Mormyrus caschive 
Hasselqr {jitbelini C. & Y.), Hyperojyistts bebe Lacep., Gym- 
narchus niloticus Cuv. 

Characinid^. Hydrocyon hrevis Gthr., Alestes baremose 
Joannis, A. dentex L., A. nurse Riipp., Dlstichodus rostratus 
Gthr., D. brevipinnis Gthr., Citharinus citharus Geoffr. 

Cyprinid^. Labeo horie Heck, (senegalensis C. & Y.). 

SiLURiD^. Glarias lazera C. & Y., Heterobranchus senegalensis 
C. & Y,, Schilhe tnystus L., Glarotes laticeps Riipp., Bagrus 
bayad Forsk., Synodontls darias L., 6'. batensoda Riipp., 
/S'. serratus Riipp. 

SerraniDtE. Lates niloticus Hasselq. 

CiCHLiD^. Tilapia nilotica L. 

Tetrodontid^. Tetrodon fahaka Hasselq. 

All these species, without a single exception, are common to 
the Nile and the Niger, thus realising in a most striking manner 
our anticipations. 



The foUowing papers were read :- 



152 MR. C, TATE REGAN ON SOUTH- AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 

1. A Revision of the Fishes o£ the South-American Cichlid 
Genera Crenacara, Batraohops, and Crenicichla. By 
C, Tate Eegan, B.A., F.Z.S. 

[Received Februarj- 7, 1905. | 

(Plates XIY. & XV.*) 

The genei"a dealt with in the following revision are distinguished 
from all other Cichlid^ by the denticulated posterior margin of 
the preeoperculum. I have given a list of the specimens in the 
British Museum Collection on which my descriptions are based, 
with the total length in millimetres of each. 

Crenacara. 

Crenicara Steind. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixxi. 1875, p. 99 ; Eigenm. 
& Bray, Ann. Ac. N. York, vii. 1894, p. 619 ; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. 
Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 169 (1904). 

Dicrossus Steind. t. c. p. 102 ; Eigenm. & Bray, t. c. p. 620; 
Pellegr. t. c. p. 170. 

Body ovate or elongate, more or less compressed ; scales large, 
ctenoid. Two lateral lines ; scales of the lateral line of the same 
size as those above and below it. Mouth small ; Jaws equal 
anteriorly ; maxillary not exposed ; a band of small conical teeth 
in each jaw ; upper surface of head scaly to between the orbits ; 
cheeks and opercular bones scaly ; posterior border of p'rseoperculum 
finely denticulated. Gill-rakers short, few. A single dorsal with 
XIV-XYII 8-9 rays. Anal with III 7-8 rays. Pectoral 
asymmetrical, with 15 rays; ventrals a little behind the bases of 
the pectorals. Caudal rounded. 

Two species from the Amazon and Guiana. 

1. Crenacara punctulata. 

Acara punctulata (part.) Glinth. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, xii, 
1863, p. 441. 

Crenicara elegans Steind. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixxi. 1875, p. 99, 
pi. i. fig. 1. 

Crenicara punctulata Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 
1903, p. 169 (1904). 

Depth of body 2^-2|- in the length, length of head 3^. Snout 
a little shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 2| in the 
length of head and equals the interorbital width. Depth of 
prseorbital | the diameter of eye. Maxillary not extending to 
below the eye ; jaws eqvial anteriorly ; cheek with 3 or 4 series 
of scales, none on the prseoperculum ; 6 gill-rakers on the lower 
part of anterior arch. Scales 29 |, 1 between lateral line and 

* For explanation of the Plates, see p. 168. 



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1905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID^. 153 

anterior rays of soft dorsal. Dorsal XVI (XVII 8) 9, commencing 
above the opercular cleft, the spines not or only slightly increasing- 
after the fifth, the last ^-f the length of head ; soft fin extending 
to anterior i of caudal. ' Anal III (7) 8. Soft dorsal and anal 
scaleless. Pectoral longer than the head; ventral extending 
about to origin of anal. Cavidal rounded. Caudal peduncle as 
long as deep. Brownish, with a series of darker blotches on and 
above the lateral line and another more distinct series below the 
lateral line ; a dark stripe with white edges from eye to mouth ; 
posterior part of spinous dorsal, soft dorsal, and middle part of 
caudal with alternate light and dark stripes or series of spots ; 
anal with a blackish edge. 
R. Amazon ; Guiana. 
1. (104 mill.) type of the species. E. Essequibo. Mr. Elirhardt. 

2. Obenacara maculata, 

Dicrossus macwZai^ifs Steind. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixxi. 1875, p. 102; 
Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 170 (1904). 

Depth of body 3^4 in the length, length of head a little more 
than 3. Snout shorter than eye, the diameter of which is 2| in 
the length of head and a little greater than the interorbital 
width. Depth of preeorbital \^ the diameter of eye. Maxillary 
extending to below the eye ; jaws equal anteriorly ; cheek with 
3 series of scales, none on the prfeoperculum. Scales 26 ^, 1 
between lateral line and anterior rays of soft dorsal. Dorsal 
XIV 9, the spines only slightlj^ increasing after the fifth, the 
last more than ^ the length of head ; soft fin extending to or 
beyond base of caudal. Anal III 7. Pectoral as long as the 
head ; ventral extending beyond origin of anal, sometimes to its 
posterior end. Caudal rounded. Caudal peduncle longer than 
deep. Colour as in G. inmcUdata, the body with 2 series of 
dark blotches, a dark stripe from eye to mouth, the vertical fins 
with alternate light and dark spots. 

R. Amazon. 

The types described by Steindachner measure up to 60 mm. in 
total length. 

Batrachops. 

Batracho'ps Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 432. 

Grenicichla (part.) Gunth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 305 (1862) ; Eigenm. 
t Bray, Ann. Ac. N. York, vii. 1894, p. 620; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. 
Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 372 (1904). 

Boggiania Perugia, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) xviii. 1897, p. 148 ; 
Pellegr. t. c. p. 371. 

Body elongate, little compressed ; scales moderate, ctenoid. 
Two lateral lines ; scales of the lateral line larger than the rest. 
Mouth moderate or large; lower jaw projecting; maxillary 
exposed distally ; teeth conical, in 2 or 3 series in each jaw, the 
outermost series enlarged, especially in the lower jaw; none of 



154 MR. C. TATE REGAN ON SOUTH- AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 

the teeth depressible. Upper surface of head usually scaly about 
to the level of the orbits ; cheeks and opercular bones scaly ; 
posterior border of prseoperculum finely denticulated. Gill- rakers 
short, few. A single dorsal fin, with XXII-XXIV 10-13 rays. 
Anal with III 7-10 rays. Pectoral symmetrical, rounded, with 
about 17 rays; ventrals behind the bases of the pectorals. Caudal 
rounded. 

Five species from South America. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. 55-60 scales in a longitudinal series below tlie lateral line. 

Maxillary extending beyond middle of eye 1. ocellatiis. 

Maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye 2. semifasciatus. 

II. 66-70 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line. 

A. Maxillary extending a little beyond anterior margin of 

eye. 
Diameter of eye 4-5 in the length of head, interorbital width 2^-3 

(in specimens of from 85 to 250 mm. in total length)" 3. reticuJatus. 

Diameter of eye 4^ in the length of head, interorbital width 3^ 

(in a specimen of 140 mm. in total length) 4. punctulatus. 

B. Maxillary extending to below anterior j of eye; diameter 

of eye 3J in the length of head and nearly equal to the 
interorbital width (in a specimen of 150 mm. in total 
length) 5. ct/anonotiis. 

1 . Batrachops ocellatus. 

Boggiania ocellata Perugia, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) xviii. 1897, 
p. 148 ; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 371 (1904). 

Depth of body 4 in the length, length of head 3|. Diameter 
of eye 5| in the length of head, length of snout 4, interoi-bital 
width 2i. Xosti-il equidistant from eye and tip of snout. 
Maxillary extending nearly to below posterior margin of eye ; 
depth of prfeorbital k the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth 
forming 3 series in each jaw. 7 or 8 gill-rakers on the lower part 
of anterior arch. Scales feebly denticulated except on the head, 
the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly above the 

lateral line, 74 j-g, 60 in a longitudinal series below the lateral 
line, 4 between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 2 between upper 
and lower lateral lines. Dorsal XXII 11, the spines subequal 
from about the eighth, the last nearly ^ the length of head. Anal 
III 8. Pectoral j, ventral nearly |- the length of head. Caudal 
peduncle | as long as deep. Olivaceous, with indistinct darker 
longitudinal stripes along the series of scales ; a blackish ocelkis 
on the upper part of the base of caudal. 

Upper Paraguay. 

Through the kindness of Dr. R. Gestro, of the Genoa Museum, 
I have been able to examine the type of this species, which 
measures 265 millimetres in total length. The posterior margin 
of the prgeoperculum is denticulated and the gill- membranes are 
free from the isthmus, as in other species of this genus. 



1905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID/E. 155 

2. Batrachops SEMIFASCIATUS. 

Batrachops semifasciatus Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii, 1840, p. 436. 

Crenicichla semifasciata Glinth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 309 (1862) ; 
Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 375 (1904). 

Depth of bod}^ 4-5 in the length, length of head 3-3|. 
Diameter of eye 4|-5^ in the length of head. Nostril nearer to 
tip of snout than to eye. Maxillary extending to below anterior 
margin of eye ; depth of prseorbital 5 the diameter of eye. 
Anterior teeth forming about 3 series in each jaw. Scales 
denticulated except on the head, the lower parts of thorax and 
abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 55-57 in a longi- 
tudinal series below the lateral line, 22 ^^^ ^ ti-ansverse series. 
Lateral line 24-26 + 12-15. Dorsal XXII-XXIII 10-12. Anal 
III 7-10. Pectoral f the length of head. Caudal peduncle about 
as long as deep. Scales of the sides of the body yellowish with 
dark brown margins ; a dark stripe from eye to operculum ; 
sometimes 7 or 8 dark cross-bars on the upper part of the body ; 
a dark ocellus on the uj)per part of the base of caudal; fins 
unspotted. 

Rio de la Plata and its tributaries. 

The type, from the R. Paraguay, measures 150 mm. in total 
length. 

3. Batrachops reticulatus. 

Batrachops reticulatus Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 433. 

Crenicichla reticulata Giinth. Cat. Fish. ir. p. 309 (1862). 

Crenicichla elegans Steind. Denkschr. Ak. Wien, xiiv. 1882, 
p. 15; PeUegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 378 (1904). 

Depth of body about 5 in the length, length of head about 3 5. 
Diameter of eye 4-5 in the length of head, length of snout 3^-4, 
interorbital width 2|-3. Nostril nearer to tip of snout than to 
eye. Maxillary extending a little beyond anterior margin of eye ; 
depth of prfeorbital | the diameter of eye or less. Anterior teeth 
forming about 3 series in each jaw. Scales denticulated except 
on the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and 
anteriorly above the lateral line, 66-70 in a longitudinal series 

9 
below the lateral line, ^ in a transverse series between origin of 

dorsal and ventral fin. Lateral line 23-26 + 11-13. Dorsal XXII- 
XXIV 11-12, the spines subequal from the tenth, the last ^ the 
length of head or less. Anal III 8. Pectoral |-|, ventral |-|- 
the length of head. Brownish, each scale on the side of the body 
with a dark brown spot at the base and a yellow margin ; a dark 
stripe from eye to extremity of operculum ; a dark ocellus on the 
upper part of the base of caudal; spinous dorsal with 3 longi- 
tudinal series of dark spots, which increase in number to 6 on the 
soft fin ; anal with or without a few sj)ots posteriorly ; caudal 
sometimes with dark mai'ginal bands above and below. 

The type of the species, from the Rio JSTegro, measures about 



156 MR. C. TATE REGAN ON SOUTH- AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 

250 mm. in total length. The types of C. elegans, from the 
Peruvian Amazon, 85 and 105 mm. respectively. 

4. Batrachops punctulatus, sp. n. (Plate XIV. fig. 1.) 

Crenicichla reticulata (non Heck.) Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France, xvi. 1903, p. 378 (1904). 

Depth of body 5|- in the leng-th, length of head 3^. Diameter 
of eye 4| in the length of head, leng-th of snout 3g, interorbital 
width Zh. Nostril nearer to tip of snout than to eye. Maxillary 
extending a little beyond anterior margin of eye ; depth of 
prseorbital | the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 3 series 
in each jaw. 9 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. 
Scales denticulated except on the head, the lower parts of thorax 

and abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 80^, 68 in a 
longitudinal series below the lateral line, 4 or 5 between last 
dorsal spine and lateral line, 3 between upper and lower lateral 
lines. Dorsal XXIII (XXIV 11-12) 13, the spines subequal from 
the tenth, the last nearly |- the length of head. Anal III (7) 8. 
Pectoral nearly j, ventral more than ^ the length of head. 
Caudal peduncle as long as deep. Brownish, each scale with a 
dark spot at the base ; a dai-k band from eye to operculum, ending 
in a spot above the pectoral ; traces of cross-bars on the body ; a 
blackish ocellated spot on the upper part of the base of caudal ; 
dorsal with a blackish intramarginal band. 
Guiana, R. Amazon. 
1. (140 mm.) type of tlie species. E. Essequibo. Mr. Ehrhardt. 

5. Batrachops cyanonotus. 

Crenicichla cyanonotus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xi. 1871, 
p. 569 ; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 378 (1904). 

Depth of body about 5^ in the length, length of head abouit 3^ 
(6 1 and 4 respectively in the total length, with caudal). Snout as 
long as the eye, the diameter of which is 3| in the length of head 
and nearly equal to the interorbital width. Maxillary extending 
to below anterior ^ of eye. 66 scales in a longitudinal series 
below the lateral line, 5 in a transverse series above the lateral 
line (? at about the middle of the spinous dorsal), 13 between 
lateral line and the ventral fin. Dorsal XXIV 1 1 . Anal III 8. 
Olivaceous; 7 oblique dark cross-bars on the body; a dark stripe 
from eye to extremity of operculum ; a dark ocellus on the upper 
part of the base of caudal ; dorsal and anal fins unspotted, blue at 
the base. 

The type, from the R. Maranon, Upper Amazon, measures 
150 mm. in total length. 

Crenicichla. 

Creniciclila Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 416. 

Crenicichla (part.) Gunth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 305 (1862) ; Eigenm. 
k Bray, Ann. Ac. X. York, vii. 1894, p. 620; Pellegr.' Mem. Soc. 
Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 372 (1904). 

Body oblong or elongate, more or less compressed ; scales small 



]905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID.E. 157 

or moderate, ctenoid or cycloid. Two lateral lines ; scales of the 
lateral lines larger than the rest. Mouth moderate or large ; lower 
jaw projecting ; maxillary exposed distally ; teeth conical, in 
several series in each jaw, those of the outermost series usually 
slightly or moderately enlarged ; teeth of the inner series 
depressible. Upper surface of head scaly about to the level of the 
orbits ; cheeks and opercular bones scaly ; posterior border of 
preeoperculum finely denticulated. Gill-rakers short, few (8-12 
on the lower part of anterior arch). A single dorsal fin, with 
XVI-XXY 11-19 rays. Anal with III 7-12 rays. Pectoral 
symmetrical, rounded, with 15-20 rays ; ventrals behind the bases 
of the pectorals. Caudal rounded. 
Sixteen species from South America. 

Skeleton, 

In Crenicichla Johanna the skull is depressed and nearly flat 
above, the supraoccipital and parietal crests being almost obsolete ; 
the former gives rise posteriorly to a rather strong backwardly 
directed process ; a feeble transverse ridge between the orbits forms 
the posterior border of a broad depression for the reception of the 
prtemaxillary processes, which are rather shoi't and do not reach 
the frontals. The vertebral column consists of 23 prfecaudal and 
1 8 caudal vertebrte ; parapophyses are developed on the fourth 
and succeeding preecaudals and are mostly strong and almost 
horizontal ; the first tloi-ee ribs are sessile, the others inserted on 
the parapophyses ; the epipleurals, except those of the two anteiior 
ribless vertebrae, are attached either to the ribs or to the para- 
pophyses near the insertion of the ribs ; none of the anterior 
vertebrse shows any trace of inferior apophyses. The pelvic bones 
diverge anteriorly. The lower pharyngeals are united by a 
sti-aight suture and form a broad triangular piece. 

In Crenicichla saxatilis the skeleton is essentially similar, but 
the cranial crests are more distinct and the longer prsemaxillary 
processes extend to the transverse ridge on the frontals. There 
are 20 praecaudal and 15 caudal vertebra. 

Synopsis of the Species. 

I. Scales ctenoid, at least on the side of the body below the 
lateral line ; nostril equidistant from tip of snout and 
ej'e, or nearer the latter. 
A. 38-70 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral 
line. 

1. Maxillary extending beyond anterior margin of eye. 
38-46 scales in a longitudinal series below the Meral line; 

depth of body 3-4 in the length. D. XVI-XVIII 13-16. 1. lepidota. 
50-62 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line; 

depth of body 3|-4f in the length. D. XVII-XX 13-16. 2. saxatilis. 
65-70 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line ; 

depth of body 4f-5i in the length. D. XIX-XXI 13-14. 3. lucius. 
54-57 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line; 

depth of body 5-5i in the length. D. XX-XXII 11-12 . 4. ffeayi. 

2. Maxillary extending to the vertical from anterior 

margin of eye ; 63-70 scales in a longitudinal series 
below the lateral line. 



158 MR. C. TATE REGAN ON SOUTH-AMERICAN [Mcar. 7, 

D. XX-XXIII 12-13. A. Ill 8-10; diameter of eye i the 

length of head (in a specimen of 169 mm.) 5. lacustris. 

D. XX-XXir 10-11. A. Ill 7-8 ; diameter of eye \ the length 

of head (in a specimen of 225 mm.) 6. macropJithalmws. 

3. Maxillaiy not extending to the vertical from anterior 
margin of eye; 57 scales in a longitudinal series 
below the lateral line. D. XVIIl-XX 11-13. 

A. Ill 7-9 7. tvaUacii. 

B. 84-130 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral 
line. 
1. Maxillary not extending to below the ej^e: snout 
more than ^ the length of head. 
a. Interorbital width 4|-5 in the length of head. 
1). XXIII 13-14. A. Ill 9-10. 84-95 scales in a longitudinal 

series below the lateral line 8. vittata. 

D. XXIV 14. A. Ill 11. 113 scales in a longitudinal series 

below the lateral line 9. acutirostris. 

h. Interorbital width 3i in the length of head. 

D. XXIV-XXV 13-14. A. Ill 9-10 10. muUispinosa. 

2.* Maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye 

or a little beyond ; snout -J- the length of head or 

less. 

a. Scales above posterior part of upper lateral line 

ctenoid. D. XXII-XXIII 15-17. A. Ill 10-12. 

93-108 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 

14-16 between first dorsal spine and lateral line ; snout 

3|-3| in the length of head 11. strigata. 

106-113 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 
16-17 between first dorsal spine and lateral line; snout 

3-3^ in the length of head 12. Itignbris. 

120 scales in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 20 

between first dorsal spine and lateral line 13. ciiicta. 

h. Scales above upper lateral line all cycloid ; 112- 
130 in a longitudinal series below the lateral line. 
D. XXI-XXIII 17-19. A. Ill 11-12. 
18-20 scales between first dorsal spine and lateral line ; maxil- 
lary extending a little beyond anterior margin of ej^e 14. ornata. 

15 or 16 scales between first dorsal spine and lateral line; 

maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye 15. lenticulata. 

II. Scales cycloid, small ; nostril nearer to tip of snout than 

to eye \Q. jolianna. 

1 , Crenicichla lepidota. 

Crenicichla lepidota Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 429 ; 
Hens. Arch. f. N'a,t..l870, p. 55; Steind. Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixx. 
1874, p. 520 ; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 372 
(1904). 

Depth of body 3-4 in the length, length of head 3. Diameter 
of eye 34-5 in the length of head, length of snout 3|— 4 and equal 
to the interorbital width. Nostril nearer to eye than to tip of 
snout. Maxillary extending to below anterior ^ of eye or beyond ; 
depth of prseorbital f the diameter of eye or less. Anterior teeth 

* Crenicichla hrasiliensis var. marmorata (Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. Prance, xvi. 
1903, p. 383, fig.) is probably a valid species belonging to this section, but is 
insufficiently described. D. XXIV 17. A. Ill 11. Scales 116 {i. e. below the 
lateral line) ^. Yellowish ; an irregular brown band at the base of the dorsal ; a 
series of brown spots and blotches along the middle of the side. The Ferca 
hrasiUensis of Bloch does not resemble any known species of Crenicichla and may 
represent a young example of CichJa temensis Humb. 



1905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID^. 159 

forming 4 series in the upper jaw, 3 in the lower. 10 or 11 gill- 
rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticulated 
except on the head and the lower parts of the thorax and 
abdomen, 48-60 jf^n? 38-46 in a longitudinal series below the 
lateral line, 2-3| between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 
2 between upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 21- 
24 + 7-10. Dorsal (XYI) XVII-XYIII 13-14 (15-16), the 
spines subequal or only slightly increasing from the sixth, the 
last ^-| the length of head. Anal III 8-10. Pectoral f-|, 
ventral '^|-| the length of head. Caudal peduncle deeper than long. 
Brownisli ; a dark stripe from snout through eye to extremity 
of operculum, continued on the body as a longitudinal band in 
the young ; a dark oblique stripe below the eye ; a dark blotch 
above the pectoral ; sometimes obscure cross-bars on the upper 
part of the body ; a dark spot or ocellus on the upper half of the 
base of caudal ; vertical fins greyish, the dorsal sometimes with 
a blackish edge, the soft dorsal and caudal sometimes with clear 
spots. 

Southern Brazil ; Rio de la Plata. 

1. (159 mm.) Rio Grande do Sul. Dr. H. von Ihering. 

2. (69 mm.) Upper Paraguay. Dr. A. Borelli. 

3. (76 ram.) Carandasiuho, Matto Grosso. Dr. A. Borelli. 

4. (162 mm.) Paraguay. Dr. Ternetz. 

2. Okenicichla saxatilis. 

Linn. Mus. Ad. Frid. p. 65, pi. xxxi. fig. 1 (1754). 

Gronov. Mus, Ichth. ii. No. 185, p. 29, pi. vi. fig. 3 (1756). 

Sparus saxatilis Linn. Syst. Nat. (ed. 10), p. 278 (1758). 

Scams rufescens Gronov. Zoophyl. p. 67, pi. vi. fig. 3 (1763). 

Perca saxatilis Bloch, Ausl. Fische, vi. p. 79, pi. 309 (1792). 

Cichla lahrina Agass. in Spix, Pise. Bras. p. 99, pi. Ixii. fig. 1 
(1829) ; Schomb. Fish. Guiana, p. 139, pi. iii. (1843). 

Crenicichla saxatilis Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 432 ; 
Gunth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 308 (1862) ; Eigenm. & Bray, Ann. Ac. 
N. York, vii. 1894, p. 620; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 
xvi. 1903, p. 373 (1904). 

Cychla rutilans Schomb. t. c. p. 142, pi. v. 

Scaj^us pavoninus Gronov. Oat. Fish. p. 67 (1854). 

Crenicichla frenata Gill, Ann. Lye. X. York, vi. 1858, p. 386, 

Crenicichla proteus Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. xxiii. 1872, p. 252 ; 
Pellegr. 1. c. 

Crenicichla proteus, var. argynnis Cope, 1. c. 

Crenicichla saxatilis, var. semicincta Steind. Denkschr. Ak. 
Wien, lix. 1892, p. 376 ; Pellegr. t. c. p. 374. 

Crenicichla argynnis Pellegr. t. c. p. 373. 

Crenicichla saxatilis, var. albo2mnctata Pellegr. t. c. p. 374. 

Crenicichla vaillanti Pellegr. Bull. Mus. Paris, 1903, p. 124, 
and t. c. p. 376. 

Depth of body 3|-4f in the length, length of head 3-3|. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. No. XI. 11 



160 



MR. C. TATE REGAN ON SOUTH- AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 



Diameter of eye 3|-5^ in the length of head, length of snont 
3-3|, interorbital width 3-4. Nostril nearer to eye than to tip 
of snout. Maxillary extending to beloAv anterior ^ of eye ; depth 
of prfeorbital ^^ the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 
4 or 5 series in the upper jav/, 3 or 4 in the lower. 9-11 gill- 
rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticulated 
except on the head and the lower parts of thorax and abdomen, 

60-73 i^zi^, 50-62 in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 
3-4§ between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 2 or 3 between 
upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 22-26 -f- 9-12. Dorsal 
XVII-XX 13-16, the spines subequal from about the eighth, the 
last |— I the length of head. Anal III 8-10. Pectoral about -|, 
ventral |— | the length of head. Caudal peduncle | to as long as 
deep. Olivaceous ; a dark stripe from eye to extremity of operculum, 
sometimes continued forward on the snout, rarely edged with 
white above and below ; often a dark spot or oblique stripe below 
the eye ; body with or without white spots, which may be numerous 
and well-developed ; sometimes a continuous dark longitudinal 
band from operculum to caudal, which may be represented by a 
series of blotches or by a single blotch, or sometimes an ocellated 
spot, above the pectoral ; a dark spot, often ocellated, on the upper 
part of the base of caudal ; dorsal and anal sometimes with a 
narrow dark edge ; spinous dorsal sometimes with an intramarginal 
series of blackish spots, one on each interradial membrane ; soft 
dorsal and caudal often with altei-nate series of light and dark spots. 
E,. Amazon ; Guiana ; Trinidad ; Rio Grande do Sul. 



1. 

2-4. 

5,6. 

7. 

8,9. 

10, 11. 

12. 

13-15. 

16-18. 

19. 

20-22. 

23. 

24, 25. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29-35. 



(133 mm.) 
(99-145 mm.) 
(89 and 103 mm.) 
(200 mm.) 
(171 and 226 mm.) 
(73 and 108 mm.) 
(217 mm.) 
(170-271 mm.) 
(150-201 mm.) 
(141 mm.) 
(165-211 mm.) 
(66 mm.) 

(154 and 205 mm.) 
(104 mm.) 
(155 mm.) 
(185 mm.) 
(153-251 mm.) 



Brit. Guiana. 
Demerara. 
Brit. Guiana. 

Guiana. 
R. Cupai. 
R. Essequibo. 



Surinam. 

Brit. Guiana. 

Berbice. 

Tabatinga. 

Rio Grande do Sul. 

Trinidad. 



Sir R. Scbomburgk. 
Dr. Hancock. 



Mr. Ehrhardt. 
College of Surgeons. 
Stuttgart Mus. 

Mr. Kappler. 
C. W. Cottam, Esq. 
J. G. Beckford, Esq. 
Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Dr. H. von Ihering. 
P. W. Urich, Esq. 
L. Guppy, Esq. 



3. CrENICICHLA LUCIUS. 

Grenicichla lucius Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. xi. 1871, p. 570 ; 
Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 377 (1904). 

Crenicichla anthurtis Cope, Proc. Ac. Philad. xxiii. 1872, p. 252, 
pi. x. fig. 1 ; Pellegr. 1. c. 

Depth of body 4-|-5| in the length, length of head 3. Diameter 
of eye 4|-6 in the length of head, length of snout 33-3|-, inter- 
orbital width 4-5^. Nostril nearer to eye than to tip of snout. 
Maxillary extending to below anterior 1 of eye ; depth of 



1905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID.E. 161 

praeorbital |—| the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 4 or 5 
series in the upper jaw, 3 or 4 in the lower. 10 or 11 gill-rakers 
on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticvilated except on 
the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen, and anteriorly 

9—11 • 

above the lateral line, 75-80 goiil^ 65-70 in a longitudinal series 

below the lateral line, 4|-6 between last dorsal spine and lateral 

line, 3 between upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 

23-24+12-1 3. Dorsal XIX-XXI 1 3-14, the spines only slightly 

increasing after the fifth or sixth, the last -^ the length of head. 

Anal III 10. Pectoral f-f, ventral |-| the length of head. 

Caudal peduncle li-lf as long as deep. Olivaaeous, sometimes 

with white spots on the body ; a dark stripe from snout through 

eye to extremity of operculum ; a dark ocellus on the lateral line 

above the pectoral, another on the upper part of the base of caudal ; 

soft dorsal and caudal greyish, with light spots. 

Amazons of Ecuador. 

1, 2. (123 and 150 mm.) Canelos. C. Buckley, Esq. 

3. (198 mm.) E. Zamora. Dr. H. Festa. 

4. Crenicichla geayi. 

Crenicichla geayi Pellegr. Bull. Mus. Paris, 1903, p. 123, and 
Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 375, pi. vi. fig. 4 (1904). 

Depth of body 5-5| in the length, length of head 3^. Diameter 
of eye 5 in the length of head, length of snout 3^, interorbital 
width 4. Nostril nearer to eye than to tip of snout. Maxillary 
extending to below middle of eye ; depth of praeorbital f the 
diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 4 series in the upper 
jaw, 3 in the lower. 9 or 10 gill-rakers on the lower part of 
anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except on the head, the lower 
parts of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 
65j| (^), 54 (57) in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 4 
between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 2 between upper and 
lower lateral lines. Lateral line 24-25+10-11. Dorsal XX 12 
(XXII 11), the spines only slightly increasing from the tenth, the 
last 5 the length of head. Anal III (8) 9. Pectoral |-|, ventral 
4 the length of head. Caudal peduncle longer than deep. 
Brownish ; a dark stripe from eye to extremity of operculum ; 
sometimes a series of blotches along the middle of the side ; a 
dark spot or ocellus on the upper part of the base of caudal. 

R. Orinoco. 

1. (159 mm.) Near Bogota. Mr. Cutter. 

This specimen agrees so well with the figure of the typical 
example of C. geayi given by Pellegrin that I have no hesitation 
in referring it to that species. The number of fin-rays (D. XX 12 
instead of XXII 11, A. Ill 9 instead of III 8) and of scales in a 
transverse series (fg instead of 25), although difierent, fall within 
the limits of individual variation, whilst the presence or absence 
of a series of blotches on the side is of very slight importance 

11* 



162 mr. c. tate regan on south- american [mar. 7, 

5. Crenicichla lacustris. 

Gychla lacustris Oasteln. Anim. Am, Sud, Poiss. p. 19, pi. viii. 
fig. 3 (1855). 

Crenicichla lacustris Giiiith. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 308 (1862); Steiiid. 
Sitzb. Ak. Wien, Ixx. 1874, p. 516; Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 
xxxiii. 1894, p. 102 ; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, 
p. 379(1904). 

Greniciclila punctata Hens, Arch. f. ISTat. i. 1870, p. 57. 

Crenicichla polysticta Hens. t. c. p. 58. 

Depth of body 4|-5 in the length, length of head 3-3|. 
Diameter of eye 4-5 in the length of head, length of snout 3-3|,. 
interorbital width 41-5^. Nostril nearer to eye tha,n to extremity 
of snout. Maxillary extending to below anterior margin of eye ; 
depth of pra^orbital |-'^- the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth 
forming 5 series in the upper jaw, 4 in the lower. 10 gill-rakers 
on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except 
on the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly 

above the lateral line, 80-90 23I26' 63-70 in a longitudinal series 
below the lateral line, 5 or 6 between last dorsal spine and lateral 
line, 3 or 4 between upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 
23-26 + 13-14. Dorsal XXII 12 (XX-XXIII 12-13), the spines 
subequal from the ninth or tenth, the last 5 the length of head. 
Anal III 8-9 (10). Pectoral nearly | the length of head, ventral 
nearly -f. Caudal peduncle II-I3 as long as deep. Olivaceous,, 
with numerous small dark violet spots on upper part of head 
and body and on the vertical fins ; sometimes a dark stripe from 
snout through eye to exti'emity of operculum, continued as a series 
of blotches along the middle of the side ; a dark spot, sometimes 
ocellated, on the upper part of the base of caudal. 
Southern and Eastern Brazil. 

1. (169 mm.) Porto Real, Prov. Rio Janeiro. M. Hardj- du Dreneuf. 

2. (88 mm.) Laguna dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul. Dr. H. von Ihering. 

6. Crenicichla macrophthalmus. 

Crenicichla macrophthalmus Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, 
p. 427; Giinth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 307 (1862) ; Pellegr. Mem, Soc. 
Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 379 (1904). 

Depth of body about 4| in the length, length of head 3. 
Diameter of eye 4 in the length of head and equal to the inter- 
orbital width. ISTostril about equidistant from eye and tip of snout. 
Maxillary extending to below anterioi- margin of eye ; depth of 
pr?eorbital |- the diameter of eye. Scales denticulated, except on 
the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly 
above the lateral line, 66-70 in a longitudinal series below the 

lateral line, ^^^ in a transverse series. Lateral line 23-25 + 1 2-1 3. 
Dorsal XX-XXII 10-11. Anal III 7-8. Pectoral f, ventral i 
the length of head. Caudal peduncle a little longer than deep. 
Brownish ; a dark stripe from eye to operculum ; scales of the 



1905.] PISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID.E. 163 

lateral line white with a blackish edge ; vertical fins grey, 
unspotted, with dark edges. 

Rio Negro. 

The type measures 225 mm. in total length. 

7. Crenicichla wallacii, sp. n. (Plate XIY. fig. 2.) 

Depth of body 5^ in the length, length of head 31. Snont as 
long as eye, the diameter of which is 3| in the length of head, 
interorbital width 4^. Nostril a little nearer to eye than to tip 
of snout. Maxillary not extending to beloAv the eye ; depth of 
pr^orbital i the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 5 or 6 
series in each jaw. 9 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior 
arch. Scales denticulated, except on the head, the lower parts of 
thorax and abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 64jg^ 
57 in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 2 between last 
dorsal spine and lateral line, 3 between upper and lower lateral 
lines. Lateral line 21 + 10. Dorsal XX 11 (XVIII 13), the 
spines subequal from the ninth, the last k the length of head. 
Anal III 7 (9). Pectoral f , ventral f the length of head. Caudal 
peduncle longer than deep. Brownish ; a dark stripe from snout 
through eye to extremity of operculum, continued faintly along the 
side ; dorsal and anal with a blackish marginal stripe ; caudal with 
obscure cross-bars and with a dark spot on the upper part of its base. 

R. Essequibo ; R. Negro. 

1. (85 mm.) type of the species. R. Essequibo. Mr. Elirliardt. 

Dr. A. R. Wallace has made a drawing of a fish of about the 
same size as the one described above and evidently of the same 
species, which he obtained in the Rio Negro in 1851. It was a 
great misfortune that the magnificent collection of Fishes of the 
Rio Negro made by the celebrated natuiulist should have been 
accidentally destroyed and thus lost to science. Dr. Wallace gives 
the number of fin-rays as D. XYIII 13. A. Ill 9. 

8. Cbenicichla vittata. 

Crenicichla vittata Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 417. 

Depth of body 4|-5 in the length, length of head 3-l-3|. 
Diameter of eye 5 in the length of head, length of snout 2f , inter- 
orbital width 4^-5. Nostril nearer to eye than to tip of snout. 
Maxillary not extending to below the eye ; depth of prseorbital | 
the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 7 or 8 series in the 
upper jaw, 5 or 6 in the lower. 9 or 10 gill-rakers on the lower 
nart of anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except on the head and 

11-13 

the lower part of thorax and abdomen, 110-120 ^^jigs' 84-95 m a 
longitudinal series below the lateral line, 6 between last dorsal 
spine and lateral line, 4 between upper and lower lateral lines. 
Lateral line 27 + 12-14. Dorsal XXIII 13-14, the spines sub- 
equal from the sixth, the last nearly § the length of head. Anal 
III 9 (10). Pectoral f, ventral more than half the length of head. 



164 ME. C. TATE REGAN ON SOUTH-AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 

Cavidal peduncle 1^ as long as deep. Brownish ; a dark longi- 
tudinal band fi^om tip of snout tlirougii eye to extremity of caudal ; 
upper part of body with traces of dark cross-bars ; a dark oblique 
stripe iDelow the eye ; a dai"k ocellated spot on the base of the 
caudal, just above the latera,! line ; dorsal with longitudinal series 
of greyish spots ; caudal with a dark lower margin. 
R. Amazon ; R. Paraguay ; Eastern Brazil. 

1. (146 mm.) R. Parana. Mr. Salmiu. 

2. (167 mm.) Descalvados, Matto Grosso. Dr. Ternetz. 

9. Ceenicichla acutirostris. (Plate XIV. fig. 3.) 

Crenidclila acutirostris Glinth. Oat. Fish. iv. p. 307 (1862) ; 
Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 384 (1904). 

Depth of body nearly 6 in the length, length of head Sg. 
Diameter of eye 54 in the length of head, length of snout 2|, 
interorbital width 4|. ISTostril a little nearer to eye than to tip 
of snout. Maxillaiy not extending to below the eye ; depth of 
prseorbital nearly | the diameter of eje. Anterior teeth forming 
7 series in the upper jaw, 4 in the lower. 9 gill-rakers on the 
lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except on the 
head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly above 

the lateral line, 125 g^, 113 in a longitudinal series below the 
lateral line, 7 between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 5 between 
upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 26-1-14. Do]\sal XXI Y 
14, the spines subequal from about the tenth, the last | the length 
of head. Anal III 11. Pectoral as long as ventral, a little more 
than ^ the length of head. Caudal peduncle a little longer than 
deep. Brownish, with 10 dark cross-bars on the U23per part of the 
side ; anal with a nari'ow dark edge. 

River Cupai. 

1. (217 mm.) tj-pe of the si^ecies. E. Cupai. 

10. Ceenicichla multispinosa. 

Crenicichla multispinosa Pellegr. Bull. Mus. Paris, 1903, p. 124, 
and Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 380, pi. vi. fig. 3 (1904). 

Depth of body 5j in the length, length of head dp Diameter 
of eye nearly 6 in the length of the head, length of snout 2|-, 
interorbital width 3i. Xostril nearer to eye than to extremity of 
snout. Maxillary not extending to below the eye ; depth of prfe- 
orbital4- the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 8 series 
in the upper jaw, 4 in the lower. 10 or 11 gill-rakers on the 
lower part of ante]:"ior arch. Scales denticulated, except on 
the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and above the 

upper lateral line, 118 4-3, 102 in a longitudinal series below the 
lateral line, 9 between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 5 between 
upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral line 27-|-14. Dorsal 
(XXIV) XXV 13 (14), the spines subequal from about the eighth, 
the last ^ the length of head. Anal III 9 (10). Pectoral |, 
ventral | the length of the head. Caudal peduncle a little longer 
than deep. Brownish, with numerous small white spots on the 



1905.] FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID-E. 165 

posterior part of body and the caudal fin ; a blackish ocellus 
on the upper pari; of the base of caudal. 

Guiana. 

1, (282 mm.) Surinam. Mr. Kappler. 

11. Crexicichla STPaGATA. (Plate XY. fig. 1.) 

Crenicichla Johanna, var. vittata (non C. vittata Heck.) Giinth. 
Cat. Fish. iv. p. 306 (1862). 

Crenicichla Johanna, var. strigata Giinth. 1. c. 

Crenicichla hrasiliensis, var. strigata Pellegr. Mem. .Soc. Zool. 
France, xvi. 1903, p. 381 (1904). 

? Crenicichla hrasiliensis, var. vittata Pellegr. t. c. p. 383, fig. 

Depth of body 4^-51 in the length, length of head 3i-3|. 
Diameter of eve 4^-51 in the length of head, length of snout 3i-3|, 
interorbital ^vidth"3f-"4i. Xostril nearly equidLstant from eye and 
extremity of snout. " Maxillary extending to below anterior margin 
of eye, depth of praeorbital |-f the diameter of eye. Anterior 
teeth forming 5-7 series in the upper javN", 4 or 5 in the lower. 
About 10 giU-rakers on the lower par-t of anterior arch. Scales 
denticulated, except on the head, the lower parts of thorax and 
abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 110-1 25 03:39, 93-108 
in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 9-11 between last 
dorsal spine and lateral line, 5 or 6 between iipper and lower lateral 
lines. Lateral line 25-28 + 1 3-1 5. Dorsal XXII-XXIII 1 7, the 
spines subequal from the eighth, the last i the length of head. 
Anal mil. Pectoral f , ventral i-f the length of head. Caudal 
peduncle as long as or longer than deep. Olivaceous, with blackish 
markings ; a stripe from the snout tkrough the eye to the extremity 
of operculum, giving rise to two which run along the middle of 
the side of the body and unite to form a dark spot on the_ base 
of caudal, from which a single stripe runs to the extremity of 
caudal ; a stripe along the upper lateral line ; on each side of the 
base of the dorsal a series of spots or rings are connected by a 
longitudinal stripe ; upper part of head spotted ; vertical fins with 
marginal bands. In the young the 2 stripes from operculum to 
caucfal form the edges of a dark longitudinal band, whilst the 
caudal spot is indistinct. 

R. Amazon. 
1-4 (177-188 mm.) tvpes of the species. E. Capin. 

5. (108 mm.) ' K- Cupai. 

6. (132 mm.) College of Surgeons 

12. Crexicichla lugcbris. 

Crenicichla luguhris Heck. Ann. I^lus. ^Vien, ii. 1 840, p. 422. 

Crenicichla funehris Heck, t, c, p. 424. 

Crenicichla Johanna, var. liujuhris Giinth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 307 

(1862). 

Crenicichla Johanna, \?a\fii/aehris Giinth. 1. c. 

Crenicichla h^asiliensis,vax. luguhris Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France, xvi. 1903, p. 383, fig. (1904). 

Depth of body 4|-5 in the length, length of head 3-3 1. 



166 MB. C, TATE REGAN ON SOUTH- AMERICAN [Mar. 7, 

Diameter of eye 41- 5| in the length of head, length of snout S-S^, 
interorbital width 3g-4-|. Nostril nearly equidistant from eye 
and tip of snout. Maxillary extending to below anterior margin 
of eye; depth of preeorbital ^— |- the diameter of eye. Anterior 
teeth forming 6 or 7 series in the upper jaw, 4 or 5 in the lower. 
10-12 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales 
denticulated, except on the head, the lower paints of thorax and 

abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral line, 120-130 ggij-^j 
106-113 in a longitudinal series below the lateral line, 10 or 11 
between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 4-6 between tipper and 
lower lateral lines. Lateral line 25-27 + 14-15. Dorsal XXII- 
XXIII 15-17, the spines svibequal or only slightly increasing from 
:\bout the seventh, the last ^ the length of head. Anal III 
10-12. Pectoral -2—1-, ventral 4—^ the leng-th of head. Caudal 
peduncle as long as or a little longer than deep. Brownish ; a dark 
spot above the pectoral and another on the middle of the basal 
part of caudal ; dorsal and anal with a dark edge and sometimes 
a light intramarginal band. 
Brazil; Guiana; Venezuela. 

1, 2. (159 aud 250 mm.) British Guiana. Sir R. Schomburgk. 

3. (261 mm.) R. Capin. 

4. (255 mm.) E. Essequibo. Mr. Ehrhardt. 

13*. Crenicichla cincta, sp. n. 

CrenicicMcc hrasiliensis, var. fasciata (non Cychla fasciata 
Schomb.) Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 383, fig. 
(1904). 

Depth of body 44 in the length, length of head 3-1-. Diameter 
of eye 4| in the length of head, length of snout 3|-, interorbital 
Avidth 3|. ISTostril a little nearer to eye than to tip of snout. 
Maxillary extending to below anterioi' margin of eye ; depth of 
prfeorbital i the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 7 series 
in the upper jaw, 4 in the lower. 10 gill-rakers on the lower part 
of anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except on the head, the 
lower part of thorax and abdomen and anteriorly above the lateral 

line, 152^, 120 in a longitudinal sei'ies below the lateral line, 11 
between last dorsal spine and lateral line, 6 between upper and 
lower lateral lines. Lateral line 28 + 17. Dorsal XXIII 15, the 
spines subequal from the tenth, the last ^ the length of head. 
Anal III 12. Pectoral |, ventral | the length of head. Caudal 
peduncle 1| as long as deep. Olivaceous, with 9 or 10 dark vertical 
cross-bars on the upper half of the body ; a dark longitudinal stripe 
from eye to above the pectoral ; soft dorsal Avith a few large dark 
spots ; caudal brownish, with round or oval light yellowish spots 
and with a blackish spot on the basal part, just above the lateral line. 

Mara jo Island ; Para. 

1. (172 mm.) type of the species. Para. Dr. E. A. Goldi. 

* The name fasciata is preoccupied in this genus by the Cychla fasciata of 
Schombiirgk, which I regard as a synonym of CrenicicMa Johanna Heck. 



1905.] PISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID^. 167 

14. Crenicichla ornata, sp. n. (Plate XV. fig. 2.) 
Crenicichla brasiliensis, var lerdiculata (non C. lenticulata Heck.) 

Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, xvi. 1903, p. 383, fig. (1904). 

Depth of body 4^ in the length, length of head 3J. Diameter 
of eye 5 in the length of head, length of snont 3|-3|, interorbital 
width 3f-4. Nostril equidistant from eye and tip of snont. 
Maxillary extending to below anterior \ of eye; depth of 
prseoi'bital | the diameter of eye. Anterior teeth forming 6 or 7 
series in the upper jaw, 4 or 5 in the lower. 11 gill-rakers 
on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales denticulated, except 
on the head, the lower parts of thorax and abdomen and above 
the upper lateral line, 135-145 ^^, 118-130 in a longitudinal 
series below the lateral line, 12 or 13 between last doi-sal spine 
and lateral line, 5 between upper and lower lateral lines. Lateral 
Hne 27-28 + 14-15. Dorsal XXII-XXIII 17-19, the spines 
subequal or only slightly increasing from the eighth, the last ^ 
the length of head. Anal III 11-12. Pectoral |, ventral i-| 
the length of head. Caudal pedvmcle as long as or longer than 
deep. Olivaceous, with black markings ; 7 or 8 cross-bars on the 
upper half of the body ; a stripe from eye to extremity of 
operculum ; head with numerous spots ; vertical fins with broad 
marginal bands ; a series of spots along the middle of the spinous 
dorsal, one on each spine ; a large spot on tlie upper part of the 
base of caudal. 

R. Amazon ; Guiana. 
1-3. (165-175 mm.) types of tlie species. Ilio Negro. Mr. J. C. Antony. 

15. Crenicichla lenticulata. 

Crenicichla lenticidata Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii. 1840, p. 419. 

Crenicichla acls2yersa Heck. t. c. p. 421. 

Crenicichla Johanna, \ai\ lenticulata Giinth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 307 
(1862). 

Crenicichla Johanna, var. adspersa Giinth. 1. c. 

Crenicichla brasiliensis, var. adspersa Eigenm. & Bray, Ann. 
Ac. N. York, vii. 1894, p. 620; Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 
xvi. 1903, p. 383 (1904). 

Depth of body about 4|- in the leng-th, length of head about 3g. 
Diameter of eye 6 in the length of head and 2 in its distance 
from tip of lower jaw. Maxillary extending to below anterior 
edge of eye ; depth of prseorbital ^ the diameter of eye. Scales 
denticulated, except on the head, the lower parts of thorax and 
abdomen and above the upper lateral line, 112-130 in a longi- 
tudinal series below the lateral line, ^^z^^ in a transverse series 
from origin of dorsal to ventral fin. Lateral line 28-29 + 15-16. 
Dorsal XXI-XXII 17-18. Anal III 12. Brownish ; usually a 
series of 8 or 9 dark blotches a little above middle of the side 
extending from behind the operculum to base of caudal, sometimes 
represented only by the first blotch, above the pectoral ; head and 



168 ON SOUTH-AMERICAN FISHES OF THE FAMILY CICHLID^. [Mar. 7, 

thoracic region with numerous small blackish spots ; a dark spot 
or ocellus on the upper half of the base of caudal ; fins unspotted, 
the dorsal sometimes with a dark margin, the ventral with the 
2 outer rays dark. 

R. Amazon. 

The type of the species, from the Rio E'egro, measures 350 mm. 
in total length ; that of C. adspersa, from the Rio Guapore, 
265 mm. 

16. CrENICICHLA JOHANNA. 

Crenidchla Johanna Heck. Ann. Mus. Wien, ii, 1840, p. 417. 

Cychla fasciata Schomb. Fish. Guiana, ii. p. 141, pi. iv. (1843). 

Crenidchla obtusirostris Giinth. Cat. Fish. iv. p. 305 (18(52). 

Crenidchla Johanna, ys.i\ Johanna Giinth. t. c. p. 306. 

Crenidchla brasiliensis, var. Johanna Pellegr. Mem. Soc. Zool. 
France, xvi. 1903, p. 383, fig. (1904). 

Depth of body 4-4|- in the length, length of head 3^-3|. 
Diameter of eye 4|— 5| in the length of head, length of snout 
3-^-3|-, interorbital width 2|— 3j. Nostril much nearer to tip of 
snout than to eye. Maxillary extending to below anterior margin 
of eye ; depth of pra^orbital i-f the diameter of eye. Anterior 
teeth forming 4 or 5 series in the upper jaw", 3 or 4 in the lower. 
10 or 11 gill-rakers on the lower part of anterior arch. Scales 

cycloid, 124-133 lyrjsi 97-108 in a longitudinal series below the 
lateral line, 10 or 11 between last dorsal spine and lateral 
line, 6 or 7 between iipper and lower lateral lines. Lateral 
line 26-27 + 13-14. DdrsaJ XXI-XXIV 16-17, the spines 
subequal or only slightly increasing from about the tenth, the last 
^ the length of head. Anal III 11-12. Pectoral |—f, ventral 
g-|- the length of head. Caudal peduncle as long as or longer 
than deep. Brownish; 10 or 12 dark cross-bars above the lateral 
line, obscure or absent in the adult ; body below the lateral line 
sometimes with alternate light and dark undulating vertical 
stripes ; dorsal sometimes with a dark margin and light intra- 
marffinal band. 



Brazil ; Guiana ; Venezuela. 






1. (260 mm.) 

2. (325 mm.) type of C. obtusirostris. 

3. (151 mm.) 

4. (285 mm.) 

5. Skeleton. 

6. (250 mm.) 


R. Capin. 
R. Cupai. 
R. Capin. 
R. Capin. 
L. Hyanuary. 


Zool. Soc. 

Dr. E. A. GoHi. 
Dr. E. A. Goldi. 
Prof. A. Agassiz, 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Batracliops punctidatus, p. 156. 

2. Creniciclila ivallacii, p. 163. 

3. „ acutirostris, p. 164. 

Plate XV. 
Fig. 1. Creniciclila strigata, p. 165. 
2. „ ornata, p. 167. 



1905.] CAPT. R. MEINERTZHAGEX ON A NEW ORIBI ANTELOPE. 169 

2. Notes on a New Oribi Antelope from the Kenya Disti-ict, 
British East Africa. By Capt. H. Meinertzhagen, 
F.Z.S. 

[Received Februaiy 15, IQOo.J 

[The complete account of the new species described in this communication 
appears here ; but since the name and preliminary diagnosis v/eve published in the 
'Abstract,' the species is distinguished bj' the name being underlined. — Editor.] 

The Oribi found near Mount Kenya, British East Africa, has 
never been satisfactorily determined, and as I obtained a consider- 
able number of skulls, now in the British Museum, I have made a 
careful comparison of them witli the specimens already in that 
collection. The species appears to be undoubtedly different both 
from the Ourehia moniana of Abyssinia and the 0. haggardi of 
Lamu, and I have therefore proposed for it the name of 0. kenyce. 

OUREBIA KENY^. 

Ourehia kenyce Meinertzlmgen, Abstr. P.Z. S. No. 16, p. 15 
March 14, 1905. 

This new Antelope seems to be most closely allied to Haggard's 
Oribi, of the lower waters of the Tana and the adjacent coast-line, 
but differs in the following respects : — 

The horns are not so thick nor so roughly and irregularly ridged, 
and their " set " seems to differ from that found in 0. haggardi in 
leaving the skull at a much more forward angle and having a 
tendency to a marked forward and divergent curvature. 

General colour bright fulvous, corresponding as nearly as 
possible Avith the " tawny ochraceous " of Ridgway. Chin and 
throat white. Above the anterior portion of each eye a white 
streak, about half an inch broad and continuing towards the 
muzzle for about an inch. Ears fringed with dark brown on their 
upper parts. Tail about four inches long, the last three inches 
thickly tufted, black, the pi-oximal portion white-edged below. 

Skull. Dimensions of type specimen * : — 

Basal length 145 mm. 

Greatest breadth 75 ,, 

Orbit to muzzle 84 ,, 

Length of horn on curve 136 ; circumference at base 53. 

The following are some measurements of males taken in the 
field :— 

Height -r ,^ Weight Length 

at shoulder. ° ' (uncleaned). of horns. 

inches. inches. lbs. inches. 

24 40| 36 H 
23 40 38 6' 

25 42 36 5i 
24| 41 40 5t% 

* British Museum, No. 4.11.5.28. 



170 MR. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

The following is the measurement of a female : — 

Height Length, Weight, 

at shoulder. ° '^ 

inches. inches. Ihs. 

25A 43i 36 4 teats. 

Habitat. As far as is known at present the range of this 
Antelope is extremely limited. It is found on the upper water of 
the Tana River, about 50 miles due south of Mount Kenya and 
about 5 miles south-east of Fort Hall, where it is very plentiful. 
It extends only about 10 miles down the Tana River, and is not 
found further from the river than the Ithanga Hills and their 
immediate neighbourhood. 



3. The Ecology and Deposits of the Gape Yerde Marine 
Fauna. By Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc, F.Z.S., 
Carnegie Fellow and Fellow of the University of 
St. Andrews. 

[Received January 13, 1905.J 

(Text-figures 21-26.) 

Contexts. 

Page 

1. Introduction 170 

2. Narrative and Results 172 

3. Comparison of the Fauna with that of East Africa... 176 

4. The Organic Deposits 178 

5. The St. Vincent Fringing- Reef 182 

6. Summary and Conclusions 185 

1. Introduction. 

An examination of the Collections made by me for Sir Charles 
Eliot, K.C.M.G., in Zanzibar and East Africa in 1900-1902 
showed at once that the whole Indo-Pacific Ocean from Afiica to 
the Pacific Archipelagoes is one faunistic ai'ea. The region, 
however, is not so well known as to admit of definite subdivision ; 
in East Africa, e. g., we cannot say whether the numerous new 
species discovered are characteristic of the region or mei-ely of the 
special habitats which we examined. 

The wide distribution of many of the Opisthobranch Molluscs 
is so striking as to have led Sir Chai-les Eliot to suggest an 
expedition to the Tropical Atlantic, with the object of discovering 
whether there is any relationship between the faunas of these so 
widely separated oceans. As several species of Polych^eta also 
appear to range from the Indo-Pacific to the Mediterranean and 
even Caribbean Seas, the idea was highly attractive to me. I am 
convinced, too, that the special difficulties of systematic work 
on the Polychseta can be satisfactorily attacked only by the 



1905.] 



CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA. 



171 



examination of several large collections simultaneously by a worker 
(or group of workers) who has seen the specimens alive. 

The fauna of the Cape Verde Islands also promises to be 
interesting in connection with the ocean- currents of the Atlantic. 
The group (text-fig. 21) lies in the path of the southern division 
of the Gulf -stream, which is joined by another stream from near 
the Sfa^aits of Gibraltar. Both these are cold currents, the Avarm 
stream from the Gulf of Guinea passing a little to the south of the 
group. It will be interesting to know what constituents of the 
fauna, if any, are derived from the Caribbean Sea. Some ISTorth 
Atlantic and Mediterranean forms are mentioned below. 









Text-fig. 21 












s-r:!:;^'"" 














S ^ 








n"* 




^■'O ^'"-^ 




,0„ 


\ 


%.. 






"" 




s 




s 


12 






'"- 


«.. 






1 


?\ 
















^ ,j' ^''"""'"",^ 






""\ 


\. 


] 


\ 




^ 


\' 


■ 5' 






;J 


V> 






_. 






j»" 


2 


3" 



Chart of the Cape Verde Islands. 



For the purpose of a comparison of faunas, the common forms 
of life in a few groups are sufiicient, and a summer vacation 
affords time enougli to collect these. I therefore applied to the 
Carnegie Trustees for funds to enable me to spend two months in 
the Islands, which they generously supplied. The kindness of 
many friends at home and in the Islands made my stay most 
pleasant, besides contributing much to the success of my work. 
I cannot publicly thank all by name, but to Messrs. Rhodes and 
Pacey, Managers of Messrs. Wilson's Coaling Company, I owe 
special gratitude for the use of a room in their house as a head- 
quarters' laboratory — a boon the vahie of which the donors 
themselves could hardly fully estimate. 



172 MR. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

Little previous woi'k on the marine fauna of the Islands has 
heen clone ; indeed, it was diificult to get much information of 
any sort about the locality * . The ' Challenger ' spent nineteen days 
dredging in the harbour of St. Vincent with somewhat dis- 
couraging results as regards the Polychseta and Opisthobranchiata. 
The former appear to be unusually interesting, however, since, of 
the foui-teen species collected, seven were new and obtained 
nowhere else, while three v\^ere fovind to be widely distributed in 
the North Atlantic and West Indies and others were Medi- 
terranean t. 

The Canary Islands and Madeira have been Avorked by 
Langerhans (Polychfeta) and other well-known zoologists. But 
these Islands are well north of the Tropical zone and afford no 
fair comparison with the Tropics of the Indian Ocean. 

2. Narrative and Results. 

In approaching St. Yincent t (text-fig. 22) one is immediately 
sti'uck by the physical differences between the Cape Verde Islands 
and the coast of East Africa. In place of the low level lines of 
the local limestone formation, densely clothed with bush, or, at 
Zanzibar, with cocoanuts, cloves, and mangoes, we ai-e here con- 
fronted with the huge mass of the Island of St. Antonio, 7000 feet 
in height, i-ising directly from the sea, with St. Vincent to the left, 
lower (2400 feet) but even more ragged in outline. Both islands 
show their volcanic origin very obviously, and their grey precipices 
and red slopes are utterly devoid of vegetation. The shores 
themselves, with which we are more dii-ectly concerned, also 
differ. In place of the broad shore-platform, smooth, barren, and 
almost quite devoid of loose stones, which is characteristic of the 
East- African coral-rock, we have here a shore, so narrow as to be 
almost invisible on the Admiralty Chai-ts, composed of lava, and 
often covered with stones of all sizes, from that of a cottage 
downwards. 

The tides rise from 3 to 5 feet at springs, according to the 
locality, as against 8 to 12 feet in East Africa. In partial 
correspondence with this the rich zone of the shore in the latter 
locality is from lowest tide-level down to 2 or 3 fathoms, so that, 
without wading, little could be done. Here also there is a well- 
marked rich zone, but it extends halfway up to high- water mark 
and ends abruptly 2 or 3 feet below the level of lowest springs. 
The rocks of this zone are covered by a belt of mossy green, 
brown, and red seaweeds and nullipores ; below it they are bare 
or only merely painted over by nullipore and bear little else 

* The most useful accounts are in the ' Universal Geography,' vols. xi. & xii., and 
the Admiralty Pilot Series. 

f ' Challenger ' Eeports, Summary of Eesults, vol. i. pp. 303-314. The avian fauna 
has been collected for the British Museum by Captain Boyd Alexander, whose 
results are recorded in the ' Ibis,' 1898, pp. 74^118 and 277-285. 

J Properly the Island is San Vicente, the town Mindello, and the Harbour Porto 
Grande. For simplicity I use St. Vincent for all three. 



1905.] 



CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA. 



173 



but a few isolated coral- colonies, compiising only three species. 
Wading is generally impossible on account of the steepness of the 
shoi'e and the strength of the surf, which in more or less 
diminished strength reaches every part of the few bays. 

The native fishermen use nets, traps, and lines, principally the 
latter, the universal bait being raw fish. Ground-bait, also raw 
fish,'is used freely, being prepared by mastication and distributed 
about the lines by expectoration. 

" Coral " {Corcdhcm rubrum) fishing was done in the past, but is 
wholly abandoned now, some of the merchants attributing this to 
the competition of the Japanese, others to the exorbitance of the 
Portuguese Customs. 

Text-fig. 22. 



S"^ ANTONIO 

(Santo Antac 




VII? c 



Map of St. Antonio and St. Vincent. 



But at St. Vincent all these fisheries have small following in 
comparison with the number of boats engaged in dredging for 
small coal lost overboard from steamers and lighters. The largest 
of the native boats, small and simply rigged cutters, engage in 
this exclusively, using three light dredges each. However un- 
romantic old clinkers may be as a habitat, their richness in 
Polyzoa, Polychseta, and small Crustacea is most beautiful, and 
the three largest of my Gephyreans were thus obtained. 

After a fortnight's very successful collecting in St. Yinceiit 



174 



MR. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE 



[Mar. 



Harbour it became evident that the fauna of these coasts is as 
distinct from that of East Africa as are tire physical aspects and 
geological structure of the two localities, and that it contains a 
considerable northern or Mediterranean constituent. I therefore 
decided to visit one of the Southern Islands in the hope of 
discovering : — 

(1) Possible effects on the fauna of the Guinea current. 

(2) Fresh habitats, e. g. Zostera-heds or completely sheltered 

water. 

(3) Coral, either as reef or banks, with its peculiar fauna. 

A three days' voyage in a small Portuguese barque brought me 
to Porto Piuya, a bay in the southern extremity of the Island of 

Text-fiff. 23. 



larraf*l Pamt^fS;: 



Vago 



1061 
1280 




S."W. Point 



RibeiraGr 

lOlO 



Map of St. Jago. 



St. Jago (text-fig. 23), situated in latitude 16° IST., just a degree 
south of St. Yincent. The results of collecting here wei-e negative 
as regards (1) and (3) above, but a small extent of stony shore under 



1905.1 



CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA. 



175 



lee of Quail Island* is completely sheltered at all seasons and 
gradually slopes into the shallow channel. Consequently, this 
area was very rich, large holothurians being seen here for the 
first time, and many other fresh forms were added to the 
collections. At the same time, it has since become clear that 
the fauna is really identical from north to south, and that the 
Guinea current is too far away to affect any Islands of the 
group. 

Tunny- fishing with rod and line is carried on at Piaya. The 
boats engaged in this rather exciting work are little tubs holding- 
two men, but which were made to carry three rowers and a 
passenger in my dredging-expeditions. Although it is said that 
a big tunny may tow a boat seven oi' eight miles out to sea, the 

Text-fig. 24. 




200 
ell l^eef 



£^^^ Sand Jlcad 

lOO 

BONAXTSTA 

azeii ihll Bluff 






Map of Bonavista. 

boats are very roughly constructed, leaks being discovered and 
roughly caulked every day. On one occasion, when I pointed out a 
bubbling spring in the bottom of the boat, oiie of the crew un- 
concernedly handed over a portion of his trousers with which to 
plug the leak ! 

Except for the small sheltered area afforded by Quail Island, 
the shores and bottom of Porto Praya are so like St. Vincent that 
I took the opportunity of returning there by Portuguese mail, 



* This islet is memorable, since Davwin made collections on its shores during the 
voyage of the ' Beagle.' 

Proc. Zool. See— 1905, Vol, I, No. XII. 12 



176 MR. CYBIL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

aftei" a stay of a little over a week, in order to find means of 
i-eaching the Island of Bonavista (text-fig. 24), in the east of 
the group, to examine some " coral-reefs " marked on the charts. 
This occurred three days later when the Government steamer 
' Mindello ' left St. Vincent for its monthly circuit of the 
Islands. I thus saw the northern point of St. Antonio, with its 
deep valleys, carpeted with vivid green, and the huge precipices 
of its shores, the lower but rocky shores of St. Nicholas, and the 
white sand-spit which forms the southern part of Sal — the Island 
of Salt (text-fig. 21, p. 171). This was the first time I had seen 
pure white sand in these islands, so suggestive of the vicinity of 
coral. However, neither here nor at Bonavista, where the same 
sand forms a large part of the western shore, is there any sand, 
or indeed any other rock, of coral origin, and the " coral-reefs " of 
the chart, like others in the vicinity, are simply limestone shoals, 
not resembling coral-reefs even in form and with either very little 
or no coral anywhere about them. 

The same absence of coral-reefs has been characteristic of the 
past, for although the greater part of at least the western side of 
Bonavista is of recent limestone, containing in places numerous 
fossil shells, I found no particle of coital in it, either on the coast 
or inland, or in the small shallow limestone beds near the town 
of St. Vincent. 

Bonavista is not an appropriate name. The apj)earance of the 
island is not at all picturesque, and its discovery has not been 
much blessing to the human race. The island is a desert only a 
little less complete than the greater part of St. Vincent. As a 
little grass grows after rain, a population is established on the 
island subsisting by cattle-breeding. Every few years the rain 
fails to appear, and as much as a third of the population perishes, 
since relief works are practically unknown to the Poi^tuguese 
Government. At Port Sal Rei half the houses are in ruins, 
and some have even been abandoned diu-ing course of erection. 
Residence among such signs of misery is not pleasant, and I was 
glad to leave at the end of a fortnight, having satisfied myself 
that Coral or Zostera habitats do not occur in these Islands. 

My return to St. Vincent involved three days in a small Italian 
" felua," but, in spite of the motion of so small a boat and the 
primitiveness of the accommodation provided (on deck), much of 
the time was rendered delightful by the number and variety of 
fish, birds, and dolphins seen close at hand during a calm. 

3. Comparison of the Fauna with that op East Africa. 

Although several East- African species reach the Mediterranean, 
and certainly others extend from this sea to the Cape Verde 
Islands, it is at once and certainly evident that the faunas of 
these two localities, taken as wholes, are distinct. Of species 
common to the two localities, there are at least three species 
of Crab, several Prosobranch molhiscs, the Polychsete Eunice 



1905.] CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA, 177 

sicilieiisis (which is, however, well-known to be cosmopolitan), and 
Thcdassema haronii. Species already recognised as belonging to 
the North Atlantic and Mediterannean are as follows : — 

PoLYCH^TA : Eunice torquata Qfg. { = E. fasciata Risso *), 
E. siciliensis Gr., iStmtrocephcdus ruhrovittaUts, Hesione 
sicula, Nereis dtwiei^ilii, and Phyllodoce jtancerina Clp. 

Nemertines : Nemertes neesii. 

Of the Opisthobranch Mollusca, Sir Charles Eliot gives the 
following provisional identifications : — 

Lophocercus olivacea. Mediterranean. 

C'andiella lineata. British. 
Favorhhus carneus. ,, 

Philine aperta. „ 

He also remarks that " there are no big Dorids (or, rather, 
only one) and only one Chromodoris ; the common Indo-Pacific 
forms, Hexabranchus. Astei'onotus, Bornella, Phyllidia, Dolabella, 
are all absent." 

Indeed, for the present, the difference is most stiikingly shown 
by the absence from the Cape Yerde fauna of groups conspicuously 
abundant in East Africa. Planarians, such as the highly- coloui-ed 
Pseudoceridfe, so abundant in species and in individuals in 
the Indo-Paciiic, are here practically absent. Is it merely a 
coincidence that the family of Opisthobi'anchs which is also 
characterised by gorgeousness of colouring, the Chromodoridse, 
are here also represented by but one species ? 

At low spring- tide level, almost every whei'e in East Afiica, 
Alcyonarians, especially Xeniidfe and Clavulariidifi, are astonish- 
ingly abundant, in places literally carpeting the rocks. Lobophz/tum, 
Sarcop)hytum, Ttdtipora, ifec. may be equally abundant over certain 
areas, while in Wasin Harbour Telesto and other tree-like genera 
filled the dredge at every haul. Similarly for the Corals. Large 
areas of East-African coasts are totally devoid of coral- growths, 
but in other parts the quantity and the number of species found 
between the levels of low spring-tides and five to fifteen fathoms 
are indescribable. 

Here, in the Cape Yerdes, the littoral Alcyonai'ia are repre- 
sented by but one fairly common species, a Cornulai-ian, which is 
found under stones. A few species of Gorgonians are found, but 
rarely, in watei- of over 18 fathoms in depth. 

Of the five littoial species of Coral belonging to the genera 
Siderastrcea and Pontis, two form incrustations only, and the 
colonies do not exceed six or eight inches in diameter. The 
largest mass met with was about nine inches thick, and covered 
an area of two or three square feet. Contrast the Porites cylin- 
ders of the Zanzibar reefs or the composite masses covering 

* Ehlevs (Nacli. zu Gott. 1900) describes JS. fasciata from a small collection 
from East Africa, but it does not occur in my own or in Stftnlej' Gardiner's from the 
Maldives. 

12* 



178 MR. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

hundreds of square yards of the coast of Pemba and the Zanzibar 
Channel *. 

4. The Organic Deposits. 

Nullipores, on the other hand, are extremely abundant; every 
rock exposed to the surf is thickly coated with them, and since 
the coasts are nearly all rock, and the surf penetrates to every 
bay, the total amount is enormous. 

Owing to this natvire of the shores, it is impossible to land in 
most parts of the Islands, so tliat it is not easy for a worker who 
is necessarily confined to the few more or less sheltered bays to 
obtain a correct general idea of the condition of the balance of 
life round the coasts as a whole. I have been able to make 
detailed examinations of fully exposed rocks at Bird Island at the 
entrance to St. Yincent Harbour and in Bonavista, and have seen 
sufiicient of other coasts to know that these examples are typical 
of practically the whole coast- line. 

The most exposed projections of the rock on Bird Island are 
covered by a laullipore of a stout foliaceous kind, consisting of 
vertical branches connected at intervals by horizontal platforms. 
Between the areas occupied by this species the siirface seems to 
be made of smooth encrusting nullipore bearing clumps of mossy 
green and brown weed. These form a broad belt extending from 
near high-tide mark to a little below the levfil of lowest tides. 
Above this bed is a zone of Balanus, while below the rock is 
merely painted over with nullipore. 

On breaking into the smooth incrustation it is almost always 
found to consist, not of nullipore alone, as would be concluded 
fi-om its external appearance, but largely also of the shells of one 
of the fixed Gastropods (Vennetus), the interstices between the 
coiled tubes alone being filled in by the Alga. 

In the partial shelter of the bays the character of the incrusta- 
tion changes, as well as diminishing in thickness. The complete 
series of changes is well illustrated in the vicinity of Port Sal Rei, 
Bonavista, as one passes from the complete shelter of Pequena 
Island to the exposed rocks of the N.W. corner of the island. 
At first nullipores are practically absent, but the shore is covered 
by flat round stones, each of which consists of a nucleus of 
volcanic rock, the diameter of which has been trebled by the 
addition of a mass of the Vermetus i-ound its sides. Passing north- 
wards, where the surf begins to take effect, nullipores appear in 
conjunction with the Vermetus, forming a more or less smooth 
incrustation four inches to a foot in thickness, while outside the 
Pequena Channel the foliaceous species of nullipore appear as at 
Bird Island and other exposed coasts, and the propoi'tion of 
VermeUis has greatly decreased. The mode of growth of the 
Vei'inetus results in the enclosing of spaces between its own mass 
and the surface of the rock, which communicate with the outer 
water by numerous holes and crevices. As would be expected, 

* Millipoi-e is fairly common in mnnj' places in these islands, forming incrus- 
tations or sparsely-branched growths, 



1905.] CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA. 179 

these spaces ai'e the habitat of a rich fauna ; they are often 
practically filled with Lamellibranchs and free-living Gastropoda, 
while Polychpeta, SipuncuHds, small Crustacea (especially Amphi- 
poda), Nemertines, and even Centipedes can be washed out in 
great abundance. Boring Lamellibranchs (Liilioiiliagus sp. ?) are 
common, sometimes astonishingly so, but Polychpeta and Sponges 
of this habit are far rarer than in the pure Alga or Coral of the 
shore-pools and bottom below tide-leveL Further north still, 
where tlie sui'f breaks sti-ongly, the surface of the incrustation 
becomes more or less bare of the mossy weeds and more or less 
foliaceous, and on breaking into its smooth portions the propoi-tion 
of Vermelus-tvAiQ^ is found to have greatly decreased. Fiu-ther on 
are inaccessible rocks, covered with the light brown branched 
nullipore described above. 

In some localities, e. g. the promontories just south of St. Yin- 
cent Harbour, an Eupsammid coral forms the lower part of the 
band of incrustation. This is always in a friable condition, and 
large pieces can be detached by the bare hand. 

The incrustation is soft but tenacious, so that a crowbar must 
be driven in several times before a piece can be detached. Indeed, 
I found the best way of breaking it from the rocks to be b}'^ 
hammering in the blade of a spade. I saw no evidence of pieces 
being broken away by the waves, so that the causes of the limita- 
tion of these growths to masses I'arely so much as one foot thick 
ai^e not evident. Owing to the limitation of the zone to so narrow 
a band of these steep shores, continued growth would result in 
the formation of an unsupported shelf, which would at once be 
broken away by the sea. But I believe the action of boring- 
organisms to be more important. Physical conditions doubtless 
are the prime factors in determining the balance of life, and here 
they seem to have given the predominance to the agents of 
destruction, while the cold currents from the north account for the 
subordinate position of the Corals. A great amount of rock- 
formation is going on at depths of from 5 to 20 fathoms. Where- 
ever I have dredged in from 5 to 10 fathoms (St. Vincent, Porto 
Praya, and Bonavista, text-figs. 26, 25, and 24), nodules of 
TMSSv^ovtiLitliothcminion'^ are strewn abundantly over the bottom. 
From 10 to 20 fathoms two more delicate kinds occur, one being 
soft and foliaceous, the other consisting of thin and brittle 
branches. The fate of these I do not know, but of the nodules 
the great majority are rendered rotten by Sponges and boring 
Polychpeta, finally breaking down to a grey mud. Among and 
below these Algfe there is a coarse sand formed almost entirely 
of a large foraminiferan. This covers practically the whole floor 
of St. Vincent Harbour between the 5 and 20 fathom lines, but 
finer sand and mud are plentiful in Porto Praya, and sand of 
volcanic origin in Bonavista. In St. Vincent the resulting mud 
from the destruction of the organic rocks appears to be carried to 

* Herdman's ' Peaii-Fisliing Report ' contains an excellent illustration of these 
But in Ceylon the agents of destruction seem to be different. 



180 



MK. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE 



[Mar. 7, 



deep water, but the coaiser pai'ticles of nullipore and some coral, 
and the shells of the foraminiferan mentioned, form beach-sand 
and sandstone. Between low-tide level and 3 to 5 fathoms the 
sand is grey from admixture of black volcanic rock. 



Text-%. 25. 



'I'j'S 




Chart of Porto Praya. 

The following list of boring organisms is in the order of their 
importance in these islands : — 

(1) Sponges, yellow or red, are abundant in every kind of 
calcareous mattei- excepting the masses of Vermetus in combination 
with nullipore, when the proportion of the lattei- is below about 
one half. Wherever pure nullipore is found, in tidal pools, sui-f- 
beaten rocks, or the sea-bottom, it is almost always riddled with 
sponge, or shows the efi'ects of having been attacked in the past. 
Coral or nullipore colonies are rarely free, though the action of 
the sponge upon these seems to be slower. Certain species of 
shell are invariably attacked, e. g. those of the large species of 
Strombus, which is so abundant, are invariably riddled unless the 
mollusc is quite young. A large red Oyster is invariably attacked, 



I905.J CAPE VEKDE' Sr'AElNB FAUNA.. 1'8I 

also during the life of the animal, but Pecten remains free. The 
upper coils of Gastropoda are generally bored, but a large white 
Muyex escapes. The sponge seems to have a selective action in the 
case of living organisms — e. g., a dead oyster-shell was dredged 
which had been riddled with sponge : on one side was growing 
nullipore and on the other a thick soft crust of Polyzoa, both of 
which were free. 

The small irregular cavities enclosed by the growth of encrusting 
species of nullipore are a great aid to the spread of the sponge 
through the mass. The more solid Astrpeid Corals are far less 
rapidly attacked. Hemispherical lumps, apparently long dead, are 
frequently dredged, which are quite white and clean inside except 
for a tinge of red near the surface, or one or two layers of the 
same concentric with this. Some of these lumps have as nuclei a 
nullipore nodule, which is absolutely rotten. 

(2) Polychceta. — Lysidice, Nicidion, two species of Sabellidfe, 
Dodecaceria concharum and Eimice siciliensis are ubiquitous in the 
same places and geneiuUy in company with the sponge. Of these 
the Eunicidfe are the most important, but the one large species, 
E. siciliensis, the great borer of the Indo-Pacific Corals, is lare. 
The Sabellidfe, which are not so conspicuous as borers in East 
Africa, here occupy an important place. Dodecaceria, the well- 
known shell-borer of European seas, here occupies a subordinate 
position. Wherever found it occurs in numbers together, but it 
does not occur with anything like the frequency of the Eunicidfe 
and Sabellidfe. A favourite habitat for this and other species is the 
base of coral-colonies. Splitting an encrusting Astrfeid fi'om the 
lava rock usually lays bare a number of galleries and their 
occupants. The small Eunicid?e Lysidice and Niddion are 
especially characteristic borers of the encrusting nullijDore of 
exposed positions, the Sabellidfe of dredged Lithothamnion nodules, 
bvit either may occur in any position. Although in all cases 
sponge seems to be the first of the attacking host, yet in the case 
of the Astrfeid Corals, whose pores are too minute for the purjDose, 
the rapid spread of the sponge is dependent on the presence of 
unoccupied worm-burrows, around which are seen extensions of 
the red tint from the surface, or other zones, into the white and as 
yet unattacked portions of the mass. The final state of a nullipore 
nodule is a grey mud enclosed in a thin shell of still growing Alga. 
The Sponge and boring Polychpeta have now disappeared, the sole 
inhabitant being a. large but remarkably fragile Capitellid worm. 

(3) The Lamellibranch Litliophagiis is abundant in Corals; 
nulli pores are nearly always infested and very often are quite full 
of it. This species is notable as being the only borer to attack the 
Serpulid and nullipore compound when the proportion of the latter 
is low. 

Lithophagus lines its bvirrows with a hard enamel-like secretion 
which is not attacked by sponge until after the death of the mollusc. 

(4) SipuMCuloidea : Aspidosiphon is common in both nullipore 
and Coral. 



182 MU. CYlRTL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

(5) Echinoderms. — Boring Echinids {Echinometra stbhangtdaris) 
occvii- all I'ound the coasts in enormous numbers, in shallow pools 
of the shoi-e-platform ; the holes ai-e generally diilled as near 
togethei- as is possible. Just below the steep inci-ustation-belt 
they occur again in the same pi'o fusion, but in the belt itself are 
much rarer, except wheie it is horizontal. It is very remarkable 
that this form produces equally conspicuous effects upon rock of 
all degrees of hardness, whethei- nullipore, coral, sandstone, or the 
very hard black basaltic rock. 

But the total i-esult of their desti-uctive action is small, e. g. on 
sandstone of the St. Vincent reef amounting to the deepening of 
shallow pools by three or four inches. Indeed in many cases the 
Echinid merely takes advantage of the peculiar " potholed " forms 
the calcareous rocks assume under the influence of the sea and 
does no drilling at all. In any case as soon as shelter is obtained 
drilling- operations cease, and naturally sheltered crevices show 
feeble, merely adaptive traces of this action. On exposed surfaces 
as soon as the recess is made deep enough for shelter the action 
ceases, though several generations of Echini occupy the same place, 
as is shown by the fact that the size of the hole has often no 
relation to that of its occupant, full-grown Echini frequently 
occupying extremely shallow depi'essions and in other cases a 
young specimen, an inch or so across, being in possession of a 
full-sized hole, 3 inches in diameter and depth. 

But on growing Coral the action is more impoitant. Whenever 
a colony comes to overhang a burrow it is eaten away and this 
portion killed, as though semicircular canals had been gouged out 
in a line with the edge of the burrow beneath. In this way pools 
which would be full of coral possess but stunted remnants, and 
the extent of coral-growth on these coasts is veiy greatly reduced. 

It should be noted that these are not the only borers the instincts 
of which may be satisfied by an accidental crevice. I have found 
even so highly specialised a borer as the Polychaete Eunice 
sicilieiisis inhabiting natural crevices in the nullipore and Serpulid 
combination. 

5. The St. Vincent Fringing-Reef. 

Although ti'ue " coral-reefs " ai-e absent from these seas, a 
remarkable simulacrum of a nullipore fringing-reef exists immedi- 
ately to the south of the town of St. Vincent. The Admiralty 
chart gives a much larger structure than that at pi'esent in 
existence. In fact, there have been two distinct though perfectly 
similar reefs, the northern and broader having been now com- 
pletely removed to make room for the piers &c, of the Coaling 
Companies. The two I'eefs were separated by lava rock at the 
base of a volcanic hill, 100 feet high, on the shore, the importance 
of which will appear later. 

The surface of the reef is at a level of from one to two feet 
aboA^e that of lowest tides, on the whole flat, with shallow pools, 



1905.] 



CAPE VERDE MARINE FAUNA. 



183 



but in one part a lai-ger channel exists on its land side. In this 
a constant current is produced by the flowing away of the spray 
thi-own over the reef -edge to the northerly opening of the channel. 
Obviously this current is the means by which the channel was 
produced. Landwards is a sand- beach, and in places a small 
amount of very soft beach-sandstone, at a level of about three 
feet vertically above the i-eef-flat. 

Text-fig. 26. 







^* \\\\ Bird 1 


Z? 


^°"^-;!Mi;^ 






,. \^i) 




n /'' ' \iV 






26 S^ 

3, 








\ 


1* 


17 








19 
17 


l' 

i 
/ 


^(M 






iS 


/■ 


1 •■^ c C / 






.C 




1 ...^ s:« 






\ " ^/ 










\ " '^ a 




\ _ , ■■?' \ 






\ P 


g 


'' ■''" f ) *■'"" 






\ ^i 




/ ..•■•■ - />."■ 






~i 




'^ / Aw, 






fz 1 










1* 1 










__/■ 




■.J ) ~^'""'- ,!..„ ■" ' ,''*- 






/ — ■" 


7 




'"*^^ 




V 




S\ \ »il^ 


\ 




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~ V 




S 






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i: -"' 1 


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/v- 


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7 
6 f ^ 




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(, " 




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\ 


\ 


\ 7 « / 

N. ^ / ' 

^ °^ SAND 


-^ 


^.yi 


° ] f 


3 


* ? Csbles 













Chart of Porto Grande. 



The edge is irregular, consisting of a line of rock-masses of 
nearly equal height, i. e. a few inches higher than the general 
level, and usually perfectly continuous with the reef-flat, and its 
surface is completely covered with nullipore giving a characteristic 
irregularity. There is a precipitous drop into one or two fathoms 
of water, beyond which is a slope of sand a,nd stones. In short, 
all appearances are those of a growing nullipore-reef with beach- 
sandstone towards its landward side, but examination shows 
that sandstone extends to the seaward edge, being merely plastered 



184 MR. CYRIL CROSSLAND ON THE [Mar. 7, 

over with the usual incrustation above described. Of the seaward 
jjrojecting masses the raised part is in some cases entirely composed 
of organic matter, of others the corresponding rock is sandstone 
thinly coated with nullipore. 

It is hei-e that the mode of growth of the Vermetus is best seen. 
Under the influence of the sea calcareous rocks usually become 
hollowed into a series of concavities separated by sharp ridges and 
pinnacles. On the seaward side of this reef these ridges are 
occupied by Vermetits-tx^hea alone. The coils of shell grow out 
horizontally from the top of the ridge, on either side, forming 
broad cake- like masses which cover over the depressions between 
the adjacent lidges as though one had laid a flat stone across. 
In the same way, but on a smaller scale, are doubtless formed 
those cavities in the incrustations of the lava rocks which are 
the habitat of an important constituent of the fauna. 

As one passes to the actual edge of the reef these colonies of 
Vermetus become combined with nullipore, the proportion of which 
rises until at the extreme edge the compound rock is half or 
more than half nullipore. 

Rock-boring organisms are here comparatively rare, and Sponges 
and Polychseta of this habit are entirely absent ! The other 
borers are common enough, but the Vermetus-\}\^}o%^ are apparently 
too hard and the intervening layers of nullipore too narrow for 
these. 

The rock beneath is a sandstone of very variable fineness and 
hardness, usually harder at its seaward edge, and softest at the 
top of the beach — when it occurs there. It is distinctly stratified, 
the sti-ata being neai^y horizontal or with a slight but distinct 
dip landwards. The surface is cut into hollows and sharp ridges 
in the way characteristic of " Ooral-rag." In composition the 
rock is practically completely calcareous, consisting of an aggluti- 
nation of foraminifera (the lai'ge species mentioned as forming 
the coarse sand of the bay) and more or less finelj^ broken shells. 
It is noteworthy that the sand of the beach consists of exactly 
the same materials and in both is found a small quantity of dark 
grey sand of volcanic origin. Rolled black pebbles are included, 
and sometimes the rock is almost a conglomerate of such, and 
shells, apparently those of the 2'>i'esent day, are frequently met 
with. This rock is bored by the Lamellibranch Lithopliagus and 
the Echinid Echinometra suhangularis, but not by Sponge or 
Polychfeta, &c. 

The formation of this rock has taken place in the same way as 
the sandstone-reefs off the river-mouths of Brazil. There are no 
rivers in St. Vincent (where the rainfall of the past three years 
has amounted to just thi-ee inches), but these reefs are situated 
at the mouths of two flat valleys which slope gently up to the 
mountains of the centre of the island, and are separated by 
the hill on the shore referred to above. Water continually per- 
colates down their beds, and even flows over their surfaces after 
very heavy rain. This water takes up lime in solution from the 



1905.] CAPE VERDE BIARINE FAUNA. 185 

shallow beds of limestone which clothe the lowei- slopes of the 
sides of these two valleys, and this is deposited as the cement of 
the sandstone when the fresh water mixes with the salt. 

But for the interference of tides and waves the level of this 
rock-bed would be that of the valley, i. e. the top of the sand- 
beach, where indeed a very soft rock does occur. But the sea 
has cut down this mass to the level determined by the height of 
the tides &c. in the usual way. As in the case of the reefs of 
Zanzibar, we are here shown how purely physical causes, aided 
by protective organic growths, can jaroduce reefs closely i-esem- 
bling those the mass of which is due to growth of organisms 
in siiiij, which leads to the conclusion that the forms characteristic 
of true coral-reefs are very lai-gely due to the physical action 
of the sea as well as to the laws of growth of the organisms 
themselves. 

That the formation of this sandstone-rock is still proceeding 
seems most probable, and it would be interesting to know defi- 
nitely the conditions of the landward side of the strata underneath 
the alluvium of the valley. The solvent and eroding actions of 
the sea are very nearly balanced by the growth of calcareous 
organisms, but the presence of outlying rocks and submerged 
masses indicate that the sea is slowly encroaching. It is probable 
that cementing of fresh material is being carried out on the 
landward side of the strata at the point where fresh and salt 
water meet — a point which is moved backwards just as fast as the 
sea encroaches. 

It is to be noted that the occurrence of beach -sandstone is 
not confined to valley- mouths. Smaller deposits. -ogeuPelsewhere, 
and a sample I collected at the'.' north "p)int of St7 Antonio has 
the appearance on the surface and the extreme hardness charac- 
teristic of the East- African " Coral-rag." 

6. Summary and Conclusions. 

1. Faunistic. — Although the Indo-Pacific Oceans are one faun- 
istic area, there is no fauna common to the tropical seas of the 
world, so fai- as the evidence of the Cape Verde Islands goes, 
though certain species are common to the Ti'opics of both Atlantic 
and Indian Oceans. If the Tropical Atlantic is a distinct area 
characterised by a special fauna, its northern limit is carried far 
to the south by cold currents (and probably northwards in the 
south), as in spite of the position of these Islands, between 17° 
and 15"^ N.*, their fauna has a considerable constituent derived 
from the subti-opical zone. But it may later appear that this 
portion of the favma is unduly conspicuous through its sj)ecies 
being already well-known, while the constituent derived from the 
Tropical Region, if any, will not be known until the systematic 
examination of the collections is completed. 

The scanty representation of some groups (e. g. Corals and 

* Compare the fauna of Suez Bay, which is tropical, though situated in latitude 
30° N. 



186 THE SECRETARY Ol-f ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. [Mar. 21, 

Alcyonaria) and practical absence of certain families of others 
(e. g. Chromodoriclse and Pseudoceridaa, of Nudibrancli Mollusca 
and Planai'ian worms respectively) may be features indicative of 
a subtropical fauna, or indications of the existence of a different 
balance of life obtaining in the two Oceans. 

2. The Formation of Organic Rocks. 

(«) Between tide-marks by two kinds of Nullipore and Vernietus- 
tubes, principally by the encrusting nullipoi-e and the tubes in 
combination. An enormous quantity of these calcareous growths 
is present on these coasts, though only as an incrustation a few 
inches thick. The absence of reefs may be due to the small 
vertical range of these growths on a remarkably steep coast, but 
especially to the extraordinary abundance of boring Sponges, 
Polychseta, and Mollusca, which more or less infest almost every 
fi-agment. 

(h) Below tide-marks, 5-10 fathoms, by the growth of nodules 
of Lithothamnion and great quantities of a foraminiferan. The 
former is usually reduced to fine grey mud by boring organisms. 
In 10-20 fathoms, by two more delicate species of red Alga and 
by the above-mentioned foraminiferan. 

3. Beach- Sandstone is formed by the depositioia of calcareous 
cement from fresh water on meeting the salt. The action of the 
sea upon this rock has in one case produced a remarkable simu- 
lacrum of a growing fringing-reef, which, however, is not being 
extended by the growth of organisms upon its margin, but slowly 
eroded by the sea. The total extent of this formation is insig- 
nificant in proportion to the organic incrustations above. 



March 21, 1905. 

G. A. BouiiENGER, Esq., F.R.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions that 
had been made to the Society's Menagerie in February 1905 : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during 
the month of February were 103 in number. Of these 26 were 
acquired by presentation, 16 by purchase, 39 were received on 
deposit, 21 by exchange, and 1 was born in the Gardens. The 
total number of depai-tures during the same period, by death and 
removals, was 94. 

Amongst the additions special attention may be directed 
to:— 

1 . A female Kiang (Eqmos hemionus kiang) from Eastern Tibet, 
deposited by H.M. The King on Feb. 23rd. 

2. A male Lynx [Felis lynx) from the Caucasus, received in 
exchange on Feb. 24th. 



1905.] ON A WOUNDED ORYX HIDING. 187 

3. A male Leopard of the Persian race [Felis joarchis tulUana), 
received in exchange on Feb. 24th. 

4. A semi-albino variety of the Common Fox [Canis vuljjes) 
from Essex, deposited on Feb. 7th. 



The Secretary read an extract from a letter that had been 
written to him by Mrs. S. L. Hinde, who had kept a number of 
animals in captivity at her husband's station in the Kenya district, 
British East Africa. He remarked that much had been recorded 
as to the urgent desire for salt shown by herbivorous animals, but 
that he was unaware of any observations as to the gratification 
of the instinct in a manner so unusual as that observed by 
Mrs. Hinde, who was a competent and trustworthy observer. 
The following is the extract in question :— 

" You asked me to tell you in detail how my Antelope became 
a murderer. He was a Duiker {Ce'phalo'plius), and became a 
member of my Zoo when a few days old. He was suckled by a 
goat, and was one of the few antelopes I have succeeded in 
rearing ; he w^as never ill, and always seemed in excellent con- 
dition. My Zoo was a fairly large space, surrounded with wire- 
netting, and contained the Duiker, a Dik-dik, a large family of 
Dassies (which bred in captivity), and various species of Francolins, 
Guinea-fowls, and Pigeons. They lived happily together and 
never seemed to fight, but not unfrequently I found one of the 
birds literally beheaded. I thought that the Dassies were the 
culprits, as they used to chase the green pigeons to eat their 
fruit, so much so that ultimately these pigeons became grain- 
feeders, doing well on the changed diet. One day, however, when 
a new partridge, just captured and weak from flight, had been 
put in the enclosure, I saw the Duiker go up to it, put one hoof 
on its back, and bite its head off. He was evidently the murderer, 
but simply because he needed salt. How he knew he could get it 
from blood is unexplained, but he evidently did. From that time 
quantities of rock-salt were kept in the enclosure, and there were 
no more beheaded birds." 

Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S., exhibited a photograph of a 
wounded Oryx {Oryx heisa) hiding under a mimosa-bush (text- 
fig. 27, p. 188), showing, what might be taken as an example of 
protective coloration. He, however, expressed the opinion that 
protective colouring only really took place in insects, birds, and 
small animals the enemies of which were birds, and that the larger 
animals which were preyed on by the cat and dog tribes, who 
hunted by scent, did not requii^e protective coloration. He put 
down the difiiculty of seeing large animals in their native haunts 
to the fact of their being able to remain absolutely still for 
long periods, holding the view that any animal in any ordinary 
surroundings would become practically invisible by remaining 
motionless. 



188 



ON A WOUNDED ORYX HIDING. 

Text-fiff. 27. 



[Mar. 21, 




Wounded Oiyx hiding in bushes. 



1905.] ON DRAWINGS OF FISHES OF THE RIO NEGRO. 189 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, B.A., F.Z.S., exhibited an interesting series 
of pencil-sketches of Fishes of the Rio Negro and its tributaries, 
made by Dr. A. R. Wallace about fifty years ago. Most unfor- 
tunately the magnificent collection of Fishes which they repre- 
sented, containing examples of about 200 species, was lost on the 
voyage home. Dr. Wallace had presented the drawings, accom- 
panied by notes on the dentition, the number of fin-rays, and 
the coloration, to the British Museum, and Mr. Regan had been 
engaged in their determination. A complete list of those which 
he had been able to identify follows, but in the case of the others, 
a large jjroportion of which probably represented species as yet 
undescribed, it had seemed best not to reproduce the drawings 
nor to publish notes on them, but they served to illustrate the 
incompleteness of our knowledge of the fishes of the Amazon and 
its tributaries. For example, the Oichlid genus Crenicichla, a 
revision of which was read before a recent meeting of this 
Society, was represented by 10 species. Of these only 5 had been 
determined, including C. lenticulata Heck., unrepresented in the 
British Museum Collection, and one described from the Essequibo 
under the name of C. wcdlacU *. The other 5 had very distinctive 
characters, and certainly did not belong to any of the species 
recognised in Mr. Regan's revision. It was rather curious that 
Dr. Wallace should have collected so few Loricariidte. The 
I'emarkable habits of the little Silurid Va^delUa cirrlwsa had 
been the subject of a communication made to this Society by 
Mr. Boulenger (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 901), and it was inter- 
esting to read Dr. Wallace's notes on this subject f : — '"The stomach 
is generally more or less filled with blood as it [the fish] attaches 
itself to other fish and aquatic animals and sucks them. This 
minute fish enters the urinary passage of men and women, wounds 
and extracts blood within, and all efforts to extract it are usually 
unavailing. Eff'iision of blood, inflammation, and death have in 
several instances occurred." 

The Fishes identified were : — 

Torpedinidfe : — Tmni%wa inotor^o Miill. & Henle. 

Osteoglossidee : — Osteoglossum hicirrhosum Yandelli. 

Symbranchidse : — Symhranchns inarmoratus Bl. 

Scombresocidse : — Belone tceniata Glinth. 

Characinidae : — Macrodon trahira Spix ; Eryihrinus unikeniatus 
Spix, E. scdmoneus Gronov., E. longipiiinis Giinth. ; Pyi^rhtdina 
filamentosa Cuv. & Val. ; Curimatus schomburgkii Giiuth., C spi- 
lurus Giinth., C alburmts Miill. & Trosch., G. elongatus Spix ; 
Prochilodus insignis Schomb. ; Heniiodus immaculatus Kner, II. 
unimacidat'us Miill. & Trosch. ; Anostomus tceiiiahis Kner, A. gra- 
cilis Kner; Leporinus fasciatits BL, Z. affinis Giinth., X. nigro- 
tceniatus Schomb., L. striatits Kner, L.frederici BL, L. leschenaidtii 
Cuv. & Val., L. nattereri Steind., L. Tnargm'itaceus Giinth. ; 

* Regan, supra, p. 163, pi. xiv. fig. 2. 

t See also note iji Arch, de Parasitol. vii. 1903, p. 168 (1904). 



190 MR. R. E. HOLDING ON ABNORMAL ANTLERS. [Mar, 21, 

Agoniates halecinus Miill. & Trosch. ; Gynodon pectorcdis Giinth., 
C. scomhroides Guv. ; Xiphostoma ocellatum Schomb., X. lateri- 
striga Bouleng. ; Xiphorhamphus ferox Giinth., X. fcdcirostris 
Cuv. ; Tetragonopterus hartletti Giinth,, T. oligolepis Giinth., T. 
toappi Guv. & Val., T. cmulomacidcdus Giinth., T. grandisquamis 
Miill. tfe Trosch., T. chrysargy7-etis Giinth., T. ahramis Jenyns, 
T. chalceus Agass. ; Brycon pesu Miill. & Trosch., B. schomburgJcii 
Miill. ik Trosch. ; Ghcdceus iniacrolepidottis Cuv. ; Megalohrycon 
cephcdus Giinth. ; Crenuchus spihorus Giinth, ; Serrasahno denti- 
culatus Miill. & Trosch., S. scapularis Giinth., S. gymnogenys 
Giinth., S. humercdis Cuv. & Val. ; Myletes schomburgkii Miill, & 
Trosch,, M. ellipticus Giinth., M. setiger Miill. & Trosch., M. duri- 
ventris Cuv,, M. rhomboidcdis Giinth,, M. rtd)ripinnis Miill. k, 
Trosch., M. asterias Miill. & Trosch., M. hypsauchen Miill. & 
Trosch. ; Anacyrtus gihhosus L. 

Gymnotidse : — titernopyg%is carcqnhs L. ; Carapits fasciatihs Pall. ; 
Oymnotus electriciis L. ; Sternarchus nattereri Steind. 

Silviridse : — Vandellia cirrhosa Cuv, & Val. ; Ccdlichthys longifdis 
Cuv. k Val., C. asper Quoy & Gaim. ; Cetopsis ccecutlens Licht. ; 
Asterophysus batrachus Kner ; Oxydoras stenopeltis Kner, 0. 
li'po2)hthahnus Kner, 0. carinatus Cuv. & Val.; Doras cataphracUis 
L,, D. heckelii Kner ; Ageniosus militaris Bl. ; Centromochkis 
heckelii Filippi; Platystoma j^laniceps Agass., P. tigrinum Cuv. & 
Val. ; Callophysus lateralis Gill ; Flatynematichthys punctidatus 
Kner ; Pirinampits typus Agass, ; Pimelodus holomelas Giinth,, 
P. muelleri Giinth., P. mactdatus Lacep., P. ornatus Kner, 
P. eques Miill. & Trosch., P. cristatus Miill, &, Trosch,, P. seboi 
Cuv, & Val., P. raninus Cuv. & Val. ; Phractocephahis hemiliopterus 
Bl. Schn. ; Piratinga goliath Kner. 

Loi'icariidse : — Loricaria carinata Casteln,, L. maculata Bl, ; 
Plecostomus guacari Lacep., Ancistrus gibbiceps Kner, A. bra- 
chyurus Kner, A. pictus Casteln. 

Scisenidfe : — ScicEna amazonica Casteln. 

Cichlidte : — Gichla ocellaris Bl. Schn., G. teiaensis Humb. ; Geo- 
phagus jurupari Heck., G. dcemon Heck., G. cupido Heck., G. 
surinamensis Bl. ; Acaropsis iiassa Heck. ; Acara vittata Heck., 
A. tetramerus Heck,; Grenicichla Johanna Heck,, G. lugubris 
Heck, G. lenticulata Heck., G. saxatilis L., G. vjallacii Regan ; 
Gichlosoma coryphamoldes Heck., G. severum Heck., G. festivum 
Heck. ; Pterophylliim scalar e Cuv. & Val. 



Mr. Macleod Yearsley, F.Z.S., exhibited an X-ray photograph 
of a living Ring-Snake {Tropidonotus Qiatrix), taken by Dr. F. H, 
Low a short time after it had swallowed a couple of frogs. The 
skeleton of the snake was shown very clearly, and the bones of its 
prey could be very easily made out within its body. 

Mr. R. E. Holding exhibited and made remarks upon three 
skulls of the Fallow Deer {Bania vidgaris), showing arrest of, 



1905.] 



ON HORN-GROWTH IN A CASTRATED PRONGBUCK. 



191 



or abortive nodular growths in, the antlers, due to complete, or 
incomplete, castration ; also two Red Deer skulls (Cervus elaphus), 
showing congenital absence, or modification in the growth, of the 
antlers. 



The following papers were read ; 



1. The Effects of Castration on the Horns of a Prongbuck 
{Antilocapra americana). By R. I. POCOCK, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., Superintendent of the Gardens. 

[Received Feljruary 21, 1905.1 

(Text-figiu-es 28 & 29.) 

The Zoological Gardens recently i-eceived on deposit an adult 
male Prongbuck remarkable for the abnormal development of the 
horns, which, instead of rising vertically from the forehead, curve 
from the root boldly forwards, then downwards, then backwards, 
like a pair of teapot-handles, each ending in a slightly incui-ved 
point close beneath the eye (text-fig. 28). There also appears at 
first sight to be no trace of the anterior tine or prong characteristic 
of the normal horn. 

Text-fig. 28. 




Lateral view of head of a castrated Prongbuck, showing the abnormal growth and 
shape of the horns. 

A writer in the ' Field,' on February 4th, commenting on the 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. XIII. 13 



192 MR. R. I. rococK ON HORN-GROWTH [Mar. 21, 

animal, remarked that it " evidently bent its horns when young, 
probably in a fence." This explanation, however, even if no 
other were forthcoming, would not, in my opinion, account for all 
the peculiarities of the case. For, apart from the more deep- 
seated modifications enumerated below, the horns differ in three 
particulars from those of a typical Prongbuck — -namely, in 
direction, in the practical suppression of the anterior tine, and in 
shape, being subcylindrical and lacking the lateral compression and 
basal antero-posterior width observable in the normal horn. An 
injury of the nature suggested might perhaps produce permanent 
malformation ; but it seems hardly likely that with subsequent 
growth the malformation would follow the same line of develop- 
ment in the two horns, and result in identity in length and 
similarity in shape and symmetry. 

After the appearance of the notice in the ' Field,' Mr. Thomson, 
the Assistant Superintendent of the Gardens, discovered that the 
Prongbuck had been castrated. Castration usually has a marked 
effect upon secondary sexual characters ; and since the discrepancy 
in size between the horns of the bucks and does of Antilocapra 
justifies the inclusion of these structures in that category of 
organs, one would expect abnormality in the growth of the horns 
to be caused by the opei-ation in question. 

I am not aware that any observations on the effects of castra- 
tion on the Prongbuck have yet been published. In the case, 
however, of Fallow Deer, its results have been recorded in 
a few cases by Dr. G. H. Fowler (P. Z. S. 1894, pp. 485- 
494), who summarises his results, based upon the evidence of 
undisputed data, under five headings, as follows : — (1) Complete 
castration at birth may result in the formation of simple dags. 
(2) Castration late in life may produce great asymmetry in the 
antlers. (3) Antlers of castrated deer can be shed ; if castrated 
after the horns for the year are burnished \i. e. have lost the 
velvet], the animal may shed them prematurely ; antlers put up 
after castration may be retained for at least two years. (4) Partial 
casti-ation soon after birth may result in a comparatively feeble 
but normal development of the antlers. (5) Castration on one 
side may result in the nearly normal development of one antler, 
and in abnormality and reduction of the other*. 

Although the shedding of the antlers in Deer is a phenomenon 
only analogous to that which takes place in the Prongbuck, and 
although the horns of the Prongbuck, inasmuch as they are 
sometimes, at all events, present in the female, have not quite so 
strong a claim to be regarded purely as secondary sexual oi-gans 
as those of the Fallow Deer, where they are confined to the male, 
we should nevertheless look for somewhat similar variations to 
be caused by castration in the two animals. And assuming the 

* A valuable summary of this question may be found in Mr. J. T. Cunningham's 
book on 'Sexual Dimorphism in the Animal Kingdom' (1900). I learn from 
Mr. F. C. Selous that castration does not appreciably affect the horns of the Eland. 
In that Antelope horns occur in both sexes. 



1905.] IN A CASrEATED PR0XC4BUCK. 193 

variations cleseiibed below to be due to castration, it is evident 
that the operation has affected the horns in a very remarkable 
manner. 

Description of the Horns. 

Instead of rising from the forehead as upright, laterally-com 
pressed, bony prominences, the horn-cores bend obliquely forwards 
in a vertical plane, their axes inclining to the plane of the fore- 
head at an angle of about 45°. They are only about 2 inches long. 

The horn-sheaths cover the core to the root, becoming gradually 
softer proximally, and passing into the hairy integument of the 
head. They project nearly horizontally forwards in the direction 
of the nose for a distance of about 3| inches, then curve down- 
wards for about 2| inches, and then backwards towards the eye 
for about 3| inches, the terminal inch curving lightly inwards 
and downwards to a point close to the eye. Their total length 
along the outer or convex curve is thus about 9^ inches. They 
also present a spiral twist forming about one-foui'th of a complete 
turn. This is attested by the fact that an interfibrous groove 
starting in the middle line of what is morphologically the posterior 
surface of the base, but which by the change in the direction of 
growth has become secondarily the upper or dorsal surface of the 
horn, gradually passes on to its inner surface to terminate on the 
concave side of the apically curved portion, this concave area 
being also, morphologically, although it faces the middle line, 
part of the posterior surface of the horn, as is abundantly proved 
by the recurvature of the apex of the normally formed horn. 
The same extent of torsion is further shown by the lateral 
compression of the base of the horn being replaced by dorso- 
ventral compression towards the apex, the normal horn being 
laterally compressed throughout. Briefly stated, the result of the 
twist is to make the distal half of the posterior surface of the horn 
face the middle line of the body. 

Although the horn-sheaths have been described above as if 
each corresponded to a single fully-formed horn-sheath of an 
adult Prongbuck, closer examination shows that they are in 
reality composite — that is to say, they consist of a series of horn- 
sheaths partially severed from each other. The exact number of 
sheaths involved in the formation of the whole is not easy to 
determine. There appear, however, to be six. In the right 
sheath, the outer or convex side shows a continiious and unbroken 
surface except at two points, the proximal break occurring at 
about I of an inch from the base, and the distal a little more 
than 2| inches from the apex ; there is, however, a partial break 
li inches behind the distal break. These three breaks are continued 
round the horn on to its convex side, and very evidently represent 
the proximal ends, formerly extending to the root of the hoi-n-core, 
of three separate sheaths. Moreover, on the concave side there 
are two additional breaks in the continuity of the tissue which 
extend onlvhalf round the sheath, one situated at about 1| inches 

13* 



194 MR. R. I. POCOCK ON HORN-GROWTH [Mar. 21, 

from the antepenultimate break, the other about 1 inch behind 
the latter ancl 1^ inches in front of the proximal break. These 
breaks divide the sheath superficially into six pieces — a proximal, 
a distal, and four intermediates, which for convenience of refer- 
ence may be numbered, from apex to base, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. 

No. 6, measuixng about 1 inch in length, presents near the 
middle of its anterior (inferior) surface a very distinct blunt 
tubercle, representing, I believe, the prong of the noi-mal horn. 
A similar but smaller boss is also present on its posterior (superior) 
side, and corresponds in all probability to the posterior angular 
prominence visible in the proximal half of the normal horn. 

No. 5, measui'ing 1| inches, also exhibits on its anterior (in- 
ferior) surface, close to the base of no. 4, a small tubercle 
representing the prong ; bvit there is no sign of any prominence 
on its opposite side. 

No, 4, measuring 1 inch, has no tubercles. 

No. 3 measures 1^ inches, and shows a very slight eminence 
near its distal extremity. 

No. 2, also measuring 1| inches, has no trace of the prong. 

No. 1, measuring 2| inches, tapers to a point and forms a 
semicrescentic curve. There is no trace of a prong. 

The measurements above given represent the lengths of the 
portions of the individual horn-sheaths left uncovered by the 
previously formed sheath, with the exception only of the 1st or 
distal sheath, the first formed of the series. This sufficiently 
explains the greater apparent length of the latter. 

In longitudinal section, the true length of the separate sheaths 
is moi"e clearly shown. The composite sheath may thus be seen 
to consist (1) of a solid horny central core extending from its tip 
to the apex of the cavity of the proximal piece, which fitted over 
the bony process of the skull, and serving to bind together the 
separate sheaths ; and (2) of a cortical layer which is ti-aversed 
by a large number of clefts running longitudinally and obliquely 
backv/ards and slightly outwards from the central core towards 
the periphery of the cortical layer. Of these clefts five only 
reach the surface, and, being larger than the rest, divide the 
sheath into the six component j^arts described above. The 
appearance of the whole series of clefts, however, forcibly suggests 
a corresponding number of attemjDts to get rid of the sheaths at 
diflferent periods. 

As already explained, a complete interruption of the continuity 
of the cortical tissue extending all round the sheath occurs only 
in two places, and admits of a cei-tain freedom of movement 
between the adjacent portions of the composite sheath. The 
cleft defining the distal sheath extends so deeply as almost to 
sever this sheath from the apex of the antecedent or 2nd sheath, 
the portion of the central core that binds the two together being 
only about 2 mm. in thickness. Hence the distal sheath is fi'eely 
movable. On the other hand, the central core that binds the 
proximal sheath (no. 6) to the previously formed portions of the 



1905.1 



IN A CASTRATED PRONGBUCK. 



195 



sheath IS about i of an inch thick, and allows of but little move- 
jnent oetween the two. The remaining portions of the composite 
sheath are unmovably welded together both by the solidity and 
thickness of the central core and by the unbroken continuity of 
the cortical tissues on the convex side of the horn-sheath. 

The approximate length in inches of the sheaths (excluding the 
distal) IS as follows :— No. 6, 2i ; nos. 5, 4, and 3, 2^ ; no. 2, 21 
In the proximal sheath the length of the hollow that fits over 
the bony core is 11; in the distal sheath it is 1^ inches. 
_ The horn that has just been described was not, I believe, shed 
m the ordinary Avay. It was picked up in the paddock adjoining 
that m which the Prongbuck was kept. The paddocks are sepa- 
rated by iron bars, and it seems probable that the horn, becoming 
entangled, was wrenched off by the animal in its efforts to get 
free. This is an explanation of its being on the wrong side of the 
fence, and also_ of the fact that the horn-core was naked and 
bleeding. ^ In the case of normally-shed horn- sheaths, the core is 
covered Avith the new sheath before the old one comes away. 

Text-fie-. 29. 




Section of llie left compound lioni-sheath of a castrated Prongbuck, slightly 
diagrammatic, showing the five component sheaths (1-5) and the extremity 
of the central strand (A) by which the fifth sheath (5) was fixed to the tip 
of the sheath left covering the horn-core. 

The left horn-sheath (text-fig. 29) resembles the right in essential 
features. It appears, however, to consist of five, instead of six, 



196 ON HORX-GROWi'H IN A CASTRATED PRONGBUCK. [Mar. 21, 

slieaths united by a solid central core. The proximal, or fifth, is 
separated from the f oitrth by a deep cleft extending moie than half 
way round the sheath. It measures li inches, and presents on its 
concave (morphologically anterior) side a small but distinct and. 
sharp tubercle representing the prong. The fourth, measuring 
1| inches, is itself subdivided into two by a deep cleft, suggesting 
that it may represent two short, partially-separated sheaths. 
The third, which is marked off externally from the fourth by a 
deep but narrow cleft, measures 1| inches. Neither the foui-th 
nor the third shows a trace of the prong. The second, measuring 
1^ inches, has, however, a very pronounced tubercle ; it is 
sepai-ated from the third by a deep cleft completely encii'cling 
the sheath. A similar complete cleft also marks the divisional 
line between the second and first, which is curved as in the right 
horn-sheath and measures about 2 inches. 

In longitudinal section this sheath is also like that of the light 
side. The individual components are firmly welded together by 
the solid central core, and the cortical layer is subdivided by 
oblique clefts, some of which fall short of the periphery of the 
sheath and are visible only in section, v^^hile others are carried 
through to the surface and mai-k the spaces between the sheaths. 
The lengths of the latter from base to apex, as shown in section, 
are as follows : — Nos. 5-2 about 2^ inches, no. 1 about 2^ inches. 

The left horn I removed from the animal's head myself. It 
was loose, and the fibres at its base were easily laiptured by 
rotation. The sheath came partially away from the horn-core, 
leaving it covered with a horny cap, the last-formed sheath. 
This cap, however, Avas firmly united apically to the angle of the 
socket of the antecedent sheath by a solid horny strand con- 
tinuous with the central core ti'aversing the length of the 
composite horn-sheath and binding its constituents together. 
This strand (text-fig. 29, A) had to be severed with a knife before 
the sheath could be removed. The presence of this horny cap 
upon the left horn-core and the naked and bleeding condition of 
the right one sufiiciently explain the presence of six horn-sheaths 
in the right and five in the left detached composite sheath. 

The effects of castration on the hoi-ns of the Prongliuck may 
thus be summarised as follows : — 

1. Modification of the Horn-cores. — These are shortened and bent 

obliquely forwards and outwards at the apex, causing the 
sheath to project in the direction of the nose. 

2. Modifications of the Horn-sheath: — 

a. Shedding of the sheath does not take place. 

6. The first-formed sheath is normal in shaj^e, and at the time 
for shedding breaks away from the second except at the 
point where the a.pex of the latter joins the angle of the 
cup of the former. A similar partial severance separates 
the succeedina; sheaths from each other. 



1905.] ON MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 197 

c. The result of this incomplete separation of the sheaths is the 

formation of a composite sheath which would presumably 
go on increasing in length so long as new sheaths were 
formed from the horn-core. 

d. With the exception of the first, each newly-formed sheath 

is like its predecessor in shape and length, and differs from 
the fully and normally formed sheath of an adult animal 
in being subconical, with the point straight, and the prong 
either unrepresented or represented by a small wart-like 
tubercle. 

e. The composite sheath at first grows forwards, then down- 

wards, then backwards, and is affected by a slight spiral 
twist, causing the posterior surface of its distal extremity 
to face the middle line. 



2. Notes on the Mammals and Birds of Liberia. 
By Sir Harry H. Johnston, G-.C.M.G-., K.C.B., F.Z.S. 

[Received March 21, 1905.] 

Liberia, as seen on the map, is little more than the southern- 
most prolongation of the legion which might be styled Northern 
Guinea. The southernmost point of Liberia, at the mouth of the 
Oavally River, is the most southerly extension of the true West 
Coast of Africa. At this point the West Coast reaches to within 
little more than 4 degrees of the Equator. Although this 
country is not marked off. clearly by any natural features either 
from Sierra Leone on the one hand or the Ivory Coast on the 
other, it possesses a certain distinctness and a slight degree 
of peculiarity as regards its flora and fauna. The botanical 
collections that have been made by those v/ho have been working 
with me recently in Liberia have brought to light several 
genera and a large number of new species of plants which appear 
to be restricted in their distribution more or less to the political 
limits of this Negro republic. I do not think that quite the same 
degree of peculiarity can be ascribed to the fauna even amongst 
vertebrates, which offer the greatest amount of specialisation or 
exclusive distribution. As regards mammals and birds, Liberia 
is to a great extent a meeting-place for the forms of Northern 
Guinea (Sierra Leone to the Gambia) and those of the Gold Coast,, 
the Niger Delta, and the Cameroons. Some types find Liberia 
their northernmost or westernmost limit of range from the Congo 
Basin, the "Victoria Nyanza, and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. Of such 
may be noted, besides various birds, the Bongo Antelope, which 
is found abundantly in Liberia, but which does not, I believe, 
extend its range much to the west of that country. Also the 
Red Congo Buffalo. I fancy I am correct in saying that this type, 
the horns of which I have seen in the interior of Liberia, does 
not differ from the Red Buffalo of the Congo, but that it scarcely 



198 SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON ON [Mar. 21, 

extends westwards into Sierra Leone, where the Senegalese type 
of buffalo is met with. This last may be distinguished fi"om the 
Congo Buftalo by its slightly longer horns with less expanded 
bases, and by the tendency to black in the colour of the hair*. 
Liberia is also, I believe, the westernmost range of the Diana 
Monkey. 

This country is chiefly remarkable, as regards the possession of 
peculiar species of mammals, for the Liberian Hippopotamus, the 
Zebra Antelope {Ceplialophus dorice), Jentink's Duiker, and 
Biittikofer's Monkey. It is not to be supposed that these 
creatures carefully discriminate between the political boundaries 
of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast ; and in all proba- 
bility as a zoological district one may have to include within the 
limits of Liberia a portion of the eastern part of Sierra Leone and 
of the western part of the Ivory Coast, where the dense Liberian 
forests extend across the political frontiers. But, so far as present 
research goes, the creatures above named appear to be restricted 
in their distribution to the Liberian area. I do not think any 
trace of the Liberian Hippopotamus has been found in any other 
part of Africa. As regards the zebra-striped Duiker, it was 
thought at one time that its existence on the northern borders of 
the Congo watershed had been discovered by Dr. Junker ; but the 
portions of the skin of this Zebra Antelope v/hich he obtained 
were in all probability part of a young foim or a dwarf species of 
Okapi. 

It has been said that the Common Hippopotamus existed in the 
lower reaches of the Cavally River, and Avas formerly found in 
the St. Paul's River. I saw none of them on the latter stream, 
and all my European coi-respondents den}^ the existence in any 
Liberian river (entering the Gulf of Guinea) of the big 
Hippopotamus, which, hoAvever, is present in the larger streams 
flowing towards the Niger. As regards the Dwarf Hippopotamus, 
it is met with in most parts of Liberia, wherever European 
explorers have penetrated. I have little to add to Biittikofer's 
description of its habits, except that I think that he insists too 
strongly on its predilection for a terrestrial life. According to the 
statements of European and native observers, it lives a good deal 
in the water. 

The Zebra Antelope is not met with close to the coast, but is 
fairly abundant in the hilly regions of the interior. It would 
seem to be very common in the Kelipo country to the west of the 
upper Cavally, and also on eithei- side of the upper St. Paul's 
River. The skins which I was able to exhibit came from 
the Kelipo country, and were collected by Mr. Maitland Pye- 
Smith. 

Since I have mentioned the name of this collector (who has 
also sent me three Chimpanzee skulls and the skull and teeth 
of a Pygmy Hippopotamus), I might state that he forwarded me 

* According to Captain d'Ollone, the Senegambian (black) Bufl'alo is found in 
Novthern Liberia, the Coigo or Red Buffalo in the Southern forest-region. 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 199 

from the same Kelipo country, near the upper Cavally, a carious 
statement I'egarding the existence in this forest of a large^ black 
pig. The natives gave him circumstantial accounts of this pig, 
which is said to be five or six feet long, and he was struck hj 
the resemblance between this story and the description first given 
in the ' Field ' newspaper of the Hylochcerus nieinertzhageni. At 
the time he ^vrote to me he knew nothing about the interest I had 
taken in the question of this giant pig of the Congo Forest, 
nor did he indeed know that the pig had been discovered by the 
Belgians in the north-eastern limits of that region. It was 
the first description given in the ' Field ' of the discovery on the 
slopes of Mount Kenia which appeared to him to fit in so nearly 
with the stories of the natives of the Kelipo country of the pig in 
their country, which was of similar appearance and dimensions. 

Mr. Pye-Smith also sent me native stories which he thought 
also indica,ted the existence in Eastern Liberia of a Gorilla. I 
mention this for what it may be worth ; but the skull which was 
to support this theory never reached Mr. Pye-Smith, or at any 
rate never arrived in England. I think, myself, that some of the 
gorilla stories which i-each the coast from the interior of Liberia 
axe referable either to big Chimpanzees or possibly to big specimens 
of the Drill or Mandrill baboon. Nowhere, as yet, in Liberia 
have either the Drill or Mandrill baboons been found, but I should 
think it not improbable that they would make their appearance in 
the mountainous country of the far interior. I have seen only one 
species of baboon in this country myself. It is the common 
Guinea Baboon of Sierra Leone and the Gokl Coast. A very 
common type of monkey in this country is the Sooty Mangabey, 
the manners and habits of which are very i-eminiscent of the 
baboons. I would point out one trick that Baboons and Mangabeys 
have in common, and that is the friendly greeting which they 
make by smacking the lips. I have never noticed this trait in 
any other monkey. 

The Potto and at least one species of Galago are sufficiently 
common to have attracted the notice of the Americo-Liberians on 
the coast. Colobus monkeys apparently of four species are 
indigenous in this country ; but I myself, and those who have 
been collecting information for me, have hitherto been able to 
obtain only two species — Golohus ursinus and C. ferrugineus. 
Biittikofer, however, seems to have obtained specimens of Colobus 
polycomus and G. vents. The Bay-thighed Monkey {Cercopi- 
thecits diana ignita) is very common. 

Bats are well represented, and amongst them are prominent as 
regards frequency of appearance the monstrous-looking Fruit-Bats 
of the genus Epomophorus. 

Among carnivorous mammals, the most interesting pei-haps, 
from its relative rarity and its restriction to the West- African 
forest-region, is the Golden Cat {Felis celidogaster). The range 
of this cat has not yet been sufficiently determined, nor has a 
decisive opinion been passed as to the marked variations in type 



200 SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON ON [Mar. 21 

which apparently can be derived froui one and the same district. 
But for the assertions of the German authorities who have de- 
scribed specimens of this cat from Togoland, one would be led t6 
suppose that the reddish-grey form with very small and faint spots 
on the upper parts and a somewhat small head was restricted to 
Senegambia, Sierra Leone, and the northern parts of Liberia; 
while the smoother, shorter-haired, larger-headed form, with very 
distinct spots and a greyer coat, extended from Eastern Liberia to 
the Niger Delta. (I am not aware that the existence of this cat 
has yet been traced to the east of the Niger, but I expect it will 
be found to extend to the limits of the Congo Basin.) But the 
Germans assert that both varieties are found concurrently. It is 
presumably called the Golden Cat because on the flanks, between 
the white of the belly and the reddish-grey of the upper parts, are 
bands of golden-yellow. This cat has a very savage disposition, 
and the closer-haired, more distinctly spotted form grows nearly 
to the size of a Caracal. The Serval is fairly common in the 
interior of Liberia. The Leopard is everywhere common, and is 
often much dreaded by the natives. The Lion appears to be 
known in the Mandingo hill-country to the north of the forest. 
The Spotted Hyaena is known to the Mandingos, though it is 
never heard of in the forest-region. The Mandingos from the 
interior of Liberia call the Hysena " Djawa " or " Djani." The two 
words seem to exist side by side, and it is possible from the some- 
what varying descriptions that both the Striped and Spotted forms 
may be known in the northern part of Liberia on the verge of 
the Niger Basin. The big Civet Cat is very abundant, so also are 
the Genets and the Palm- Civet [N'andinicc hinotata). 

Amongst the Rodents I have noticed the African Brush-tailed 
Porcupine {Atherivra africana) ; but Biittikofer also records the 
Common Porcupine as being a Liberian mammal. Mr. Whyte 
obtained specimens of tlie Graphiurus Dormouse {Gi^aphmrus 
hueti), and also of Anomalurus beecroftii, the Scaly-tailed Flying 
Squirrel. The Black Rat is present in Liberia, and the Brown 
Rat has also reached that country, through the intercourse with 
foreign ships no doubt. The otlaer Mice recoixled are Mus cdex- 
andrimis, nigricauda, rufinvs, harharus, trivirgattts, dorsaUs, and 
muscidoides. The Octodont " Ground Rat," Thryonomys, is 
common. Most of the West- African Squirrels are represented, as 
also the genera Cricetomys and Lojjhuroviys. 

The Elephant is fairly abundant all over the interior of Liberia 
but has not within recent times approached nearer than about 
twenty miles from the coast. Usually elephants are not met with 
till a journey of about forty miles inland has been accomplished, 
and then they are so abundant as to be very dangerous to caravans, 
which they often attack without provocation. I have seen at 
Monrovia tusks of fair size. The largest that was weighed in my 
presence was 75 lbs. The ivory is rather curved as a rule and 
fairly thick. I think it will be found as a rule that the elephant 
of the densely forested regions in Africa has somewhat smaller 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 201 

tusks than those which are developed by the males in the more 
open regions, where perhaps digging for roots or the desire to 
uproot trees is more prevalent than in the dense forest, where the 
elephant can find abundant sustenance in the leaves and fruits of 
trees which he reaches with his trunk. Extremely little is known 
by Europeans abotit the West- African Elephant, as the animal is 
so rarely killed in that region. I hope that some of the foresters 
of the Rubber Company may be able to kill a Libeiian Elephant, 
in order to ascertain by photography, or possibly even by 
preserving the skin, the shape of the ears. Some little while ago 
it was shown by a Gern:ian zoologist that an elephant received 
from the interior of the Cameroons had ears that were smallei- 
and much more rounded than those of the East African type. 

The Rhinoceros undoubtedly exists — I cannot say in what 
type — in the northern parts of Liberia, as the Mandingos at once 
recognised pictures of it, and named it Kowuru. T might mention 
that the Mandingos talk a great deal about a striped animal which 
they call Siruku. They recognised a picture of a zebra and called 
it Siruku, but at the same time described the animal as being 
extremely ferocious and dangerous to life. As it is impossible to 
recognise this description as applying to the zebra, I thought from 
their gestures that they might mean the leopard ; but to the 
leopard they gave a totally different name — Soli. Moreover, they 
were particular that this animal had stripes. It may be the 
Striped Hya?na. At the same time, on every occasion when they 
were shown the picture of a zebra they declared that this was the 
creature they called Siruku, but that in their country it w;is 
ferocious *. 

As regards Antelopes, they are divisible into two groups, so far 
as distribution in Liberia is concerned — those that inhabit the 
forest and those that are confined more or less to the open, park- 
like country. Cephaloplixis sylvicultrix and C. jentinki are found 
in the dense forest. Most of the other Liberian Duikers, including 
the beautiful Zebra Antelope, are more associated with the forested 
hills than the lowlands; in fact, they are usually called " Mountain 
Deer" by the Americo-Liberians. The magnificent Bongo is 
fairly common. It is called the " Elk " by the Americo-Liberians, 
who have followed the Americans in their maddenmg habit of 
misnaming every living creature they come across ; so that the 
Bushbuck or rather Harnessed Antelope is called the '■ Red-Deer," 
while the splendid Blue Plantain- eater is termed the " Peacock," 
and the Turaco, the " Redv/ing." Outside the forest, or on the 
northern verge of it, there are Hartebeests — Buhalis raajovf — 

* [Note. — -By a curious coincidence, after tliese lines were WTitten I noticed the 
following statement on p. 293 of 'De la Cote d'lvoire au Soudan,' bj' Capt. 

d'Ollone : — " II me faut mentionnes I'existence de deux sortes d'hyenes .... 

beaucoup plus grandes plus fortes et plus hardies que celles d'Algerie oil d'Orient. 
Mais I'une surtout, que les indigenes appellent ' Sowara ' (Cheval-pantliere) , serait 
formidable et inspii'e une tres grande terreur. Un Sowara avait tue un sergent 
fran9ais dans une ease peu avant notre passage. Cette hyene serait, paraitit, 
tachetee."] 

t Horns of this species were brought home by Col. Powne}-. 



202 SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON ON [Mar. 21, 

(whidi the Mandingos call Giisu), the Koan Antelope (Mandingo : 
Mina), and Golnts singsmg. The Mandingos know of the Girafie, 
which is no doubt present in the extreme northern part of Liberia. 
The Red Biish-Pig {Potamochmrus penicilkaus) is abundant 
th.roughout Liberia. It is occasionally tamed by the natives, and 
is said to interbreed freely with the domestic swine. I noticed 
one very emious point regarding the domestic pigs which Avere so 
common an object in the streets of Americo-Liberian towns on the 
coast. These pigs seem to be the degenerate descendants of 
European breeds, introduced originally no doubt by the Portuguese, 
the I Jutch, and the English . It occurs very frequently in the litters 
of these pigs that the young are striped and spotted with white, 
exactly like the young of the "Wild Boar. I have seen it stated 
generally that the Domestic Pig was never marked with white like 
the young of the wild species of the genera Sths and Potamocluerus, 
Whether this feature in the domestic pigs of Liberia is caused by 
their reverting to the condition of the Avild stock of Europe from 
which they sprang, or whether it is in any way due to mixture 
with the Red Pig, I cannot say positively ; but the parents of 
these spotted young were emphatically European domestic pigs in 
origin, and did not betray in themselves the slightest intermixture 
with the Red Bush-Pig. But I know that on the Congo and in 
the l^igev Delta cases of interbreeding between the Red Bush- Pig 
and the domestic swine are occasionally I'eported. 

Libei'ia, in common with Sierra Leone and perhaps the Ivory 
Coast and Gold Coast, boasts of one of the most interesting of 
African mammals, the Dorcatherium aquaticum, the Water- 
Chevrotain. The eastern range of this animal has not yet been 
determined. I ne^-er remember hearing that it had been found 
to the east of the Gold Coast, but perhaps this is simply due to 
oversight. The Dorcatherium is faii-ly common in the interioi- of 
Sierra Leone, and I believe is occasionally found in Portuguese 
Guinea and the adjoining regions of French Senegambia,. It is 
fairly common in Liberia, though excessively difficult to capture. 
It lives a good deal in the water, in which its body is often 
immersed. It is said by the natives to conceal itself most cleverly 
amongst the water vegetation. It is regarded by the people of 
Liberia and Sierra Leone as the embodiment of kindly wisdom. 
It takes the place which the hare — otherwise "Brer Rabbit" — 
fills in the legends of Southern and Central Africa. The natives 
state that three oi- four young are produced at a birth. 

The Manatee is common in most of the big rivers ; and in the 
foi'ests three species of Ilanis are met with, including Manis 
gigantea. Two species of Tree-Hyrax are found in the forest, 
and the woodland often echoes to their weird cries. 

It should be stated in a general way that the coast-regions of 
Liberia are exceedingly disappointing to the collector because 
of the remarkable absence of any form of bird or beast or even 
reptile. It is difficult to understand why there should be this 
extreme dearth, because the Americo-Liberians are not very 
keen about sport, nor have they any reason foi- desiring to 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 203 

destroy birds and beasts avound them. They are, on the other 
hand, rather kindly disposed towards these creatures. In the 
interior the indigenous natives have an extraordinary craving for 
meat, which they satisfy partly by cannibalism, but also by 
devouring even the skin of the creatures that they snare or shoot. 
On the lower part of the St. Paul's Kiver, I have sometimes seen 
only one bird in the course of a whole day, and that is the veiy 
common Angola Vulture. As soon as you get into the foi'est the 
beautiful Blue Plantain- eaters {Corythceola cristata) become 
fairly common, and enliven the woods with their sti-ange cries. 
Although this bird is so abundant in Liberia, very little seems to 
be known by the natives regarding its nesting-habits. I have 
received the young of Taracus and Gallirex fi'om the nest in 
other parts of Africa, when the nestlings were at most four days 
old, and I have noticed that they were fairly well covered, except 
on the head, with long, fleecy, purplish-grey down. It would be 
vei-y interesting to ascertain the condition of the young in 
Corythceola, as to whether they ai-e born absolutely naked or 
partially covered with down. It is interesting to note that this 
bii-d alone amongst the family of the Turacos oflf'ei-s a marked 
difference in size and coloration between the male and the female. 
The male of Corythceola is at least a fourth larger than the 
female, and the coloration is much brighter and the crest lai-gei'. 
In the other members of this family there is apparently little oi- 
no difference in size or coloration between the male and female. 
The fine examples of Corythceola which have been collected by 
Mr. Harold Reynolds in Liberia only differ from those I have 
obtained in the western parts of Uganda by the blue in the male 
being slightly more ultramarine than the blue verditer of the 
Uganda specimens. Young specimens in their first year are much 
paler and greyer than the adults. I believe the specimens which 
I sent back from Uganda will establish this point. The Violaceous 
Plantain- eater is found in Liberia, though it is very scarce. I saw 
a specimen twenty-two miles inland from Monrovia, at the house of 
a German planter. The Turacos of Liberia seem to be Turacus 
persa and Turacths ')nacrorhynchus. T. riiojcyrorhynchus is the 
common form in Liberia. The only two Guinea-fowls appear to 
be the I'are White-necked {Agelastes meleagricles), and the Crested 
(Guttercc cristcota). The Agelastes is rather a small bird, with an 
absolutely bare red head in the male. The female or the young- 
bird has short brownish feathers on the head, and the breast 
and neck seem to be only patched with white, and not whoU}' 
of that colour. The Francolins as yet recorded are Frccncolimts 
ahantenis (which is usually miscalled the Guinea-fowl by the 
Americo-Liberians) and Francolinus lathcimi. I saw no true 
Vultures anywhere in Liberia, the scavenging being done chiefly 
by the black and white Scapulated Crows. As already mentioned , 
the so-called Fishing- Vulture, Gypohierax angolensis, is common. 
Vultures always seem to shun the thickly forested regions of 
Africa, the only member of the group which in any way enters 
the forest-region being the Necrosyrtes monacus. But although 



204 SIR HARRY II. JOHNSTON ON [Mar. 21, 

this small brown vulture is extremely common and abundant in 
most pai'ts of Sierra Leone, I have never seen it anywhere on the 
coast of Liberia between Monrovia and Cape Palmas. 

The Gi'ey PaiTot with a red tail is not indigenous to any part 
of Libei-ia. It is frequently to be rnet with in the houses of the 
natives on the coast, because it is brought there from the Gold 
Coast or the Congo by steamers. But the indigenous Fsittacios 
is P. timneh, which is without the red tail, and is said not to be 
able to learn to talk. The grey of its plumage is browner. The 
tail sometimes seems to be a purple or an almost violet colour. 
The true Grey Parrot does not seem to make its appearance as a 
wild bird in West Africa until the Gold Coast is reached. This 
tendency towards a purple tail reappears in the variety of the 
triie Grey Parrot which is found on the Poi'tuguese island of 
Pi-incipe, in the Gulf of Guinea. Here also the plumage of the 
body is tending towards purple-grey, and is much darker in tone 
than the pale ash-grey of the ordinary type. In the western 
Congo and Angola, the Grey Parrot is gradually developing into a 
type which will be in time scarlet all over. On the island of 
Pi'incipe it seems to be evolving a purple form ; while in the 
Timneh Pari'ot we seem to have a connecting-link between the 
genus Fsittacus and the brown- grey- yellow- and green parrots of 
the genus Pceocephahcs. 

The Liberian Hornbills belong to the genei'a Bycanistes, Cera- 
iogymnct, Lophoceros, and Ortholophus. This selection includes 
the smallest of all the Hoi'nbills, Loplioceros camurus, and the 
very eccentric-looking Black Hornbill and Elate Hornbill, the 
females of which have a bright chestnut head and neck, whilst 
the plumage in the same part of the males is black. Apparently 
the only form of Ortholophus which has been collected in Liberia 
is the smaller of the two species — leucolophus — in which the tips 
of the secondaries and primaries are not white, while thei-e is a 
slight difference in the distribution of greyish-white about the 
cheeks. The larger and handsomer Ortholophus alhocristatus is 
stated by Elliot (on, apparently, the authority of the type- 
specimens, supposed to have been collected by Cassin at Sierra 
Leone) to inhabit North- West as well as West and Central Africa 
(Niger, Cameroons, Congo, and Angola). Elliot remai-ks on the 
curious occurrence of Ortholophus leucolophus in the middle of 
this range, as it were, in the countries of Liberia and the Gold 
Coast. So fai- as I can asceitain, however, no specimens of 
0. alhocristatus have been obtained from regions west of Lagos 
since Elliot's monograph on the Hornbills was written. Is it 
not possible, therefore, that Cassin or his collector may have 
made a mistake in asciibing theii- specimens of alhocristatus to 
Siei-ra Leone ? May they not really have been brought from 
much further east on the West Coast of Africa ? It would be a 
veiy curious point in disti-ibution if alhocristatus should be found 
in Siei-ra Leone, and not re-occur again in Western Africa till 
the Niger was reached. 

Amongst the birds collected by Mr. Reynolds on the St. Paul's 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 205 

River is a little Waxbill or Weaver-bird (Sporcegintkus mel- 
podus), about which Mr. Reynolds makes a curious statement. 
He remarks that this is a very pugnacious and spiteful little bird, 
which does not hesitate in small flocks to attack and kill small 
snakes and lizards. The birds endeavour to pick out the eyes of the 
creature they are attacking and then to tear off its flesh in small 
pieces. They carry these fragments to their nests, and whilst 
they are rotting flies settle on them. These flies form the food, 
or an addition to the food, of the nestlings. 

I append to this paper lists of the mammals and birds collected 
recently in Liberia by Mr. Alexander Whyte, Lt.-Col. Powney, 
Mr. Maitland Pye-Smith, and Mr. Harold Reynolds. 

Appendix I. 

List of Mammals collected in Liberia in 1903-4 by Mr. Alexander 
"Whyte, Lt.-Gol. Powney, Mr. Maitland Pye-Smith, and 
others. 

Anthropopithecus troglodytes. 
Colohus ursimis. 

,, ferriigineus. 
CercopithecKjS biittikoferi. 

,, diana biittikoferi. 

,, diana ignita. 

Felis serval. 

,, celidogaster. 
Viverra civetta. 
Grossarchus ohscurus. 
Nandinia hinotata. 
Lutra niaculicollis. 
Graphiurus hueti. 
Anoinalurus heecrofti. 
Cephalophus niger. 

,, maxwelli. 

,, dor ice. 

Buhalis Tiiajor. 
Hipjjopota'mus liheriensis. 

Appendix II. 

List of Birds collected in Liberia by Mr. Hai-old Reynolds. 
By Charles Chubb, Zoological Department, British Museum. 

(Mr. Reynolds' notes are placed in square brackets.) 

References are given to the following papers and works which 
treat of the Ornithology of Liberia : — 

(1) BuTTiKOFER, J. — Zoological Researches in Liberia. A List of 
Birds, collected by J. Biittikofer and C. F. Sala in Western 
Liberia, with bidlogical observations. Notes from the 
Leyden Museum, vii." pp. 129-256 (1885). 



208 . SIR HARRY H. JOHNSTON ON [Mar. 21, 

(2) BuTTiKOFER, J. Zoological Researches in Liberia. A List of 

Birds, collected by Mr. F. X. Stampfii near Monrovia on the 
Messurado River, and on the Junk River with its tributaries. 
Op. cit. viii. pp. 243-268 (1886). 

(3) . Zoological Researches in Liberia. A List of Birds, 

collected by the author and Mr. F. X. Stampfli during their 
last sojourn in Liberia. 0]). cit. x. pp. 59-106, pla,te 5 
(1888). 

(4) . Zoological Researches in Liberia. Fourth List of 

Birds. Op. cit. xi. pp. 113-138 (1899). 

(5) — . Zoological Researches in Liberia. On a series of Birds, 

collected by Mr. A. T. Demerv in the district of Grand 
Cape Mount. Op. cit. xii. pp. 197^206 (1890). 

(6) . Reisebilder aus Liberia. Resultate geographischer, 

naturwissenchaftlicher und ethnographischer Untersuch- 
ungen wahrend der Jahre 1879-1882 and 1886-1887. 
2 vols. Leiden, 1890. 8vo. Vogel, ii. pp. 397-434, plates 
XXX., xxxi. 

(7) . On a Collection of Birds sent by the late A. T. Demery 

from the Sulymah River (West Africa). Notes from the 
Leyden Museum, xiv. pp. 19-30 (1892). 

1 Agelastes meleagrides. 

Agelastes meleagrides Temm. ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 230 (Sofore Place, St. Paul's River), x. p. 98 (Schieffelinsville), 
xi. pp. 126, 136 (Gallilee Mountain); id. Reisebilder aus Liberia, 
ii. pp. 424, 425, cum fig. ; Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. p. 374 
(1893). 

One adult specimen of this rare bird fiom St. Paul's River. 

[Bare skin of neck red.] 

2. Guxtera cristata. 

JSFumida cristata Pall. ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 230 
(Bavia and Buluma), x. p. 98 (Hill Town), xi. pp. 125, 136 
(Mount Olive) ; id. Reisebilder Liberia, ii. pp. 424, 425, cum fig. 

Guttera cristata, Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxii. p. 381 (1893). 

No. 9. An adult bird. St. Paul's River, Dec. 27, 1904. 
[Bare part of neck slate-blue.] 

3. Galactochrysea liberie. 

Glareola megap)oda Gray, nom. mid. ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
vii. pp. 233, 256 (St. Paul's River, Fisherman Lake, Marfa 
River); id. op. cit. x. p. 99 (Fisherman Lake); id. op. cit. xi. 
pp. 127, 136 (Farmington River); id. Reisebilder Liberia, ii. 
p. 427, cum fig. 

Glareola nuchalis liherio} Schl. Notes Leyd. Mus. iii. p. 58 
(1881 : Liberia). 

Galactochrysea liherice Sharps, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxiv. p. 63, 
pi. V. fig. 1 (1894). 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 20T 

No. 12. Four adults. St. Paul's River, Jan. 5, 1905. 

[Rock birds. Found in flocks. Wings stand out at the 
shoulders and do not appear to rest close at the sides as in other 
birds.] 

4. Hagedashia hagedash. 

Ibis hagedash (Lath.); Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 242 
(Buluma), p. 127 (Du Queah River); id. Reisebilder Liberia, ii. 
p. 429. 

Hagedashia hagedash Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xxvi. p. 19 
(1898). 

No. 20. 5 adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 27, 1905. 

[Eyes i-ed and black.] 

5. EURYSTOMUS GULARIS. 

Eurystomits gtdaris Yieill. ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 159 (Bavia and Sofore Place, St. Paul's River), xi. p. 130 ; id. 
Reisebilder Liberia, ii. p. 401 ; id. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. p. 22 
(Sulymah River) ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 32 (1892). 

No. 10. $ adult. St. Paul's River, Dec. 16, 1904. 

[The so-called " Day Bat " of Liberia.] 

6. Halcyon cyanoleucus. 

Halcyon cyanoleuca (Vieill.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 162 (Bavia, St. Paul's River), xi. p. 130; id. Reisebilder 
Liberia, ii. p. 401. 

Halcyon cyanoleucus Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 245 
(1892). 

No. 8. S adult. St. Paul's River, Dec. 1, 1904. 

[Bill bright red ; eyes black. Feeds on ants. Stands on twigs 
with its head at right angles to its body.] 

No. 11. S adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 2, 1905. 

7. Lophocekos camurus. 

Buceros camurus (Cass.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 210 
(Sofore Place, St. Paul's River), viii. p. 262 (Junk River), x. 
p. 93 (Hill Town). 

Tohus camurus Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. xi. p. 134; id. 
Reisebilder Liberia, ii. p. 419. 

Lophoceros camitrus Grant, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xvii. p. 404 
(1892). 

No. 14. c? adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 6, 1905. 

[Bill very bright scarlet. Rarely met with.] 

8. SCOTOENIS climacurus. 

Scotoi-nis longicaudus (Steph.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 156 (near Grand Cape Mount), viii. p. 248 (Junk River), x. 
p. 68 (Schieffelinsville), xi. pp. 116, 129 (Gallilee Falls), xii. 

Proc. Zool. See— 1905, Vol. I. No. XIY. 14 



208 SIR HARRY H, JOHKSTON ON [Mar. 21, 

p. 198 (Robertsport) ; id. Reisebikler Liberia, ii. p. 392; id. 
Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. p. 21 (Sulymah River). 

Scotornis cUmacurus (Vieill.) ; Hartert, Cat. B. Brit. Miis. xvi. 
p. 596 (1892). 

No. 7. Two adults. St. Paul's River, Nov. 23, 1904. 

[" Night-birds."] 

9. CORYTH/EOLA CRISTATA. 

Turacus giganteus (Yieill. 1823); Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
vii. p. 203 (St. Paul's River and Grand Cape Mount). 

Turacus cristatus (Vieill. 1816); Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. 
viii. p. 262 (Junk and Du Queah Rivers), x. p. 92 (in high forest 
along the Upper Du Queah River), xi. p. 134; id. Reisebikler 
Liberia, ii. p. 417. 

Corytliceola cristata Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 449 
(1891). 

No. 16. c? & 9 adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 12, 1905. 

[Bill bright red and yellow. Feeds on fruit.] 

10. Olamator cafer. 

Coccystes cafer (Licht.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 225 
(Bavia, St. Paul's River), xi. p. 135, xiv. p. 29 (Sulyinah River) ; 
Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xix. p. 221 (1891). 

No. 19. Adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 15, 1905. 

11. Chrysococcyx cupreus. 

Chrysococcyx cu2)7^eus (Bodd.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 225 (Monrovia), viii. p. 264 (Messurado River), xi. p. 135 ; id. 
Reisebikler Liberia, ii. p. 423. 

No. 15. A c? immature. St, Paul's River, Jan. 7, 1905. 

[Not often met with in Liberia.] 

12. Ceuthmochares flavirostris. 

Phoenico'phaes ceneus Biittik. (nee Yieill.) Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 224 (Fisherman Lake), viii. p. 264 (Du Queah River). 

Ceuthmochares ceneus Biittik. (nee Yieill.) Notes Leyd. Mus. xi. 
p. 135, xii. p. 205 (Robertsport), xiv. p. 29 (Sulymah River). 

Ceuthmochares flavirostris (Swains.) ; Shelley, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. xix. p. 401 (1891). 

No. 21. Adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 29, 1905. 

[Bill yellow ; iris ciimson ; bare skin round eyes slaty-green.] 

13. Criniger verreauxi. 

Criniger vei-reauxi Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. vi. p. 73, pi. iv. 
(1881, Fantee); Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. x. p. 79 (Hill Town 
and Schieflfelinsville), xi. pp. 121, 131, xii. p. 203 (Jarjee), xiv. 
p. 22 (Sulymah River). 

No. 3. An adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 17, 1904. 



1905.] MAMMALS AND BIRDS OF LIBERIA. 209 

14. Pycnonotus INORXATUS. 

Fijcnonotus harhatus (Desf .) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 180 (Buluma and Robertsport), viii. p. 256 (Messurado and 
Junk Rivers), x. p. 83 (common along the whole coast of Liberia), 
xi. pp. 122, 132 (Mount Olive), xil. p. 204 (Robertsport) ; id. 
Reisebilder Liberia, ii. p. 408 ; id. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. p. 23 
(Sulymah River). 

Pycnonoti(,s harhatus inornatus Hartert, Nov. Zool. ix. p. 329 
(1902, Gold Coast). 

No. 6. S adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 20, 1904. "Pepper- 
bird." 

This specimen, which was just beginning to moult, is very pale 
and the feathers are much worn. 

15. CiSTICOLA LATERALIS. 

Cisticola lateralis {Fmser) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 171 
(Sofore Place, St. Paul's River), xi. p. 131 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 
Mus. vii. p. 251 (1883). 

No. 18. A 5 adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 14, 1905. 

This specimen appears to be identical with Eraser's type which 
is in the British Museum. 

16. Pratincola rubetra. 

Prathicola rubetra (Linn.) ; Biittik. Notes Leyd. Mus. xiv. 
p. 23 (Sulymah River); Sharpe, Hand-list B. iv. p. 171 (1903). 

One 5 adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 16, 1905. 
Although it is well known tliat this species winters in Africa, 
this is only the second record from Liberia. 

17. Motacilla vidua. 

Motacilla vidua Sundev. ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 173 
(Bavia, St. Paul's River), x. p. 73 (Du Queah, St. John, Cess, and 
Sinoe Rivei-s), xi. pp. 122, 132 (Farmington River); id. Reisebilder 
Liberia, ii. p. 409. 

No. 2. Two S adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 16, 1904. 

18. Vidua serena. 

Vidua p7'incipalis (Linn.) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. p. 197 
(Robertsport), viii. p. 259 (Junk River), x. p. 91 (Schieffelinsville 
and Marshall), xi. pp. 124, 134 (Farmington, Junk, and Messurado 
Rivers), xii. p. 204 (Robertsport) ; id. Reisebilder Liberia, ii. 

Vidua sere7ia (Linn.) ; Reichen. Yog. Afrikas, iii. p. 217 (1904). 

No. 1. c? adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 16, 1904. 
No. 4. $ adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 18, 1904. 
No. 5. S adult. St. Paul's River, Nov. 19, 1904. 

14* 



210 MR. M. A. C. HINTON ON ABNORMAL [Mai*. 21^ 

19. Spermestes bicolor. 

Spermestes bicolor (Eraser) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. vii. 
p. 202 (Sofore Place, St. Paul's River), viii. p. 261 (Monrovia and 
Junk Rivers), x. p. 62 (Schieffelinsville), xi. pp. 125, 134 (Mount 
Olive), xii. p. 205 (Robertsport) ; Reichen. Yog. Afrikas, iii. p. 151 
(1904). 

No. 17. Two 6 , one $ adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 13, 1905. 

AH three specimens are in partial moult. 

20. Spor^ginthus melpodus. 

Estrelda melpoda (Yieill.) ; Buttik. Notes Leyd. Mus. viii. 
p. 260 (Oldfield and Scliieffelinsville), xi. p. 134; id. Reisebilder 
Liberia, ii. p. 417 ; id. Notes Leyd. Mus. xii. p. 205 (Robertsport). 

SporcegintMis melpodus Sliarpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus. xiii. p. 325 
(1890). 

No. 13. A 6 adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 6, 1905. 

No. 13. One d" and two $ adult. St. Paul's River, Jan. 17, 
1905. Bill red. Feeds pax-tly on grasses. 

[This is a very vicious biixl and has the faculty of being able 
(several acting in consort) to kill small snakes, first of all attacking 
the eyes of the snake. They then ctit it into small pieces, carry 
them to the nests, where the snake rots — insects swarm on the 
decaying flesh, and on these insects the young birds feed. 
Native name " Pessa Silisi."'] 



3. On some Abnormal Eemains of the Red Deer (Cervus 
elaphus) from tlie Post-Pliocene Deposits o£ the South 
of England. By Martin A. C. Hinton ^". 

[Received Tebruary 15, 1905.] 

The object of this communication is to place on record the 
discovery in various Post-Pliocene deposits in the South of England 
of certain remains of Deer which present characters of an 
abnormal nature. The specimens consist of more or less perfect 
frontal bones, each bearing a greater or less portion of a tyneless 
antler attached to a very long pedicle. 

The first specimen is in the British Museum and is thus referred 
to in Mr. Lydekker's Catalogue : — 

" Cervus elaphtis. 

" 45379. Eragment of the frontal and antler of a very young- 
individual ; from the Pleistocene of Ilford. Brady Collection." 

In Mr. William Davies's Catalogue of the Brady Collection is 
the following description of this specimen : — 

" Cet^vus sp. undetermined. 

" Part of a frontal bone with a long pedicle, having the basal 
* Communicated by Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.Z.S. 



1905.] REMAINS OF THE RED DEER. 211 

portion of the antler attached ; it is erect and tapering, and has 
no tynes ; the upper portion is lost. The antler seems too i-obust 
and the pedicle too long for the pricket, or first antler of the 
Red Deer." 

He adds that the missing portion of the antler was probably 
much longer than the part preserved. 

The next specimen was obtained by Mr. S. H. Needham from 
a Pleistocene fissure-deposit in the Isle of Portland ^ and it is now 
preserved in the Museum of Practical Geology. It consists of an 
almost perfect left frontal with the base of the antler attached. 
The pedicle is long, directed upwards, outwards, and backwards, 
and the antler being obliquely set on the pedicle is still further 
directed outwards. 

The last specimen to be noticed was obtained from the Holocene 
alluvium of Moorfields, London, and is now in the Collection of 
Dr. Frank Corner. It is a left frontal with the greater portion 
of the antler presei-ved. The antler and pedicle are much more 
erect in this than in the Portland example. 

The following ai-e the dimensions in inches of the three 
examples : — 

Ilford. I. of Poi-tlaiKl. Moorfields. 

Height of pedicle behind 2-1 1-82 2-16 

Circumference of pedicle 3'5 3"8 3"75 

„ burr 3-9 4-75 5-0 

Length of antlers preserved ... 4-5 4-3 8'2 

It is obvious on comparing the three specimens that they are 
referable to one species, and if the determination depended merely 
on the form of the frontal they would be referred to C. elcqihus. 
The difiiculty which has been felt in making this reference there- 
fore arises in the elongation of the pedicle and in the Pricket-like 
tyneless antler which it supports. 

Prof. Blasius, in his account * of the development of the antlers 
in the Red Deer, shows that immediately behind the offset of each 
of the principal tynes there is a " knee-bend," i. e. the beam above 
each of those points is bent convexly backwaixls. He then deals 
with some interesting cases in which the tynes have been sup- 
pressed, and I would quote the following passage as particularly 
bearing on the present specimens : — 

" So wie an einer Stange, kann an beiden die Mittelsprosse 
fehlen, und nur durch die knieformige Biegung der Hauptstange 
angedeutet sein ; dann hatte man der Forra nach einen Sechser, 
der jagdmassig als Gabelhirsch zahlen wiirde. Fehlte auch die 
Augensprosse, so hcitte man einen Spiesser, den -nian der Form nach 
jedoch als Sechser ansprechen milsste." 

The Moorfields antler shows on careful examination a very 
slight knee-bend behind and a little prominent tubercle in front 
at a distance of two inches from the burr ; at a distance of six and 

* Blasius, J. H., ' Saugetliiere Deutschlaiids,' pp. 444-453, passage cited p. 447. 



212 DR. R. BROOM ON THE [Mar. 21^ 

a half inches from the burr there is a second slight knee-bend. 
These features appear to represent the brow and middle tyne in 
a normal antler, and consequently this example corresponds in 
forra to the third antler of the Red Deer in which the tynes have 
been suppressed. From the dimensions and appearance of the 
Portland specimen it may be regarded as being of the same indi- 
vidual age as that from Moorfields, while the example from Ilford 
is more probably the second antler with the brow-tyne suppressed. 

In these abnormal forms there has been but little increase of 
weight or leverage iipon the pedicle, and this has consequently 
found its earliest tendency to grow straightly upwards as an 
elongated slender cylinder but little retarded. The difference 
noted between the examples from Moorfields and Portland as 
regards direction is such as one would expect to occur if the 
physiological explanation suggested be the true one. 

It is probable that these specimens belonged to individuals 
which had suffered injury to the testes at an early period of life, 
which resulted in making the i^etention of yoiithful characters 
possible for a longer period than is usually the case*. This view 
appears to be supported, firstly, by the fact that the animals died 
at a comparatively early age, their decease probably being due to 
their physical inferiority ; secondly, by the rarity of the type, for 
from what we know of the ease with which much slighter variations 
in antlers are transmitted by heredity f, we should expect, had 
the possessors of such antlers had the power of projjagating their 
species, to find their representatives in some numbers ; and, lastly, 
by the fact that the rugose surface of the antler in the Moorfields 
specimen is greatly eroded and that in all the specimens there is 
no regular bvirr, which seems to indicate that these antlers were 
not shed annually as in sexvially perfect stags. 

In conclusion, I would express my best thanks to Dr. 0. W. 
Andrews, F.G.S., Mr. E. T. Newton, F.R.S., Prof. C. Stewart, 
F.R.S., Mr. R. H. Burne, F.Z.S., and Dr. Frank Corner, F.G.S., 
for the valuable assistance which they have given me. 



4. On the Affinities of the Primitive Reptile Procoloplion. 
By K. Beoom, M.D., B.Sc, C.M.Z.S., Victoria College, 
Stellenboscb, Cape Colony. 

[Received January 23, 1905.] 

The afiinities of few fossil reptiles have given rise to more dis- 
pute than those of Procolophon. When first described by 
Owen (1) in 1876 it was placed in the Order Theriodontia. In 
1878 Seeley (2), as the result of the examination of some fresh 
material, regarded it as a "fossil Rhynchocephalian." In 1888 
he (3) made it the type of a new suborder of the Anomodontia 

* Prof. G. Eolleston, 'Scientific Papers and Addresses,' vol. ii. p. 699. 
t Sir Victor Brooke, P. Z. S. 1878, p. 892. 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON, 213 

equivalent to Pareiasauria. Cope (4) in 1889 placed it with 
Palceohatteria, iMesosaurus, and a number of other primitive types 
in the Order Proganosauria, one of the subdivisions of his group, 
the Theromora. ''Zittel(5) in 1890 put Procolopkon in the Family 
Pariotichidaj in the Order Theriodontia. In the_ same year 
Lydekker (6) agreed with Seeley in placing it in a distinct Sub- 
order Procolophonia of the Order Anomodontia. In 1892 
Seeley (7) removed it from subordinal rank, and regarded it as 
the type of a distinct family of the Pareiasauria, and this latter 
view of Seeley's has received the support of most recent writers. 
Two years ago I (8) expressed the opinion that Procolophon should 
be placed somewhere among the primitive Rhynchocephalians — 
possibly not far from Pcdceohatteria, and Osborn (9) has adopted 
a somewhat similar view, placing the Order Procolophonia in the 
Superorder Diaptosauria. Bonlenger (10), the mostrecent writer 
on the subject, however, removes Procolophon entirely from all 
close relationship with the Rhynchocephalians and makes it the 
type of a family of the Gotylosauria, an order which he believes 
to be descended from the Pareiasauria. 

In the past, much of the difierence of opinion arose from an 
imperfect knowledge of the structure of Procolojjhon ; at present it 
arises mainly from the imperfection of our knowledge of the struc- 
ture of the other early reptiles to which it shows resemblances. 

Within the last few years, the view that the Reptiles early 
divided into two distinct phyla has been steadily gaining ground 
and at present it has the support of the majority of workers on 
vertebrate palseontology. In the one branch are the mammal- like 
reptiles ; in the other the lizard-like forms. Osborn and most of 
the American authorities consider that both phyla have sprung 
from a primitive reptilian order, the Gotylosauria ; but Boulenger 
believes that the common ancestor was a Stegocephalian Batrachian. 
If we compare an early type of the mammal-like group, e. g. a 
Therocephalian, with a generalised type of the lizard-like phylum,^ 
e. g. Sphenodon, we find, that though there are many differences, 
there are many striking resemblances, and that they have a large 
number of characters in common, which are not found in any 
Batrachian. The structure of the palate is almost identical in 
the two types, though quite unlike that of the Batrachian. A 
well-developed columella cranii is found in both Anomodonts and 
Rhynchocephalians and both have an occipital condyle largely 
formed by the basioccipital bone. The axis, atlas, and pro-atlas 
are essentially similar in both phyla so far as known, and both 
have a costo-sternum. Unfortunately we cannot study the soft 
parts or the ontogeny of the Anomodonts, but in the closely allied 
Mammals we find so very large a number of characters which 
are common to the typical Reptiles and are unknown among the 
Batrachians, that the advisability of uniting the Mammals with 
the Birds and Reptiles to form the Amniota is generally admitted. 
To account for the characters which the Mammals and Reptiles 
have in common, we must either assume that the characters were 



214 DE. R. BROOM ON THE [Mar. 21, 

developed independently in the two groups or that the groups had 
a common ancestor in which most of the characters were present. 
One or two may have originated independently, but it seems much 
more reasonable to assume that the two phyla sprang from an 
early true Reptile, than that they originated from a Batrachian 
and that all the characters they have in common have been 
developed independently. 

To what order the common reptilian ancestor belonged it is 
difficult to say. The Cotylosauria of Cope is no doubt very 
primitive, but unfortunately it is very imperfectly known. The 
type genus on which it was founded is Diadectes, a form which is 
not very well known, and the skull of which has so far not been 
very satisfactorily figured. A considerable number of other genera 
have been placed in the order by Cope and others, some at least of 
which ai'e possibly not very nearly related to Diadectes. Pario- 
tichifjS, which is placed in the same order, is much better known, 
through the researches of Cope and, more recently, of Case. 
It has a skull roofed as in the Labyrinthodonts, but a palate very 
much like that of Sphenodon. But while Pariotichus might 
perhaps have been the common Amniote ancestor, so far as the 
skull is concerned, the condition of the shouldei'- girdle shows that 
it is not primitive enough. It has lost the cleithrum which the 
ancestor must have retained. Pareiasaur%is, though it retains the 
cleithrum, is further removed from the ancestral type than Pario- 
tichus^ but in another direction. It seems probable, however, that 
there were forms somewhat resembling Pariotichus but sufficiently 
primitive to have been the ancestor of Pareiasau7-us. If such a 
form is discovered, then we may regard the Cotylosauria as con- 
taining the commoK ancestor of all rej)tiles. 

The phylum which contains Pareiasaurus, Dicynodon, the 
Theriodonts, and which culminates in the Mammals, probably 
originated through the ancestral Cotylosaurian living in marshy 
regions and having to walk with the body well supported off" the 
ground. This habit caused the ilium to become directed mainly 
upwards and forwards from the acetabulum, and necessitated the 
retention of the precoracoid. From the start once given in this 
direction, the evolution went on steadily till the mammal was 
formed. 

The other phylum, which gave rise to the Lizards and Birds, was 
probably started by some of the early Cotylosaurians having to 
stalk insect prey on dry sandy or rocky places. The body rested 
for the most part on the ground and the legs became relatively 
feeble. As this was probably no very great change from the 
newt-like gait of the ancestor, it was long before there was much 
change in the structure. And some reptiles which are well 
advanced along the Diapsidan line, such as Mesosaurus or Palceo- 
hatteria, still retain the early types of shoulder-girdle and pelvis 
with very little modification. In Palceohatteria the now useless 
precoracoid ceases to be ossified, and in all the later Diapsidan 
types there is no trace of a precoracoid bone. The plate-like 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 215 

pelvis develops into the triracliating type such as is seen in 
Sphenodoii', and in all the Diapsidan reptiles with the exception 
of the early Diaptosanrians the pelvis is a modification of this tri- 
radiating type. 

There probably were in Permian times large numbers of lizard- 
like reptiles which retained the roofed temporal region even after 
the shoulder-girdle and pelvis had become specialised, as it would 
be impossible to derive the Plesiosaurs and the Ichthyosaurs from 
two arched forms; and the Chelonians have evidently been 
specialised from a form which never had temporal arches at all, 
and yet had the Sphenoclon type of shoulder-girdle and pelvis. 

The question then arises, are we to regard such reptiles as 
Cotylosaurians, or are we, in consideration of the fact that they 
are distinctly specialised along the Diapsidan line, to put them 
among the Diaptosanrians, as has been done by Osborn ? It is 
the same question as arises in connection with the classification 
of many groups of extinct forms ; and I am inclined to agree 
with Osborn in placing in one group the whole phylum which 
has become specialised along one line, even though the early f ornis 
resemble the generalised members of the ancestral order more than 
they do the terminal forms. 

When we consider Procolojihon, we find that while it bears 
considerable resemblance to Pariotichids, and even some resem- 
blance to Pareiasaurus, it nevertheless seems distinctly specialised 
along the line which gave rise to Spheyiodon. It still retains the 
roofed temporal region, the j)recoracoid, and the plate- like pelvis, 
but it resembles Splienodon in the arrangement of the bones of 
the temporal region, in the structure of the palate, in the structure 
and arrangement of the bones of the lower jaw, in having the 
teeth anchylosed to the bone, in the possession of intercentra, of 
which the anteiior are paired as in the young Sphenodon, in having 
a well-developed plastron of abdominal riblets, and in the very 
close agreement of the structure of the cai-pus, tarsus, and 
phalanges. 

The bones of the temporal region have been variously identified 
by difi'erent authoi-ities, and unless the squamosal is rightly de- 
termined, the other bones cannot be understood. The squamosal 
must be the bone that is the homologue of the mammalian 
squamosal, which, when we ti'ace down among the Theriodonts 
and Anomodonts, we find to be the bone which supj)orts the 
quadrate, and is itself supported by the parietal. When two 
bones are present in the temporal region, it is found to be always 
the inner which fulfils the condition — prosquamosal being, 
perhaps, the best name for the outer. In Procolophon the bone 
which seems to be undoubtedly squamosal is the one immediately 
above the quadrato-jugal, and this is the one which has been 
regarded as squamosal by Seeley and Osborn. This bone supports 
the quadrate as in Sj^henodon, and is itself fixed to the parietal. 
The upper and outer bone, which is regarded by Dr. A. S. Wood- 
ward (11) as the squamosal, has no connection with the quadrate, 



216 DR. E. BROOM ON THE [Mar. 21, 

and is only a roofing scale of bone. It is probably the homologue 
of the bone usually called " epiotic " in Stegocephalians, but it is 
evidently a membrane-bone and not developed from the auditory 
capsule, and hence not a true epiotic. A similar bone is found in 
Pariotichus, but is lost in all the higher forms. If we omit from 
consideration this so-called epiotic, we find the parietal, post- 
orbital, squamosal, jugal, quadrato-jugal, and quadrate bones 
having exactly similar relations to each other in Procolojjhon and 
Sphenodon, the chief difierence being that there are two fenestra? 
in the latter form. 

The condition of the teeth I do not look upon as a character of 
much importance in the matter of broad classification, but the 
teeth in Procolophon are by no means thecodont in the ordinary 
sense. Owen, in 1876, rightly stated that " the base of the tooth 
seems to be confluent with the osseous substance of the jaw " ; 
and Lydekker, in 1890, stated that the marginal teeth are 
" completely anchylosed to the bone." Most likely in the young 
condition the teeth developed in sockets, but in the adult they 
must be regarded as much more acrodont than thecodont. 

Boulenger states that " the thecodont dentition, the absence or 
great reduction of the plastral bones, and especially the presence 
of ossified precoracoids, are characters which are opposed to the 
association of the Procolophonia with the Rhynchocephalia." 
But, as has just been mentioned, the teeth cannot be regai-ded as 
thecodont, being nearly as typically acrodont as in Sphenodon ; 
the plastral bones are quite as well developed in Procoloplion as in 
most Rhynchocephalians ; and the presence of ossified precoracoids 
in Procolophon cannot be urged as a reason for removing it from 
association with the ancestral Rhynchocejohalians, since the early 
Rhynchocephalians must have had ossified precoracoids, if the Pely- 
cosaurians are descended from them, as is believed by Boulenger. 
If Procolophon is to be removed from a position near the ancestral 
Rhynchocephalians and placed near Pareiasaurus, it must be for 
other reasons than those advanced by Boulenger. 

Some additional evidence in favour of placing Procolophon in 
the Diaptosauria, or at least among the ancestral Diapsidan 
reptiles, is to be found in the striking resemblance which it bears 
in many points of structure to Mesosaitrus. Unfoi^tunately, the 
skull of Mesosaitrus is imperfectly known, but all the parts of the 
skeleton that can be compared are fairly similar to those in 
ProcolopTion. There is an ossified jorecoracoid, anchylosed, how- 
ever, to the coracoid and scapula, and the pubis and ischium 
closely resemble those of Procolo]ilion. Though the carj)us is 
imperfectly ossified, there can be little doubt, when that of 
Stereosternum is considered, that it has been modified from a 
Procolophon-like type. The tarsus is almost identical in structure 
with that oi Procolojjhon — the intermedium uniting similarly with 
the tibiale, and a foramen being formed between the conjoined 
bone and the fibulare. The plastron is closely similar in the two 
forms. I have recently tried to show (Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHOISr. 217 

1904) that Ifesosaurics is not a Plesiosaur, mainly because the 
Plesiosaurs seem to have sprung from a land ancestor which had 
lost its precoracoid and had the Sjyhenodon type of pelvis, whereas 
Mesosaurus has evidently sprung fi-om a land-form which retained 
its j)recoracoid and had a plate-like pelvis. As Mesosaii,7'us lived 
in Lower Permian times, it is evident that true reptiles of the 
Diapsidan phylum existed at a very early period. Only a few 
of them have so far been discovered, and at present we can only 
imagine what the structure of many of the early forms was like 
from what we know of the specialised descendants. Procolofhon 
I believe to be a slightly modified descendant of one of the early 
Permian Diapsidan types such as that which gave rise to Meso- 
saurus. The beds in which Procoloj^hon occurs are either Middle 
or Lower Triassic, but there is reason to believe that 8ai(,rosternon 
is an alHed form, and this occurs in beds which are most probably 
Upper Permian. So that the Procolophonia probably originated 
in Permian times. The beds in which Televpeton occurs in 
Scotland are considerably younger than the Procolophon-h^^^ of 
S. Africa, being probably Upper Triassic, Rhjetic, or possibly 
even Liassic. 

I hope shortly to give a complete account of the structure of 
Procoloplion, and it is to be desired that one of the American 
workers will do the same for one or other of the Ootylosaui'ians. 
We shall then be in a position to realise more clearly what are tbe 
relationships of these primitive types to each other. 

More important Literature. 

1. Owen, R. — Catalogue of the Fossil Reptiles of S. Africa. 

London, 1876. 

2. Seeley, H. G. — " On new Species of ProcolopJion, (fee." 

Q.J.G.S. vol. xxxiv. 1878. 

3. Seeley, H. G. — " On Pareiasauriis hombidens (Owen), &c." 

Proc. Roy. Soc. 1888. 

4. Cope, E. D. — " On the Homologies of some of the Cranial 

Bones of the Reptiha, &c." P. A. A. A. S. xix. p. 13. 

5. ZiTTEL, K. V. — Handbuch der Palseontologie. Vol. iii. 

6. Lydekker, R. — Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia 

in the British Museum. Pt. iv. London, 1890. 

7. Seeley, H. G. — " Further Observations on PareiasauvusT 

Phil. Trans. 1892. 

8. Broom, R. — " On the Remains of Procolophon in the Albany 

Museum." Rec. Alb. Mus. vol. i. no. 1 (1903). 

9. OsBORK, H. F. — " The Reptilian Subclasses Diapsida and 

Synapsida, &c." Mem. Amer. Mus. Is^at. Hist. 1903. 

10. BouLENGER, G. A. — " On the Characters and Affinities of the 

Triassic Reptile Telerpeton elginense." P. Z. S. 1904, vol. i. 
pt. 2. 

11. Woodward, A. S. — Outlines of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 

1898. 



218 



PKOF. H, G. SEELEY ON THE 



[Mar. 21, 



5. On the Primitive Tleptile Procoloplion. 
By H. G. Seeley, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

[Received March 21, 1905.] 

(Text-figures 30-38.) 

The Types of Procoloplion. — The two specimens on which 
Sir R. Owen founded the genus Procoloplion in 1876 are in the 
British Museum of Natural History. The author was luicertain as 
to the value of the characters in which P. minor differs from P. tri- 
goniceps, intimating that it may be a young example of that sj)ecies. 
The skulls seem to differ in their proportions (text-figs. 30 and 31). 
P. minor (text-fig. 30) is relatively broader, having the width to 
length of the skull as 5 to 4. In P. minor the orbits are more 
distinctly ovate, and placed further forward, being in the middle 

Text-fie-. 30. 




Type specimen of Frocoloplion minor, from Donnj'brook [the sutures are not 
so distinct in the specimen as in the figure]. 



third of the length of the head, in advance of the parietal foramen 
and scarcely extending behind the lateral borders of the frontal 
bones ; the region in advance of the orbits is relatively short ; 
the quadrate has no expansion backward as in other specimens ; 
there is no trace of a foramen in the malar arch. Neither fossil 
gives conclusive evidence of the form of the teeth. Though they 
are in both types described as conical and pointed, it is not possible 
to determine the form of the crown when the jaws are closed, as is 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 219 

evident in Trirachodon and other genera. The differences between 
the two specimens may be found to justify generic separation. 

The Quadrate Bone. — The most striking difference is in the 
character of the bone which articulates with the mandible (text- 
figs. 30, 31). In P. minor the quadrate bone is partly imbedded 
in matrix, so that there is no reason to suppose that any sti'ucture 
is lost from that region. The quadrate bone is directed downward 
and backward, is compressed from front to back, forms a transverse 
articulation, somewhat constricted in the middle, and is thickened 
on the lateral external surface above the articulation ; but the bone 
shows no indication of the posterior development which was named 
squamosal by Sir R. Owen, and afterward regarded as probably 
quadrato-jugal by myself, which is so well developed in F. trigoniceps 
(text-fig. 31). A fresh examination of these and other skulls leads 
me to remark that the place of the quadi-ato- jiigal bone is between 
the malar bone and the quadrate, but there is no ossification in tha,t 
position in Frocolophon. Therefore I infer that the quadrato-jugal 
bone has no existence in Procolojjhon. The thick cellular bone 
which extends from the jugal behind the articulation I am unable 
to separate from the quadrate bone, which articulates with the 
mandible, since no specimen shows a dividing suture between it 
and the bone which articulates with the mandible. This deter- 
mination, if sustained, removes the anomaly of the quadrato-jugal 
attaining an enormous thickness. Its supposed position behind 
the malar and external to the quadrate was paralleled by the thin 
quadrato-jugal in Ichthyosaurus. 

The Parietal Region. — The region behind the frontal bones and 
orbits, which is commonly termed parietal, shows faint obscure 
markings in P. minor (text-fig. 30) of lines in a transverse curve 
from the bone named epiotic to the hinder border of the parietal 
foramen, and short longitudinal lines prolonging the inner and 
outer borders of the orbits backward. The latter led me formerly 
to suppose that the postfrontal occupies a quadrate area in front 
of the epiotic extending forward to the orbit. The only other 
specimen in which the parietal region appears to be divided in 
similar way by faint markings is the British Museum skull 
R. 1999. The parietal bone is composite in Mochlorhinus and 
other genera. But while the appearances in Procolophon may be 
due to sqviamous overlap of bones, the evidence is insulficient to 
establish their nature, though it strongly suggests the structure 
in some Labyrintliodont skulls. 

The Postsquamosal Bone. — The bone which is found at the 
posterior external angle of the fiat parietal region I have 
formerly referred to as the epiotic. It corresponds in position 
with the bone so named in Labyrinthodonts, though, as most 
writers on Labyrinthodonts have remarked, it has nothing in 
common with the otic bone named epiotic by T. H. Huxley. This 
ossification is named squamosal by Dr. A. S. Woodward in his 
' Vertebrate Palfeontology,' but it is a thin plate of bone, quite 
distinct from the squamosal and superimposed upon it. If the 



220 



PROF, H. G. SEELEY ON THE 



[Mav. 21, 



markings already referred to, which appear to indicate a posterior 
division of the parietal bones, really indicate bones, they would 
represent the pair of ossifications termed supraoccipital in 
Labyrinthodonts, over which the parietal bones may extend. 
Procolophon may thus far be crypto- Labyrinthodont in the struc- 
ture of this part of the head. In Pareiascmrus there appears to 
be a narrow bone behind the parietal bones (Phil. Trans. Royal 
Soc. 1888, p. 69) and also a pair of bones behind the squamosals, 
postsquamosal bones as they may be named, which are in the 
position of the bones previously termed epiotic. The preservation 
in Pareiasaurus of this region of the skull leaves much to be 
desired, but it suggests comparison with Procolophon. 

Text-fio-. 31. 




Tj'pe specimen of ProcoJopJion trigoniceps, from Doniij'brook. 
For comparison with P. minor. 

The Postorhital bar. — The preservation of the type of Procolojihon 
trigomceps (text-fig. 31) is not quite satisfactory, owing to cranial 
l^ones having scaled ofi" from the fi-ontal region and the postoi'bital 
area on the right side. On the left side there appears to be a slight, 
almost imperceptible linear separation between the postorbital and 
the squamosal and quadrate bones. It might pass as a condition of 
f ossilization, since it is absent in P. minor, but for the circumstance 
that the condition becomes a foramen in P. laticeps (text-fig. 32). 
There is no trace of the slit on the right side of the skull. There 
the sutural lines indicate a long narrow strip of bone descending 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 221 

below the postsquamosal above, and between the squamosal and 
quadrate bones behind it and the postorbital in front, so that the 
space between the bones, which might be occupied by the suj)ra- 
temporal, has only a linear extension on the external surface, above 
the malar. The internal suture which separates a supratemjjoral 
from the squamosal is not clear in specimens of other species. 

The Postfrontcd.- — One of the most characteristic features of 
Procoloplion is the small size of the postfrontal bone, which is a 
narrow strip above the orbit external to the parietal and frontal, 
contrasting with the relatively large size of the prefrontal bone. 
There is an appearance of the prefi-ontal and postfrontal both 
iinderlapping the frontal bones in P. trigoniceps^ but the pre- 
servation is dissimilar on the right and left side of the head, and 
the evidence is not conclusive that the postfrontal is larger than it 
appears to be. This character is in mai-ked conti'ast to the 
condition in Dicynodontia and Theriodontia, in which the post- 
frontal not only contributes to the bar which divides the orbit 
from the temporal vacuity, but is prolonged backward on the 
temporal vacuity along the bevelled margin of the parietal bone. 

I conclude, from detailed comparison of these strvictures and 
from measurements, that the type species are founded ujjon 
characters which clearly distinguish them. Other evidence shows 
unexpected variation in the skulls of Procolojihon. 

In 1878 I described additional material also from Donnybrook, 
and discvissed the aiiinities of the genus with Hatteria and Ano- 
modont reptiles. Three species ajDpeared to be indicated by as 
many specimens, and were described under the names P. griersoni, 
P. Iatice2)s, and P. cuneice2)s, and figured in pi. xxxii. Quartei'ly 
Journal Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiv. The matrix was afterwards further 
removed from these fossils, chiefly in the endeavour to elucidate 
the back of the skull and the quadrate region. The jDublished 
figures, which are somewhat rough, are chiefly directed to show 
external variations of form, and the divided nares. Beyond cor- 
recting the identification of the postfrontal bone in the way 
already indicated in the evidence figured in 1889 (Phil. Trans. 
Roy. Soc. B. pi. 19), and omitting the quadrato-jugal bone, I have 
nothing to modify in those descrijations ; but better specimens 
would be required to prove that the characters in which they 
diflfer are constant. 

The Occipital Region. — Although all these types were developed 
to display the occipital region, it was only found in Procolojjhon 
laticeps. The transverse, slightly concave occipital border of the 
roof of the skull, fonned by the paiietal bones and postsquamosal 
bones at the outer angles (text-fig. 31), extends backward as a ledo-e 
beyond the nearly vertical occipital aspect of the skull, which it 
slightly overhangs. The ledge is inclined downward, and termi- 
nates in a sharp edge, which at the outer angles curves down with 
the postsquamosal to form an arch above the auditory notch 
behind the squamosal bone (text-fig. 32). 



222 PROF. H. G. SEELEY ON THE [Mar. 21, 

Quadrato-sqiiamosal Arch. — The squamosal bone, which occupies 
a small area on the lateral aspect of the skull between the post- 
squamosal above and the quadrate bone below, is better seen on 
the occipital aspect (text-fig. 32), where it forms the upper and 
narrower part of the quadrato-squamosal pedicle for articulation 
with the mandible. The pedicle is nearly vertical, being inclined 
slightly backward as it extends downward , is convex on the straight 
side, and concave on the outer part, where the portion regarded 
hitherto as the quadrato-jugal is prolonged behind this surface out- 
ward and backward. The posterior aspect of the pedicle is crossed 
obliquely in its middle part by the sagittate suture which divides 
the squamosal bone from the qiiadrate, so that, passing downward 
and inward, it does not reach the mandibular articulation, which 
is formed by the quadrate bone. The height to the roof of the 
skull is Jo iiich. The transverse width of the quadrate bone at 
the articulation is about half an inch. This is exclusive of the 
great internal jDrocess of quadrate contour which extends inward 
and forward above the infra-quadrate process of the pterygoid 
bone, and internal to the descending process of the squamosal, and 
is exposed in one skull by removing the occipital bones. 

The occipital surface of the skull, properly so called, is entirely 
behind the squamoso-quadrate region. Its vertical measurement 
is about half an inch, and the transverse width about an inch and 
a quarter. Below the postsquamosal bones its contour inclines 
to be transversely fusiform, owing to the inferior median basi- 
occipital convexity and the lateial concave infeiior emargination 
below the opisthotic bones (text-fig. 32). 

The foramen magnum occupies the middle of the area. It is 
higher than wide, wider below than above, margined laterally by 
an elevated rounded border, such as might possibly have carried 
a pro-atlas. Inferiorly this border merges in the occipital condyles, 
which are defined by a median concavity. The sutures are not 
distinct, but the basioccipital appears to enter into this median 
concavity, so that the two condyles from which the bony tissue 
has been rubbed are upon the exoccipital bones. Above the 
condyles a transverse horizontal suture separates the exoccipital 
from the supraoccipital bones, which are lai^ger. Externally 
these bones are limited by a vertical suture, which separates them 
from the opisthotic, which is subtriangulai- and terminates outward 
in a blunt process below the postsquamosal and slightly in advance 
of it. There may be an interparietal above the supraoccipital 
bones and below the parietal. The flattened surfaces of these 
bones appear a little concave, owing to the elevation of the border 
of the foramen magnum. The distinctive character of this 
region is the closed occiput, which is more like that of Crocodilus 
than Testudo, and if the quadrate bones of a Crocodile were 
directed downward instead of backward, the occipital region of the 
skull would be more closely comparable with. Frocolophon in its back- 
ward extension and elevation above the mandibular articulation. 
The only South African reptile which approximates to this 



1905.] 



PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 



223 



relation of the occipital and qiiadiute regions is Pareiasmi,ru,s ; 
but the large lateral perforations in the occiput and single con- 
dyle for the occipital articulation prevent close comparison with 
Procolophon. There is a similar approximation to the condition 
in some Labyrinthodonts in this relation of the two parts of the 
occipital region, but in most of those types the occipital plate 
inclines obliquely forward, and is not comparable in the details of 
structure of the skull. In no Dicynodon or Theriodont is there 
any approximation to Procolo^ihon in this region of the skull, 
except in the occipital plate being usually imperforate. 

Text-fie-. 32. 





Type specimen of Frocolojphon laticeps, from Donn3brook, showing (ff) the vertical 
occipital plate and {h) the postorbital foramen. 



The specimen figured in 1889 (Phil. Trans, pi. 9) as Proco^jAow 
trigoniceps was thus identified, as I now think, in error, because 
the matrix was not then removed from P. laticeps. From its 
excellent pi-eservation Di-. Exton's fossil has been referred to as 
the type of Procolophon. That skull is exceptional in showing a 
distinct lateral postorbital foramen between the squamosal, post- 
orbital, and malar bones. When originally desciibed, the vacuity 
was regarded as being in the position of the supra-temporal 
bone, which was supposed to have disappeared as in Crocodiles, 
leaving a postorbital vacuity. Dr. Smith Woodward speaks of 
it (Verteb. Pala^ont. p. 148) as evidently the beginning of a 
lateral temporal vacuity, and this view is adopted by Prof. Osborn 
(Mem. Amer. Mus. vol. viii. p. 480). Whatever may be the value 
of the character, it is absent from Owen's types, as already 
remarked. It is only found among described species in P. laticeps, 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. XV. 15 



224 



PROP. H, G. SEELEY ON THE 



[Mar. 21, 



wliere the foramen is distinct, ovate, and larger (on the left side 
of the head), and is between the malar, postorbital, squamosal, 
and quadrate. It is a linear gap in the bones in one specimen. . 
It is much smaller than the vacuity in the side of the skull in 
Palceohatteria. The extension of the foramen downward to the 
quadrate bone involves no substantial difference from the British 
Museum specimen R. 1999, so that the name Procolophon Icdiceps 
may be used for that specimen, in preference to P. triyoniceps 
used in Phil. Trans. 1889, pi. 9. 

The Teeth. — Usually the mandible is in close contact with the 
skull, so that the teeth are not seen, except on their external or 
internal aspects. The incisors are rather longer and stouter in 
aspect than the maxillary or molar teeth. They are conical, bixt 
flattened on the inner surface, which carries a few vertical ridges. 
I have failed to obtain evidence of implantation in sockets by 
making a vertical section. 

Text-fiij. 33. 




Palate of FrocoJophon cuneieeps, showing the molar teeth ; from Donnybrook. 



A specimen in the British Museum, B. 794, was developed in 
fruitless search for the occiput, biit now shows with exceptional 
clearness the structure of the quadrate I'egion and the palate (text- 
fig. 33). The pterygoids and vomera are shown bearing teeth, the 
palatine bones, palatine plates of the maxillary bones, and the 
maxillary are seen on the palate. The most interesting feature 
of the dentition is the crowns of the maxillary teeth, which un- 
expectedly have a transverse molar form, as in the lizard Tejus. 
They are six in number on each side, wide transversely, with distinct 
inner and outer cusps, and with the inner and outer triturating 
suifaces separated by interspaces which appear to have received 



1905.] 



PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 



225 



the molar teeth of the mandible, which have not yet been ex- 
amined. All the teeth contain large pulp-cavities, which extend 
into the cusps of the crowns. This type of dentition, notwith- 
standing the suppression of the functional canine teeth, as in 
MicrogompJwdon, is perhaps more like that of existing lizards than 
of Theriodonts, though there is a distinct resemblance to the teeth 
of some South- African Theriodont fossils, and the skull as a whole 
is not Lacertilian. 

Forms of Skull. — Dr. Schonland in 1895 submitted to me a 
series of casts of specimens of Procoloi^hon in the Albany Museum, 
Grahamstown, obtained by Messrs. A. E. and H. TroUip, of Fern- 
rocks. He subsequently brought the original specimens to the 
British Museum, and gave me the oppoi'tunity of taking a series 
of impressions of the more important of them. Figures were 
prepared and the following notes drafted on these materials. A 
brief catalogue of the specimens was published by Dr. R. Broom, 
in 1903, in the 'Records of the Albany Museum,' vol. i. part 1, 
pp. 8-24, all the specimens being referred to Procolophon trigoni- 
ceps. Three specimens are figured by him. Among the casts are 
remains of a species of Petroj^hryne, which need to be carefully 
separated. 

Text-fi^. 34. 




Impression of a palate of Frocolophon, showing crowns of the molar teeth ; 
from Fernrocks. 



The Fernrocks specimens appear to be referable to different 
species from those collected at Donnybrook. Dr. Broom finds 
but three teeth in each premaxillary, and in some specimens from 
Donnybrook there are four premaxillary teeth. In the British 
Museum specimen R. 794 (text-fig. 33, p. 224), which is the only 
Donnybrook specimen showing the entire palate, the palatal suture 
between the premaxillary and maxillary bones appears to be trans- 
verse and in advance of the first pair of maxillary teeth, which 
are level with the small group of palatal teeth at the anterior 
extremity of the vomerine bones. In the Fernrocks cast of the 

15* 



226 PROF. H. G. SEELEY ON THE [Mar. 21, 

palate (text-fig. 34, p. 225), which Dr. Schonland numbered 1, 
the premaxillary bones extend backward in a wedge between 
the maxillary bones, so that the vomerine teeth are behind the 
middle of the maxillary teeth. The vomerine teeth, instead of 
covering the vomera as in P. laticeps, or forming a close-set group 
as in R. 794, F. curieiceps, diverge backward in two rows from 
two strong teeth in front separated by a well-marked median 
groove. There are five or six teeth in each row. Internal to 
these are parallel shorter rows, which similarly begin with two 
stronger teeth in front. Further, in the Donnybrook specimen the 
pterygoid bones separate in an arch (text-fig. 33, p. 224) which is 
three-fourths of a cii-cle, round which there is a semicircular row of 
small teeth. But in the Fei-nrocks palate this median vacuity is 
bordered by a pair of prominent ridges which divei'ge backward 
in a V-shape, each carrying six or seven teeth. These rows are 
flanked laterally by parallel rows of teeth, which complete the 
form of a letter M (text-fig. 34). The lateral rows appear to be 
upon the palatine bones. 

Text-fie-. 35. 




Outline showing the truncated snout of FrocoJopJion plaf^rJiinns, 
from Ferurocks. 

The other examples of skulls which have come into my hands 
from Fernrocks, such as those numbered by Dr. Schonland 2, 12, 
13, all differ fi^om the Donnybrook specimens in having the pre- 
orbital region of the skull much wider and flatter above, without 
any indication of the tapering conical snout which is found in all 
the described species. This chai'acter (text-fig. 35) may be con- 
veniently expressed in the name Procolophon platyrldnus for the 
flat-nosed species, with the region of the nasal bones forming a 
flattened truncated prolongation of the frontal region, with the 
postorbital region long and wide. A longer flat preoi'bital region 
is seen in another skull (text-fig. 36). If referable to Procolophon, 
it may be named P. sphenorhinus, terminating in a vertical wedge 
in front. 



1905.] PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 227 

There are many differences from the types of Procolo-phon in 
other pai'ts of the skeleton, which suggest that the Fernrocks 
specimens may belong to a different genus ; and there are 
certainly two species from Fernrocks. 

Text-fig. 36. 




Outline showing the wedge-shaped snout of ProcolojjJwH spheHorhinus, 
from Fernrocks. 

Pelvis. — The form of the ilium is partly shown in the figure of 
the Donnybrook skeleton. Dr. R. Broom has figured the pubes 
and ischia (Rec. Alb. Mus. vol. i. pi. 1. fig. 5) from Fernrocks. 
The evidence that those bones belong to Procolophon is supplied 
by the proximal end of the femur, which shows substantially the 
same charactei's as the specimen fi-om Donnybrook, figured in the 
Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. in 1889. It is associated with dorsal 
vertebrae with small intercentra and a median longitudinal groove 
on the ventral aspect ; with caudal vertebrae rovinded on the ventral 
aspect carrying ribs which extend transversely beyond the ischia. 
The ilia are less cleai-ly seen than in the original slab. The chief 
characters of this pelvis are the foramen perforating the pubis, 
the antero-posterior extension of the crest of the ilium, and the 
expanded forms of the short pubes and longer ischia. In form 
these ventral bones of the pelvic basin differ from Theriodonts 
like Cynognathus in the absence of an obturator foramen, though 
there is a small semicircular notch on the anterior border of a right 
ischium. The peiforation of the pubic bone is a character of 
Pareiasaurus and of other large undescribed genera in which I 
have seen the bone in the South- African veldt. It also occurs 
in Phocosanrus and Titanosuchths. The character is not seen 
in Microgomphodon^ in which the ischium is similar in form. 



228 



PROF. Hi a. SEELEY ON THE 



[Mar. SI, 



The bones have a general resemblance in outline to the Plio- 
saurian type and to some Triassic Ichthyosaurs, bnt in neither is 
the pubic bone perforated. In the Trias of Europe the nearest 
parallel is found, perhaps, in the Nevisticosaurida?, though, accord- 
ing to Yolz, the pubis and ischium in that type had no linear 
contact as in the Pareiasauria. There is a general approximation 
to the forms of the bones in the pelvis of Pcdceohatteria, as 
indicated by Dr. R. Broom, and this is as close as in Pliosaurus, 
but the pvibis is notched on its hinder border, and not per- 
forated as in Procolophon. The Stereosternum tumidum of South 

Text-fia-. 37. 




Hind limbs of Procolophon, from Femrocks. 

a, femur and tibia from the front; b, entire bind limb, posterior aspect ; 
c, side view of tbe femur. 

America is the only genus which exactly parallels Procolophon in 
the pelvis. It is neai'er than Mesosaurus. ISTeithei' of these 
genera admits of comparison in the occipital region of the skull. 
But the pelvic identity of structure may justify the reception 
within the Procolophonia of these allied types, although they 
have been placed in distinct orders. 

Femur. — The femur oi Procolophon from Fernrocks is well shown 



1905.] 



PRIMITIVE REPTILE PROCOLOPHON. 



229 



in the imperfect example which adjoins the pelvis. Its proximal 
end is about intermediate in form between the femur in a Chelonian 
and in Oridthorhynchus ; for the under surface of the ai'ticular 
head is a wide concave pit (text-fig. 37, 6), not without suggestion of 
the bone in Saurodesmus and the small mammal from Stonesfield 
and certain biixls. The trochanters on each side of the articular 
head are much less developed than in the Monotreme, and the sub- 
articular pit is less conspicuous in the other sjDecimens from Fern- 
rocks than in the Donnybi-ook example, which may indicate other 
species. The bone can best be compared with Pareiasauria. The 
external or posterior trochantei- is produced down the shaft as 
a slight ridge on the under side of the bone in one specimen. 
The triangular section of the shaft is not so marked as in the 
Donnybrook specimen, and the proximal end is more flattened on 
the superior or anterior surface (text-fig. 37, «). The curvature of 
the bone is distinctly sigmoid in length (text-fig. 37, c). Distally 
it both thickens and widens to the articulation, where it is flat- 
tened on the inner side, concave behind, with a pulley articu- 
lation in front. One femur is longer and another shortei' than 
the common type. There is no living reptile to which the bone 
approximates. 

Tibia and Fihida. — The tibia is much stouter than the fibula. 
Its proximal end is triangular, being flattened behind, more like 
the tibia of a mammal than of a Dinosaur. Its wide proximal 
end forms the larger part of the ai'ticulation with the femui'. 
The bone is about f of the length of the femur (text-fig. 37, h). 

Text-fie-. 38. 




Humerus and adjacent bones of fore limb, from Fernrocks. 



The Fore Limb. — The fore limb was relatively small in the 
Procolojyhon laticeps (Phil. Trans. 1889, pi. 9). The humerus is 
considerably expanded at the proximal end, with a large radial 
crest, and manifestly twisted in the shaft, much as in Aristo- 
desmus and in many of the Anomodontia. But the distal end is 



230 THE SECRETARY ON ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. [Apr. 18, 

not exposed. Among the materials for which I am indebted to 
Dr. Schonland is a slab (showing no conclusive evidence of the 
characters of Procolopliov)) with remains of vei'tebrte and ribs of a 
young animal, in which the humerus, ulna and radius, and 
scattered bones of the extremity are preserved. The proximal 
end of the humerus is but little seen, the shaft is twisted, and the 
distal end of the bone expanded as in Anomodonts, with a large 
entepicondylar foramen, and on this side of the distal articulation 
the bone is rounded in contour as in Dicynodonts. 

The ulna and radius are slightly shifted in position, but are 
parallel bones which are shorter than the humerus. I suppose 
the bone which is stouter proximally to be the ulna, and that the 
slender bone is the radius, which appears to widen distally. 

Conclusion. 

The evidence from all parts of the skeleton points towards 
similar conclusions. The skull, with its general affinity with 
Anomodont reptiles, comes closer to the Pareiasauria in the 
i-elation of the quadrate region to the back of the head, and closer 
to the Theriodonts in dentition. The shoulder-girdle is also 
suggestive of the Pareiasauria, but the permanent separation of 
all the bones and tlie great anterior development of the pi-e- 
coracoid are distinctive characters. There is a similar affinity in 
the pelvis and in the hind limb and fore limb, but the differences 
point in all cases to a i-elation with groups which have Labyrin- 
thodont affinities. The evidence is too imperfect to justify a final 
determination of relationship with all the Permian and Triassic 
Reptilia, but it sustains the conclusion that the order Procolo- 
phonia was based upon substantial diffei-ences of this type fi'om 
its allies. 



April 18, 1905. 

Herbert Druce, Esq., F.Z.S., Yice- President, 
in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following report on the additions that 
had been made to the Society's Menagerie in March 1905 : — 

The registered additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
month of March were 148 in mimber. Of these 38 were acquired 
by presentation, 14 by purchase, 84 were received on deposit, 
3 by exchange, and 9 were born in the Gardens. The total 
number of departures during the same pei-iod, by death and 
removals, was 130. 

Amongst the additions special attention may be directed to the 
following : — 

1. A male Eland {Taurotragus oryx), born in the Menagerie on 
March 24th 



1905.] ON THE DINOSAUR DIPLODOCUS CARNEGII. 231 

2. A male Bactrian Carnal (Camelns bactriamis), born in the 
Menagerie on March 23rd. 

3. A Brnsh-tailed Pouched Mouse {Phascologale jienicillata) from 
Australia,, new to the Collection, deposited on Mai'ch 20th. 

4. A Greater Bird of Paradise {Paradisea apoda) from Aru 
Island, and two Lesser Birds of Paradise {P. minor) from New 
Guinea, deposited on March 2nd. 

5. A Black Lory (Chcdcoj^sitiacus aier)^ fi'om New Guinea, 
purchased on March 2nd. 



Mr. J. G. Millais, F.Z.S., exhibited the horn-core (with sheath 
attached) of an Urus {Bos jyririiigenms). The specimen was 
believed to be the only British example of the actual horn of the 
Urus in existence. The curious coiTugations on the surface of 
the lower end were similar to those found on the American and 
European Bison, and incidentally supported the view that the 
White Cattle at Chillingham, Chartley, and Cadzow were not 
descended from this animal. 



Dr. W". J. Holland, F.Z.S., Director of the Caniegie Museum 
and Listitute, Pittsl)ui-g, U.S.A., gave an account, illustrated by 
stereopticon slides, of the discovery of the skeleton of Biplodocus 
carnegii Hatchei', a reproduction of which he was at present 
installing in the Gallery of Reptiles at the British Museum 
(Natural History), South Kensington. 

After paying tribute to the generosity of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, 
who had supplied the funds necessary for the extensive explor- 
ations which weie being cari'ied on by the Carnegie Institute, 
under his direction. Dr. Holland went on to speak of the 
Geology of Wyoming and of the immediate locality, where the 
specimen was obtained. He incidentally described the methods 
employed by American collectors to secure vertebrate fossils in 
fine condition. He then discussed the osteology of Diplodocus^ 
briefly pointing out some of the more interesting structural 
featui-es of the skeleton, and in this connection animadverted 
upon certain so-called " restorations " made public in popular 
magazines and emanating fi'oni artists whose artistic ability was 
quite in excess of their scientific knowledge. 

Dr. Holland concluded his account by exhibiting in rapid suc- 
cession pictures of a few of the more remaikable skeletons which 
had been recovered by the pal^ontological staft" of the Carnegie 
Museum from various localities in the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 



The following papers were read : — 



232 ON THE DINOSAUR ceTiosaurus leedsi. [Apr. 18. 

1. On Parts of the Skeleton o£ Cetiosaurus leedsi, a Sauro- 
potlous Dinosaur from the Oxford Chiy of Peterborough. 
By A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

[Received April 14, 1905.] 
(Text-figures 39-49.) 

Cetiosaurus is already the best known of European Sauropoclous 
Dinosaurs, owing to the discovery of associated limb-bones and 
vertebrae in the Lower Oolite near Oxford*. Much new infor- 
mation concerning its principal characters, however, is now 
aflbrded by a large part of a new skeleton disinterred with great 
skill by Mr. Alfred N. Leeds from the Oxford Clay near Peter- 
borough. This specimen is so well preserved that, since its 
acquisition by the British Museum, it has been possible to mount 
the various bones on ironwork in their natui'al position. An 
opportunity is thus afFoi'ded for comparing Cetiosaurus more 
satisfactorily than hitherto with the better known Sauropoda of 
Jurassic age in Noi'th America. 

The new specimen discovered by Mr. Leeds, and numbered R. 3078 
in the British Museum Register (text-fig. 39, p. 233), comprises 
four portions of doi'sal vei'tebrte, some neural spines of the sacrum, 
four anterior caudal vertebrae, a continuous series of twenty-seven 
middle caudal vertebrfe, many chevron-bones, the right scapulo- 
coracoid and fore limb (lacking manus), parts of both ilia, and the 
left hind limb. It evidently belongs to the species which has 
already been named Cetiosaurus leedsi on the evidence of a pelvis 
(Brit. Mus. no. R. 1988) from the same geological formation and 
locality f. To the same species may also be refei-red four associated 
anterior caudal vertebrte (Brit. Mus. no. R. 1984) and a portion of 
the wdaip-like end of the tail (Brit. Mus. no. R. 1967). All these 
bones have the spongy texture so characteristic of the skeleton of 
Cetacean mammals, and the vertebral centra are therefore quite 
difterent from those of the genus Ornit/w2Jsis, to which the species 
now under consideration was originally assigned. In Ornithopsis 
the centrum of each vei-tebiu is chambered throughout, and the 
thin partitions between the small cavities consist of hard, dense 
bone. 

Dorsal Vertebra}. 

Vertebral centra which seem to belong to the fi-ont and middle 
of the dorsal series are about as long as deep, and not laterally 
compressed though somewhat constricted. The centrum of the 

* J. Phillips, ' Geology of Oxfovd ' (1871), pp. 245-294; R. Owen, ' Monograph on 
the Fossil Reptilia of the Mesozoic Formations ' (Palajont. Soc, 1875), pp. 27-43. 

t J. W. Hulke, "Note on some Dinosaurian Remains in the Collection of 
A. Leeds, Esq., of Ejebury, Northamptonshire," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xliii. 
(1887) pp. 695-699. H. G. Seeley, " Note on the Pelvis of Ornithopsis," loc. cit. 
vol. xlv. (1889) pp. 391-396. 



55C 




234 



BR. A. S. WOODWARD ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



anterior vertebra is deeply opisthocoelous, and the anterior two- 
tliivds of the uppei- half of its lateral face are impressed on each 
side with a shallow ovoid cavity, which has a gently rounded (not 
sharp-edged) margin. The centrum supposed to represent a 
middle dorsal vertebra is slightly smaller, and the ovoid depression 
in the upper half of its lateral face is more extended antero- 
posteriorly. Neither specimen exhibits any hollowing of the 
lower face. A posterior dorsal vertebra, which seems to be the 
last and in direct contact with the sacrum, is represented not only 
by its centi-um but also by the greater part of the neural arch 
text-fig. 40). It is remai-kably shortened, the centrum being still 

Text-fis-. 40. 




Cetiosai 



'•us leedsi. — Posterior dorsal vertebra, laelving neural spine ; posterior and 
(A) right lateral aspects, ss., zygospliene. About j nat. size. 



about as wide as deep, but its length somewhat less than half the 
extreme diameter. This centrum is much constricted, and the 
shallow depiession in the upper part of its latei'al face disappears 
at the base of the neui'al arch. Its anterior face is not well pre- 
served, but seems to have been slightly convex; while its posterior 
face is only gently and irregulaily hollowed, as if it had been 
originally capped by cartilage. The neural canal is ovoid in 
section, and much deeper than wide. The deep and laterally- 
compressed zygospliene [zs.) is prominent. An isolated neural 
spine, which probably belongs to a dorsal vertebi^a, is latei'ally 
compressed and short, with a truncated and somewhat hollowed 
apex ; there are no bony laminae or ridges on its lateral face, but 
a pair of laminfe extend down its postero- lateral edges and expand 
below into the prominent triangular zygapophyses. 



1905.] 



DINOSAUR CETIOSAURUS LEEDST. 



235 



Sacrum. 

The sacrum is known only by the neural spines (text-fig. 39, 
p. 233), of which it seems possible to identify four. Each spine 
is strengthened on its lateral face by an irregular vertical i-idge 
of bone, and is sharply truncated at its upper end. Tliree are 
fused together into one plate and (from analogy with a corre- 
sponding arrangement in D'qylodocus) may be regarded as belonging 
to the three anterior sacral vertebrae. The fourth spine is placed 
separately just behind the composite plate. 

Caudal Vertebrce. 

Of the four anterior caudal vertebra? preserved in the new spe- 
cimen, shown in text-fig. 39, p. 233, the two foremost are too much 

Text-fiff. 41. 




Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Anterior caudal vertebra ; anterior and (A) left lateral aspects. 
as., prezygapopliyscs ; L, broken lateral flange of bone ; tr., transverse process, 
incomplete. About ^ nat. size. 



broken to display many of their characters. As mounted, indeed, 
the neural spines are hypothetically ascribed to the centra beneath 
them. The centra are very short and slightly broader than deep, 
each bearing traces of transverse processes placed rather low on 



236 DE. A. S. WOODWARD ON THE [Apr. 18, 

the side. The neural canal in transverse section is somewhat 
deepei- than broad. The neural spines are laterally compiei-sed, 
thinnest at their front rugose border, and hollowed at the apex ; 
they bear no lateral lidges, but their postero-lateral edges are pro- 
duced into a pair of laminfe, which gradually expand downwards 
into the posteiior zygapophyses. The next caudal vertebra in the 
same specimen is probably the fourth, and is comparatively well 
preserved with its neural spine complete (text-fig. 41, p. 235). The 
centrum is concave in front, but flattened or even slightly convex 
behind ; and it is much constricted between the prominent rims 
of its two faces, without any trace of lateral pits. It is slightly 
broader than deep, and the transverse processes (incomplete in the 
fossil) arise within the upper half. Each lower border is im- 
pressed by a facette for the chevron-bone, the hinder being larger 
than the anterior impression. The neural arch is very massive, 
and the nem^al canal is still somewhat deeper than wide. The 
bases of the anterior zygapophyses {az.) prove them to have been 
very stout ; and a thin vertical lamina or lateral flange of bone 
extends downwards from the level of these zygapophyses to the 
transverse processes on the centrum. The neural spine is massive 
and placed above the hinder half of the centrum, slightly curved 
backwards but scarcely overlapping the next vertebra ; it is 
laterally compressed, thinnest at its front rugose border, and 
somewhat hollowed and roughened at its truncated upper end. 
There is a slight oblique ridge extending upwards and backwards 
from the anterior zygapophysis on each side but soon dis- 
appearing; and the posterior lateral edges of the spine are 
produced into rather stout laminte which would originally ter- 
minate below in the posterior zygapophyses. These zygapophyses 
evidently converged below into a short mediaii ridge or zygosphene, 
which fitted into the zyganti-um between the anterior zygapophyses 
of the succeeding vei'tebra. In this next vertebra part of the 
bony lamina aboA^e the transverse process on the left side is well 
preserved, while the oblique ridge above the anterior zygapophysis 
is comparatively strong. 

The four associated anterior caudal vertebrse of another spe- 
cimen (Brit. Mus. no. R. 1984) are also very short and broad, with 
deeply concave anterior face and nearly flat posterior face. The 
largest closely lesembles the anterior cavidals just described, and 
exhibits part of the lateral flange of bone which extends upwards 
from the transverse process to the level of the zygapophyses. The 
others are evidently intermediate between the most anterior and 
the middle caudals, and one of them is represented in text-fig. 42, 
p. 237. This specimen shows the comj)lete length of the transverse 
processes. It has a less elevated neural aich than the vertebrae 
already described, and exhibits the lateral bony flange above the 
transverse process reduced to a slight i-ounded ridge. 

Apart from the specimens just mentioned, the few veiiebrfe 
intermediate between the most anterioi' caudals and the middle 
caudals are unknown ; but the latter are represented by a fine 



1905.] 



DINOSAUR CETIOSAURUS LEEDSI. 



237 



continuous series of 27 vertebrae, of which only some of the 
foremost are defective in preservation. The first of these middle 
caudals is the most imperfect, and its neural spine is hypo- 
thetically fixed ; but the centrum is shown to be sharply rounded 
below, with a distinctly double facette for the chevron behind. 
All these vertebras are much more elongated than the anterior 
caudals, and somewhat laterally compressed ; but they are still 
slightly constricted, without any la^teral pits, while both their 
articular ends are a little concave. As they are traced backwards, 
the centra not only decreasa in size but soon lose the l.ist remnant 
of a transverse process ; while their neural spines become shorter. 

Text-fig. 42. 




Cetiosaurus leedsi. — ^Anteinor caudal vertebra ; posterior and (A) rig-lit lateral 
aspects. j)z., postzvgapophysis ; tr., transverse process ; zs., zygosplieiie. 
[Brit. Mus. no. 11. 1984.] About ^ nat. size. 



broader, and thinner, and more sharply inclined towards imbrica- 
tion. The seventh vertebra of this series (text-fig. 43) is especially 
well preserved. The anterior face of its centrum (text-fig. 43 A) is 
relatively broader than its postei'ior face (text-fig. 43 B), and the 
transverse process is a mere ovate tubercle (tr.) on the middle of 
the upper part of its side. The neural spine scarcely overhangs 
the centrum behind, and its truncated upper end is still slightly 
hollowed. The prezygapophyses {az.) are large and clasping, but 
the postzygapophyses {j^z.) are feeble, and there is no zygosphene- 
articulation. A large opening is left for the exit of the spinal 



238 



DR. A. S. WOODWARD ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



nerve. The twenty-first vertebra of the same series (text-fig. 44) 
is essentially similar, but more elongated, without any trace of 
the transverse process, and with the laminar neural spine con- 
siderably overhanging the centrum behind. 

Text-fie-. 43. 






Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Middle caudal vertebra; left lateral, (A) anterior, and 
(B) posterior aspects, as., prezygapophj^sis ; pz., postzygapophysis ; tr., 
transverse process. About ^ nat. size. 



Text-fi^. 44. 





Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Posterior middle caudal vertebra ; left lateral, (A) anterior, 
and (B) posterior aspects, as., prezygapopbysis ; ps., postzygapophysis. About 
i nat. size. 



The last-described vertebia might w^ell be named a posterior 
caudal, were it not known from American specimens of Dijjlocloctts 
that the tail of the Saui'opodous Dinosaurs was furnished witli a 
long terminal lash. This slender appendage was certainly present 
in Cetiosaurus, for Mr. Leeds has discovered in the Oxford Clay 
a chain of ten small vertebipe precisely similar to the terminal 



1905.] 



DINOSAUR CETIOSAURUS LEEDSI. 



239 



caudals of Diplodocus, only slightly less elongated. Each of these 
vertebras (text-fig. 45) consists of a long constricted centrum with 
strongly convex, almost conical ends ; and it bears on the middle 
of its upper face only a rudiment of a neural arch in the form of 
a pair of elongated ridges (?«-.«.) which exhibit a facette for a 
capping of cartilage above. A chain of such vertebrae at the end 
of so massive an animal as Cetiosaurus must have been esjDecially 
liable to accident ; and it is interesting to note that the short 
series discovered by Mr, Leeds has been broken at two points and 
repaired during the life of its original possessor. 

Text-fig. 45. 
no, 




Cetiosaurus leedsi. — One of the terminal caudal vertebra, left lateral aspect. 
n.a., surface for cartilaginous upper part of neural arch at summit of ossified 
lamina or pedicle. [Brit. Mus. no. R. 1967.] f nat. size. 



Text-fig. 46. 





Cetiosaurus leedsi. — Chevron-bones : A, from anterior caudal vertebra, anterior 
aspect ; B, C, from middle caudals, upper aspect. 



The chevron-bones are remarkable as vaiying much in character 
according to their position in the tail. Only those beneath the 
middle caudal vertebrse numbered 15, 16, and 17 were actually 
found in direct contact with the centra ; but there can be no doubt 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. No. XYI. 16 



240 



DR. A. S. WOODWABD ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



that the others as mounted (text-fig. 39, p. 233) are approximately 
in their natural order, each articulating with two adjoining 
vertebrae. Many, of coui-se, are missing. The most anterior 
chevrons (text-fig. 46 A, p. 239) are normal, consisting of a pair of 
simple elongated laminae, which are fused together in the long 
extension beneath the haemal canal , and are united by a very slight 
bridge of bone at their upper articular end. Further back, the 
extension beneath the haemal canal begins to shorten and widen 
into a triangular expansion, which ultimately becomes forked 
below ; and the upper ends of the chevron are no longer united 
even by a slender bony bridge. Still further back, the forked 
laminae of the two sides begin to be only partially and irregularly 
united in the middle line (text-fig. 46 B) ; while near the end of 
the chevron-bearing middle part of the tail the laminae of the two 
sides remain quite separate, and each is forked at so wide an angle 
that it is practically a horizontal splint of bone which tapers to each 
end and is suspended by a knob at its middle (text-fig. 46 C). 

Fore Limh. 

The scapula (text-fig. 39 A, p. 233) is a long and slender blade, 
flattened on its inner face, gently convex on its outer face, and 
apparently very little expanded at its distal end, which is incomplete 



Text-fig. 47. 



Text-fiff. 48. 





Text-fig. 47. — Cetiosaurtis leedsi. — Right liumerus, anterior aspect, and (A) trans- 
verse section showing internal cavit}'. c, internal core of rock representing a 
cavity ; d., deltoid crest ; h., thickened head. Ahout ^'3 nat. size. 

Text-fig. 48. — Cetiosaiirns leedsi. — Upper portion of riglit radius (r.) and ulna (?«.), 
anterior aspect ; and (A) upper articular end of the same. About ^^ nat. size. 



1905.] dilVosaur cetiosaurus leedsi. 241 

in the fossil at the upper border. The bone becomes thick and 
massive in the lower part of the proximal end, whei-e it forms half 
the ai-ticular socket for the humei-us ; above this it expands into 
a thin lamina of unknown but probably small extent. The 
coi-acoid seems to have been neai-ly quadrangular and somewhat 
broader than long, though its upper edge is incomplete in the 
fossil. Its thin uppei' half is anchylosed with the proximal 
expansion of the scapula ; but its massive lower half, which 
enters into the articular socket for the humerus, is separated 
from the scapula by a cleft, which must have been originally filled 
with cartilage. The bone is pierced with the usual oblique oval 
foramen near the middle of the border which articulates with the 
scapula. 

The humerus (text-fig. 47, p. 240) is complete in the fossil and 
scai'cely crushed; but an opportune transverse fracture permits the 
obsei-vation that the shaft has a small cavity, perhaps an original 
medullary cavity, perhaps due to decay (text-fig. 47 A). As seen 
from the front, the bone is short and stout, with the thickened 
articular head near the inner end of its expanded proximal border. 
The deltoid crest (cl.) is thick and prominent, not extending below 
the upper half of the shaft. The distal end of the bone is deeply 
furrowed for a cap of cartilage, and its large inner condyle bulges 
downwards. The ulna and radius (text-fig. 48, u., r., p. 240) ai-e 
imperfect and much broken distally ; but there is not much doubt 
about the accuracy of their length stated in the table on p. 243, 
and the shape of their upper articular end is clearly as shown in 
text-fig. 48. The manus is unknown. 

Hind Limb. 

As shown by the table of measurements on p. 243, the hind limb 
is considerably longer than the fore limb, the ratio being about 
3 to 2. The ilium is fragmentary on both sides of the fossil, but 
the one bone fortunately supplements the other, and justifies the 
complete outline given in text-fig. 39, p. 233. This element is note- 
worthy for its great anteroqoosterior extent and the length of the 
slender pedicle which supports the jDubis. The upjoer rim of the 
large peiforated acetabulum is not very prominent. The pubis and 
ischium of another specimen (Brit. Mus. no. R. 1988) have already 
been described by Prof. Seeley, and have been added in outline to 
text-fig. 39. The femur (text-fig. 49, p. 242) is complete from end 
to end, but part of the sui-face of the shaft has decayed and been 
restored with plaster. It is a i-emai-kably slender bone for so massive 
an animal, and in broken sections there is no trace of a small 
medullary cavity. The head of the bone (A.) is relatively large 
and curved inwards, and it rises above the level of the gieat 
trochanter (g.t.). The shaft is antero-posteriorly compressed, but 
bulges considerably backwaitls just above its lower half into a 
prominent fourth trochanter (t.) on the inner border. The distal 
condyles are about equal and well separated by a groove. The 
tibia and fibula are too fragmentary for desciiption, and the 

16- 



242 



DR. A. S. WOODWARD ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



length assigned to them in text-fig. 39 (p. 233) is hypothetical. 
The massive triangular distal end of the tibia bears the decayed 
remains of the large astragalus still in direct contact, but the 
tarsus is otherwise lost. Most of the bones of the foot are 
preserved, but they were discovered in a scattered condition and 
have only been hypothetically arranged on the plan of the known 

Text-fiff. 49. 




Cetiosatirus leedsi. — Left femur, posterior aspect : A, upper end ; B, C, transverse 
sections of shaft ; and D, lower end. About ^3 iiat. size. 



feet of Diplodocus and Brontosaurus. The innermost digit is the 
stoutest and its large claw is present, while the two outer toes 
are comparatively small. It may be regarded as certain, indeed, 
that Cetiosaurus resembles the other known Sauropoda in having 
an "entaxonic" foot approaching that of some of the giant Ground - 
Sloths — the three inner toes being well developed and clawed, the 
two outer toes being rudimentary. 



1905.] 



DINOSAUR OETIOSAURUS LEEDSI. 243 



The following table gives some of the more important 
measurements (in metres) of the associated bones in specimen 
no. R. 3078 :— 

Caudal Vertehrce described and figured : — 

Text- Text- Text- Text- Text- 
fig. 41. fig. 42. fig. 43. fig. 44. fig. 45. 

Total height to summit of spine 0-66 O'SS 0-45 d-225 0-03 

Length of centrum OlO O'lOo O'lS 0-17 0-09 

Max. depth of centrum, posterior end ... 0*27 0-23 0-17 O'lO 0-027 

Max. width „ „ „ ... 0-28 0-245 O'lS 0-085 0-02 

Width between extremities of trans, proc 0-535 

'Fore Limb : — 

Total length of scapula 0-965 

Width of middle of scapula 0-175 

Maximum thiclcness of scapula at articular end 0-165 

Total length of coracoid 35 

Probable extreme width of coracoid 0-38 

Total height to top of humerus as mounted about 2-00 

Total length of humerus 0"94 

Thickness of articular head of humerus O'lSS 

Transverse width of upper end of humerus 0-42 

„ „ lower end of huiirerus 0-29 

,, diameter of middle of humerus O'lS 

Antero-posterior diameter of middle of humerus 0-135 

Total length of radius and ulna 0-76 

Transverse width of upper end of radius O'lSS 

„ „ „ ulna 0-26 

Sind Limb :— 

Extreme length of ilium 1-02 

,, depth of ilium at pubic pedicle 0-51 

Maximum diameter of acetabulum about 0-30 

Total height to top of femur as mounted „ 3-15 

Total length of femur 1-36 

Transverse width of upper eud of femur 0-33 

„ ,, lower end of femur 0"33 

Antero-posterior diameter of shaft of femur at 4th tro.chanter . . . 0'19 

„ ,, „ „ below 4th trochanter 0-145 

Transverse „ „ „ ,, 0*195 

Hind Foot : — 

Metatarsals I. II. III. IV. V. 

Extreme length 0-16 0-21 0-22 0-215 0-195 

„ width of distal eud. 0-13 0-11 0-08 007 0-04 
depth of distal end . 0-07 ? ? 0-05 0-075 

Claw of Digit I. : 

Total depth of articular end 0-125 

,, width of articular end '. 0-06 

„ length of upper curved edge 0-27 

In conclusion, it is evident that the late Professor Marsh * was 
justified in regai-ding Getiosaurus as one of the most generalised 
of known Sauropoda, closely related to the American Morosaurid?e. 
So far as known, in fact, this English Jurassic genus is scarcely 
distinguishable from the least specialised American genus Haplo- 
canthosaurus t, which has remarkably similar dorsal and anterior 
caudal vei-tebr^e, bvit seems to differ in the moi-e coarsely cancellated 
texture of the bone in its vertebral centra. 

* 0. C. Marsh, "Comparison of the Principal Forms of Dinosauria of Europe 
and America," Geol. Mag. [3] vol. vi. (1889) p. 205. 

f J. B. Hatcher, " Osteologj' of Saplocanthosaurus," Mem. Carnegie Mus. vol. ii. 
no. 1 (1903). 



244 DE. p. CHALMERS MITCHELL ON [-^P^- 18, 

2. On a Young Female Giraffe from Nigeria. By P. 
Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc, Secretary to the 
Society. 

[Received April 18, 1905.] 

(Text-figures 50 & 51.) 

Early in April 1905 Captain H. C. B. Phillips, British Resident 
in Northern Nigeria, brought to London, and deposited in the 
Zoological Gardens, a young female Giraffe about a year old, 
and standing over 8 feet high, which he had obtained in 
Nigeria in the district of Gummel, about 300 miles due west of 
the south end of Lake Chad. Giraftes from Nigeria are not well 
known. Mr. 0. Thomas (P. Z. S. 1898, p. 39) has made the skull 
and anterior cannon-bones of a female, obtainednear the junction 
of the Benue and Niger rivers, some 300 miles to the south and 
west of the locality of Captain Phillips's specimen, the type of a 
subspecies, Giraff'a camelopardalis peralta ; and Mr. Lydekker 
(P. Z. S. 1905, voh i. p. 119) has referred to that name the skin, 
skull, and limb-bones of an adult bull obtained by Captain G. B. 
Gosling in Nigeria, and now in the British Museum (Natural 
Histoiy). The head of the young female at the Gardens displays 
a well-marked pair of main homs covered with very dark hair at 
the tips, feeble swellings in the place of the occipital horns, and 
a protuberance, rather lai'ge in area, but very flat, in jjlace of 
the frontal horn. Mr. Thomas {loc. cif. p. 40) laid some stress 
on the direction of the main horns. In Captain Phillips's young 
female, as in the type-specimen, these horns are divergent when 
viewed from the front. It appeal's to me, however, that in this 
respect there is evidence of a good deal of individual variation in 
Giraffes. In the fine head of the bull G. c. percdta movmted in 
the British Museum the main horns are asymmetidcal, that 
on the left side being markedly bent in towards the middle line. 
In the two examples of the Koixlofan Gii-affe now living in the 
Society's Collection the condition of the main horns differs. In 
the female they are bent in towards the middle line ; in the 
male they diverge slightly. So also the inclination of the - plane 
of the homs to that of the forehead differs in individuals of the 
same race. So far as the shape of the head and horns goes, 
it would be difficult to distinguish this Nigerian Girafie from 
the Nubian form. 

As Mr. Lydekker {loc. cit. p. 120) has given a description of 
the coloi-ation of the Nigerian Gii-affe based on his examination 
of Captain Gosling's specimen, it will be sufticient if I state how 
far examination of the young female now at the Gaixlens confirms 
the distinctness of the Nigerian race. The young female (text- 
fig. 50, p. 245), like the adult bull, is much paler than the Nubian 
form, the paleness being especially marked on the head and thighs 
of the female. In the photograph, reproduced as text -fig. 50, whilst 



1905.] 



A CHUAPP'E FROM NIGERIA. 

Text-fi2-. 50. 



245 




Young female Giraffe from Nigeria. 

the pattern is shown brilliantly, the dark patches appear notably 
darker than in the living animal. The network is broad and 



246 DR. p. CHALMERS MITCHELL ON [Apr. 18, 

nearly pure white, and the lower parts of the legs, as in the 
northern forms generally, are white, showing only the faintest 
trace of spots. The middle line of the face and forehead, as in 
the bull, has a pale fawn band, narrower and paler than the 
corresponding region in the Nubian Giraffe. Between the nostrils 
in the bull and the young female is a dark spot, not recorded 
by Mr. Lydekker, and absent in the specimen of Nubian type 
at the Natural History Museum. The dark marks inside the pale 
ears are arranged in most Giraffes in three distinct pencillings. 
Although I have not seen this pattern called attention to, and 
although it is slurred over in most of the published figures, it is 
present in all the Giraffes that I have seen, except in the head of 
the Nubian Gii'affe mounted in the Biitish Museum (Natural 
History). In that sj^ecimen there are only two pencillings, and 
in the young female which is the subject of this note the arrange- 
ment is not so clearly divided into three (text-fig. 51, A) as in 
most Giraffes, although it does not resemble the Nubian form in 
this respect. It would be interesting to have more information 
on this point, not only with regard to other examples of the 
Nubian and Nigerian Giraffes, but in the cases of many other 
animals. In quite a large number of Anteloj^es, for instance, 
there is a trifid dark pattern inside the ear, but I do not know of 
any observations on this subject. Two rather regular rows of 
pale spots lie along the face under the eye and ear, the arrange- 
ment of these being similar in the bull and young female, and 
different fi'om the irregular spots in the corresponding region of 
the Nubian form. 

The blotches on the front of the neck of the young female differ 
considerably from those in the case of the bull. They ai'e much 
more numerous and more regularly quadrangulai-, and instead of 
fading off into the ground-colour, they are shai'ply marked off 
from it. It is possible that in the course of growth they might 
come to assume the elongated shape and indefinite margins 
characteristic of the neck-blotches of the bull, but in their 
present form they differ considerably and yet do not approach 
more closely to the condition in the Nubian form, 

Mr Lydekker has pointed out that the occipital region, the 
back of the head from the root of the horns to down belowthe ears, is 
marked with small spots in all Giraffes, except the Nubian, wliei-e 
this region is very white, and in the Nigerian, where it is white 
with a few fawn spots between the ears and the horns and large 
fawn blotches below the ears. The young female Giraffe resembles 
the Nigerian bull in this region (text-fig. 51, B). Judging from 
these two examples, it would seem as if a special character of the 
Nigerian Giraffe is that the characteiistic large blotches of 
the neck are carried higher upon the back of the head, to a 
region which is mai-ked by veiy small spots in most Gii-aftes, but 
which in the Nubian form is white with only a very few pale 
spots between the ears and the horns. 



1905.] 



A GIRAFFE PROM NIGERIA. 

Text-fig. 51. 



247 




Head of GiiafFe from Nigeria. — A, side view ; B, back view. 



248 MR. A. E. SHIPLEY ON EnTO-PARASITES. [Apr. 18, 

The skin of the body generally is covered with numerous 
brown blotches, separated by i-ather sharp outlines from the 
broad white reticulum. The centres of the blotches are i-ather 
darker, but they do not show the trefoil pattern observed by 
Mr. Lydekker in the bull. Nor do they show the white centres 
conspicuous in the blotches along the sides of the Nubian male 
figured by Mr. Lydekker (P.Z. S. 1904, vol. i. pi. ix.). The 
general resemblance of the Nigerian female to the Nubian form 
is rather more striking than Mr. Lydekker found in the case of the 
male. There is no tiace of the large white patch lound the fi-ont 
of the neck where it joins the head, looking as if a white muffler 
had been tied round the neck and the ears, which forms so 
conspicuous a character in the Kerdofan Giraffes {G. c. antiquorum) 
now exhibited in the Society's Collection. 

I am inclined to think that the evidence afforded by this young 
female strengthens belief in the existence of a distinct lace of 
Nigeiian Giraffes, a i-ace closer to the Nubian Giraffe than to 
any other form, but I do not think that as yet thei-e is com- 
plete evidence for identifying this female Giraffe and Captain 
Gosling's bull with the G. c. peralta of Thomas. It is certainly 
important that all examples of which exact localities are known 
should be carefully compared with other forms. 

f 

3. Notes on Ento-Parasites from the Zoological Gardens, 
London, and elsewhere. By A. E. Shipley, M.A., 
F.R.S., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge, 
and University Lecturer in ihe Morphology of the 
Inverfcebrata. 

[Received Ftbruary 27, 1905.] 

(Text-figure 52.) 

The collections on which the following notes were made came 
chiefly from the animals in the Society's Gardens. The new 
species of Porocephalus was, howeve)-, kindly sent me by Dr. von 
Linstow of Gottingen. The South- American parasites I owe to 
the kindness of Mr. Rosenberg, of Haverstock Hill. 

TREMATODA. 

Paragoa'/mus westermaxi (Kei'b.). 

Distomum ivestermani Kerbert, 1878, Zool. Anz. i. p. 271 ; Arch, 
mikr. Anat. xix. 1881, p. 529. 
Distonia ringeri Cobb, 1880. 

Distoma jmhnonale Baelz, 1883, Berl. klin. Wochschr. p. 234. 
Distoma pulmonis Suga, 1883. 
Mesogonimus ivestermani Raill. 1890. 



1905.] MR. A. E. SHIPLEY ON ENTO-PARASITES. 249 

Three specimens h'om the kings of a Tiger in the Zoological 
Gardens. 

This species was first described by Kerbert from a Royal Tiger 
in the Gardens at Amsterdam. He states they were found, two at 
a time, in pockets in the lungs, which were mostly situated near 
the surface. It is a not uncommon human parasite in the East, 
and was first found by Ringer in the bronchi of a man who 
came from Formosa. It is met with in China and Korea, and is 
especially common in Japan, where it gives rise to much pulmonary 
mischief. It is also recorded from Korth America, probably 
imported. Besides the tiger and man, it has been recorded from 
the pig, the dog, and the cat. 

AOANTHOOEPHALA. 

ECHINOIIHYNCHUS SPIRULA OlferS. 

Diesing, Syst. Helm. ii. p. 21. 

A considerable collection of specimens of this species of Echino- 
rhynchus was sent me from the following animals : — (i.) Pero- 
dicticihs poUo Bosnian, or Bosman's Potto, found in the Y/est 
Coast of Africa, the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and the Gaboon ; 
(ii.) Lemur coronatus Gray, the Crowned Lemur, from Madagascar ; 
and (iii.) Lemur hrunneus v. d. Hoeven, the Black-headed Lemur. 
The latter is the name give?i in the ' Catalogue of the Animals 
in the Zoological Gardens,' but I have been unable to find it 
or any synonym for it in Ti'ouessai't's great catalogue *. 

This species of parasite is recorded in von Linstow's ' Com- 
pendium der Helminthologie ' as occurring in Inuus ecaudatus 
Geoft'r. {= Pithecus innims L., vide Trouessart's ' Catalogus 
Mammalium,' Berlin, 1898-1899, p. 26), from Gibraltar and 
Northern Africa, and from Cehus fatuellus Erxleben, from S. 
America. Railletf points out that Leuckart considered this 
species may be the same as the E. hominis Lambl., which was 
found, in one instance only, in the small intestine of a child of 
nine years of age who died at Prague in 1857. 

PENTASTOMIDA. 

POIIOCEPHALUS CROTALI (Humboldt). 

EehlnorliyncJius crotcdi Humboldt. 

Distoma crotcdi Humboldt. 

Polystoma proboscideum Rudolphi. 

Linguatida proboscidea van Beneden. 

Pentastomimi moniliforme Diesing, Megnin (in parte). 

Linguatida quad7'ii(,ncinata Meyei-. 

Pentastomum ivij^eratoris Macalistei-. 

Pentastomvjm jyroboscideuvi Rudolphi. 

* [The Lemurs which have been almost continuously exhibited at the Gardens 
for many years under the name of Lemur brunneus v. d. Hoeven are almost 
certainly identical with L. mongoz var. nigrifrons M.-Edw. et Grandidier. See 
Sclater, P. Z. S. 1871, p. 231.— P. C. M.] 

f ' Zoologie Medicale et Agricole.' Paris, 1895. 



250 MR. A. E. SHIPLEY ON ENTO-PARASITES. [Apr. 18, 

Larval forms : — 

Fentastomum subcylindricum Diesing. 

Pentastomuni clavatum Wyman. 

Three specimens, the largest measuring 11 cm., were taken from 
the lungs of a Zamenis nnicosus Boul., a snake which occurs 
from Transcaspfa and Afghanistan, across Asia, to the sea-board 
of China and to the Malay Peninsula and Java. In my "Attempt 
to revise the Family Linguatulidte " (Archiv. Parasit. i. 1898, 
p. 52) I have given a list of the numerous hosts which harbour 
this form. 

There were also some encysted larval forms coiled up in pieces 
of the liver or in fragments of membranous tissue which looked 
like mesentery. In the relationship of the mouth to the 
hooks and in the general appearance of the head they i-esemble 
P. crotali, but they have an unusual number of annuii, quite 
fifty. These annuli in the Pentastomida are obviously, very 
variable characters, and they do not correspond with any true 
segmentation. It has sometimes occurred to me that their 
number depends upon the closeness of the coil in which the larva 
lies. These larvfe, at any i-ate, were very closely coiled. 

POROCEPHALUS MONILIFORMIS (Diesing). 

Pentastoma moniliformis Diesing. 

A single specimen, somewhat injured, from Python sp. 

The club-shaped head and the moniliform chai-acter of the 
segments and the pointed tail were very marked. The number 
of segments, counting the terminal joint, was 28, thus agreeing 
with Diesing's figure*. 

POROCEPHALl'S HERPETODRYADOS, n. Sp. 

Diagnosis. — Length averaging about 10 cm., breadth 2*5 to 
3 mm. in the body, in the head 4" 5 to 5 mm. About 50 annuli. 
There are no depressions between these, or hardly any ; the body 
is smooth, and although the segments are quite distinct they pass 
smoothly into one another like the nodes of an Equisetum. 
The head is separated from the body by a distinct neck which is 
faintly annulated, as is the posterior part of the head. The four 
hooks are in one straight line, and the posterior border of the 
oval slit-like mouth is on a line with the posterior bolder of the 
hooks. The hooks are simple, thei-e is no accessory booklet. 
There are four conspicuous papillae just in front of the hooks. 

The presence of a distinct neck associates this species with 
P. annulatus Baird and P. tortus Shipley, but the neck is not so 
distinct from head and body as in the former, or so short as in the 
latter of these two species. The hooks, which have no accessory 
booklet, have a well-developed flange as in P. suhuliferus Lckt. 
and many others. The hooks are strongly curved, and under the 

* Denk. Ak. Wieii, xii. 1856, p. 31. 



1905.] MR. A. E. SHIPLEY ON ENTO-PARASITBS. 251 

microscope not very sharp. The head is rounded dorsally and 
flattened ventrally ; it slopes down gra'lually to the neck. 

Text-%. 52. 




Forocephalus lierpetodryados. — A. Entire worm. B. Head, much magnified. 

This form came from a specimen of Herpetodryas carinatv,s, 
probably from the lungs. The particular specimen was killed in 
Honduras, but this species of snake extends in South America 
east of the Andes to the Rio de la Plata, and is found in Tiinidad, 
Guadeloupe and St. Vincent. 

NEMATODA. 

Angiostomum SERPENTicoLA von Liustow. 

V. Linstow, Centrbl. Bakter. xxxvii. 1904, p. 678. 

Yon Linstow describes the females which in this genus become 
hermaphrodite whilst living in the lungs and pleural cavities of 
Amphibia, Reptiles, and more rarely Birds.- The larvae develop 
in or on the earth, and form a Ehabditis-\ike bisexual generation 
in those species whose life-history is known. These specimens 
were viviparous, the uterus being crowded with young embryos. 

Numerous specimens from the lungs of the " Hog-nosed " 
Snake, Heterodon platyrhinus. 

ASCARJS ANGVSTICOLLIS Molin. 

Molin, SB. Ak. Wien, xl. p. 336. 
V. Drasche, Yerh. Ges. Wien, 1883, p. 209. 
Mobius's specimens came from the coats of the intestines of 
Buteo vulgaris, the Buzzard. Yon Drasche gives two views of the 



252 MR. A. E. SHIPLEY ON ENTO-PABASITES. [Apr. 15, 

head. My specimens come from the intestines of the Helotarstos 
ecaudatus, the " Berghaan " or " Bateleur " Eagle. 

ASCARIS CAPSULAIUA Rucl. 

Filaria pisciuvi Leuck. 

Diesing, Syst. Helminthum, ii. p. 163. 
Leuckart, Menschl. Parasit. ii. p. 98. 
Zschokke, Arch. Biol. 1884, p. 1. 

Yon Linstow, Arch. Naturg. 1878, p. 236, 1880, p. 45, k 
1884, p. 127. 
Numerous specimens of the larvae of this form were given me 
by Dr. Harmer. The young ISTematoiles were partly free and 
partly encapsuled, and in both cases they were much coiled. 
They were found in the tissues of a Scabbard -fish {Lepidopus 
caudatus), and are labelled " Portugal, Dec. 1903." 

This species has been described from Lepidojnos argyreus Ouv., 
Gcodus moi-rhua, Aphanopus carbo, Scomber scomber, Lojyhms 
piscatorius, Trigla gurnardibs, Ct/clopiertts lumpus, and many 
other fishes. 

ASCABIS LUMBBICOIDES L. 

Two smallish specimens, one male and one female, were taken 
from the nostril of a Chimpanzee [Troglodytes anthrojMjntheciis) 
in the Zoological Gardens. 

Filaria foveata Schneider. 

Schneider, Monographie der Nematoden, 1866. 

My specimens were sent me by Mr. Rosenbei'g, the naturalist, 
of Haverstock Hill, London ; they were found in the orbit — " entre 
craneo y cuero" — of an Asia brachyoUis, shot at Tucuman in the 
Argentine Republic. Schneider records specimens from the same 
bii'd, which he calls by the old name of yEgolius brachyoius, but 
he does not mention in what part of the bird they were found. 
In the British Museum Catalogue the bird is registered under the 
name Asia accipitrinus. 

Filaria physallra (Bremser). 

Menapetalonema physaliirtim Bremser. 

Molin, SB. Ak. Wien, xxviii. 1858, p. 412. 
Diesing, SB. Ak. Wien, xlii. 1861, p. 710. 
This species has been recorded from Alcedo amazona Latham, 
from the body-cavity of both the thoracic and abdominal regions. 
My specimens are from the abdominal region — " en el vientre " — 
of a male Ceryle torquata shot at Tucuman in Argentina. The 
specimens were sent me bv Mr. Rosenberg, the naturalist, of 
Haverstock Hill, N.W. 

Filaria qviscali von Linstow. 

Yon Linstow, Arch. Naturg. Jahrg. 1904, Bd. i. p. 300. 
Dr. von Linstow, to whom I sent the Nematodes mentioned in 



1905.] MR, A. E. SHIPLEY ON ENTO-PARASITES. 253 

the ' Proceedings ' * of last year, which were taken from the brain 
of the Quiscalus versicolor Vieillot, has described the parasite as 
a new species. Unfortunately the specimens were but fi-agments, 
bearing no head. The tail end is rounded. The breadth 0'21 mm. 
The body is uncommonly soft. The cuticle is smooth, not ringed. 
The eggs are 0-029 mm. long and 0*021 mm. broad. 

These Nematodes were found in the hinder part of both 
cerebral hemispheres. They formed a tangled mass lying below 
the pia mater. " The bird was i-eported to have dropped down 
suddenly from its perch ' in a fit.' " 

The position of these Nematodes in the brain is a very unusual 
one. Dr. von Linstow mentions that the only case known to him 
is that of Filaria helicina, found in the brain of Plotus anlmuja 
from Florida. 

Spiroptera sp. ? 

A number of larvte identified by Dr. von Linstow as belonging 
to some species of Spirojitera were taken fiom Centetes ecaudatus. 
It is unfortunate that it was impossible to determine the species 
of this parasite, since, so far as I am aware, very little is known 
about the parasites of Centetes. All bvit one or two of the 
specimens in question were encapsuled in membranous tissue, 
probably peritoneal. 

List of Hosts with their Parasites described in the 
foregoing Paper. 

TREMATODA. 

Position 
Host. Parasite. in host. 

IFelis tigris Paraffonimus westermani (Kerb.). Lungs. 

ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

Lemur hrunneus v. d. Hoeven Eckinorhynchus spirula Olfers. 

Lemwr coronatus Graj' Echinorhi/nchus spu'ula Olfers. 

Perodicticus potto Bosnian ... Mchinorhynchus spirilla Olfers. 

PENTASTOMIDA. 

Hevpetodryas carinatvs Porocephalus herpetodryados, n. sp. 

Python sp Porocephalus moniliformis (Diesing). 

Zamenis mucosus \io\x\ Porocephalus crotali {YlxxmhoXdit). Lungs. 

NEMATODA. 

Asia brachyotus Filaria foveata Schneider. Orbit. 

Centetes ecaudatus Spiroptera sp. Encapsuled. 

Ceryle torquata Filaria physalura Rreni . Stomach. 

Melotarsus ecaudatus Ascaris angusticollis M.olm. Litestine. 

Heterodon platyrhinus Angiostomum serpenticola y. Lins. Lungs. 

Lepidopus caudatus Ascaris capsularia Rud. Encapsuled. 

Quiscalus versicolor Filaria quiscali v. Lins. Brain. 

Troglodytes anthropopithecus. Ascaris lumhricoides L. Nostrils. 



* Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1904, vol. ii. pt. i. : Abstract of the Proceedings of the 
Zoological Society of London, 1901, No. 7, p. 1. 



254 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

4. The Kiuld Exploration of South Africa.— III. List of the 
Mammals obtained by 31 r. Grant in Zuliiland. By 
Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and Harold Schwann, 
F.Z.S. 

[Received March 21, 1905.] 
(Plate XVI.*) 

[The complete account of the new species described in this communication appears 
here; but as the names and preliminary diagnoses were published in the ' Abstract,' 
such species are distinguished b\' the name being underlined. — Editoe.] 

In continuation of the collecting- work carried on by Mr. 
0. D. Rndd's generosity, by which our National Mviseum has 
already been so large a gainer, Mr. 0. H. B. Grant spent 
November and December 1903, and again, after a visit to the 
Transvaal, June to September 1904, in Zululand, where he 
collected the specimens of which the present paper gives an 
account. 

It was at Mr. Rudd's own suggestion that Mr. Gi^ant went to 
Zululand, and the resulting collections have more than fulfilled 
any expectations that could have been formed as to the value 
and interest of a series obtained there, for quite a number 
of the species have proved to be altogether new to science, 
while in other cases forms only hitherto known from isolated 
or unlocalised specimens are now illustrated by good series of 
ti'ustworthy skins. 

In several instances we have been able to revise confused or 
little-known gioups, such as Myosorex and the Golden Moles, 
with the result that a numbei- of new forms have proved to need 
description. 

Of these by far the most noteworthy is the handsome Hare 
which we have named Pronolagus ruddi, while other interesting 
species are the Golden Moles, Amblf/somus iris and A. chrysillus, 
and the different forms of Myosorex. 

The localities at which the specimens were obtained are as 
follows : — 

Eshowe. Altitude 550 m. 

Sibudeni and the Jususie Valley, aboiit 20 miles to the N.W. 
of Eshowe. Altitudes 1100 to 1700 and 350 m. respectively. 

Ngoye Hills, 15 miles E. of Eshowe, and about 8 miles inland 
from the coast. Altitude 200-300 m. 

Umvolosi Station, 3 miles from the river of the same name and 
about 15 miles from the sea. Altitude 30-60 m. 

Hlupluwe Stream ; about 20 miles N. of Umvolosi. 

Of the last localities Mr. Grant says : — 

" Round the Umvolosi Station sandy grass-covei'ed flats and 
undulating countiy stretch away to the south and east, dotted 

* For explanation ot the Plate, see p. 276. 







c 



6 



P.Z.S.1905,vol.l.Pl.XVI 



6 





4. ^ 







A.J.E-ngel Tsrgijdel . Bale ^DamelssonL^^ 

1-3. AMBLYSOMUS. 4-5. PROWOLAGUS . 



1905. 



MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND, 255 



with palms and thorn-bush, the thorns in places forming patches 
and thickets interspersed with a few good-sized trees, the surface 
broken with both dry and swampy pans and vleys, and deep swampy 
sluits filled w-ith dense reeds intersect the country towards the 
river. A low range of hills runs along the coast. To the north 
the ^ country becomes more broken and hills and deeper ravines 
begin to appear. 

" About 8 miles to the south of the station is a dense thorn- 
forest of considerable size, called by the natives the ' Dukuduku,' 
which joins and disappears in the great swamps and reed-beds 
through which the Umvolosi River runs. 

"Towards the Hlupeuwe and opposite the north end of the 
Lake the country is broken and hilly, palms are not so noticeable, 
but the thorns become common and more regular in appeai-ance ; 
often as one looks across some hillside or down a long valley they 
look pa.rk-like in their regularity. One would almost believe they 
had been planted by hand. Beits of thick bush fringe nearly all 
the rivers, often being very dense and wide." 

After putting aside the duplicates, the Zulu collection, which, 
as in the previous cases, is presented to the Museum by Mr. Rudd, 
numbers 222 specimens belonging to no less than 49 species. It 
thus forms not only one of the most important accessions that 
the National Collection has ever received from this part of Africa, 
but, owing to the number of the new forms contained in it, 
affords a remarkable example of the need for such a scientific 
survey of the fauna as Mr. Rudd is carrying on in South Africa. 
Mr. Grant, the actual collector, is also to be congratulated on the 
striking results that have been obtained from his materials. 

1. Papio porcarius Bodd. 
c?. 588. Sibudeni. 

" Zulu name ' Jufyane ' *. 

" Difficult to secure and more often heard than seen, as they 
live in large troops in the thick forest. 

" They feed principally on fruit, and where wild fruit abounds 
they can sometimes be obtained by waiting under the trees, but 
they are at all 'times wonderfully wary." — C. H. B. G. 

2. Oercopithec[js pygerythrus Guv. 

6. 832, 840. 2 . 827, 841. Umvolosi Station. 

6 . 846. Hlatwa District. 

The material at our disposal is at present insufficient to decide 
definitely as to the relationship of i:>ygerytlirus and lalandii, so 
we provisionally adopt the earlier name. 

" Zulu name ' Nkau.' 

"Common in the 'Dukuduku' thorn-forest, eight miles to the 
south of the station. Generally seen in parties of from six to 

* " In the reading of the Zuhi names, C, X, and Q are clicks ; I is pronounced as E 
A as E, H as S, and E as long A."— C. H. B. G. 

Proc. Zool. See— 1905, Vol. I. No. XYII. 17 



256 MESSRS. O.THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

twelve. In the early morning they sit on the tops of the trees 
and ant-heaps enjoying the sun. The natives Hving in the bush 
eat the ' Nkau,' while those of the open country will not touch 
it."— C. H. B. G. 

3. Gal AGO crassicaudatus Geoff. 

S. 677. $. 676. Eshowe. 

d". 881, 905. Ngoye Forest. 

c? . 915, Ngoye Hills. 

" Zulu name ' Suikwe.' 

" Almost exclusively an arboreal animal. 

" It sleeps during the day in some hollow tree, waking up at 
sundown, at which time and throughout the whole night its 
peculiar cry can be heard. 

" At Eshowe it frequents the trees close to the houses and is 
said to be extremely fond of fowls' eggs. 

" The specimens secured were shot at night with the aid of a 
dark lantern, flashing it suddenly into the tree where one was 
heard calling. 

" This is a favourite method with the natives for obtaining 
them, by whom the skin is highly valued. Specimens from JSTatal 
seem much browner than those from Zululand." — 0. H. B. G. 

4. Epomophorus wahlbergi Sund. 

S . 879. Ngoye Forest. 

" Zulu name ' Gomboqu.' 

" This Bat does not fly till nearly two hours after dark. They 
fly low and are very strong and rapid on the wing. At this 
time of year they feed on the berries of the syringa-tree." — 
C. H. B. G. 

5. Rhinolophus augur zuluensis K. And. 

J . 920. Ngoye Hills. 

J. 601, 604, 605, 606, 607. ?. 600, 602, 608. Jususie 
Yalley. 

This subspecies was described * mainly on Mr. Rudd's 
specimens, No. 602 being the type. 

" Zulu name ' Am alulwane.' 

"This and the two following Bats were all secured in the old 
prospecting drives that abound in the country. The natives do 
not distinguish between them, but call all Bats by one name. 

" The Horseshoe Bat is generally the first to appear in the 
evening. It is often to be seen before the sun has disappeared. 

" Hipposiderus is not so common as the others, many drives 
being visited without observing it." — 0. H. B. G. 

6. Hipposiderus caffer Sund. 

S . 626, 636, 637, 640. ? . 638, 639. Jususie Valley. 

* Ami. Mag. N. H. (7) xiv. p. 383 (1904). 



^^^^•] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 257' 

7. ISTycteris capensis Smith. 

c?. 622, 625, 629, 630. $. 624, 631, 632, 635. Jususie 
V alley. 

A coKQparison of these specimens with those obtained by 
iWr. (^rant m mmaqiialand shows that the latter have con- 
spicuously larger ears. 

It seems probable therefore that iF. damarensis Peters f of 
which a co-type in the British Museum has similarly large ekrs 
should be recognised as distinct from iV". capensis. ' 

8. PiPISTRELLUS KUHLII FUSCATUS Thos. 

?. 911. Xgoye Hills. 

9. SCOTOPHTLUS NIGRITA Schrob. 

?. 922. Ngoye Hills. 

10. Vespertilio capensis gracilior, subsp. n. 
6. 678. Eshowe. 

" Caught in the house at night." — 0. H. B. G. 
Smaller throughout than F. capensis (which includes " V 
mintttus " auct.). The fur shorter (hairs of back about 5 mm.).' 
General colour, both above and below, darker, the light tips to 
the hairs shorter and browner. Back of ears less heavily haired 
at base. Skull smaller than that of V. capensis, but similar in 
shape. Teeth lighter and more delicate, with broader gaps 
between the inner halves of the upper molars, the inner lobe 
of the large premolars being particularly narrow. 

Dimensions of the type (the starred measurements taken in 
the flesh) : — 

Forearm 29 mm. 

Head and body *47 mm.; tail -*28 ; ear *12; tragus 3-5 • 
expanse *216. Length of third finger 52. 

Skull— greatest length 13-2 ; basal length in middle line lO'l ; 
mastoid breadth 7-8 ; height of brain-case 4-5 ; combined length of 
large upper premolar and first two molars on outer edge 3-1 ; 
front of lower canine to back of rn 5-1. 
ffab. Eshowe, 550 m. 
Ty2Je. Male. B.M. no. 4.8.31.3. 

In working out this smaller form of the common F. cajjensis 
we have had occasion to examine the specimens and names placed 
by Dobson under the headings of V. cajjensis and F. minutits, and 
have found a considerable amount of revision necessary. 

In the first place, all the South-African specimens divided by 
Dobson between these two species belong apparently to but a 
single one, for which the name F. capensis Smith, the earliest of 
all, is available. The forearm varies from 32 to 36 mm. (generally 
about 34); its skull is about 14 mm. in greatest length; the 

t MB. Ak. Berl. 1870, p. 905. 

17* 



258 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [^-pV. 18, 

combined length of the large upper premolar and two molars is 
3 "4 mm. 

Secondly, the name V. mimittis Temminck (1835-41) is ante- 
dated by Montagu* (1808) for a Lesser Horseshoe Bat, and is 
therefore untenable for any member of the j)resent group. 

Next, Vesperugo subtilis Sundevall, placed by Dobson (with a 
query) in the synonymy of " V. minuUos" is really a Fi2nstreUus, 
as we have found by the examination of the skull of the type, 
most kindly lent to us by Dr. Einar Lonnberg. It is, however, 
not P. nanus, as might have been expected, but a species with 
incis(n's and premolars as in P. kuhlii, to which, although much 
smaller, it would seem to be allied. Although degenerated b)^ 
chemicals, the large upper premolar and first two molars may be 
measured as 2*4 mm., and the lower tooth-row (exclusive of 
ir.cisors) as 4*0 mm. The species does not appear to have been 
rediscovered since Wahlberg's time. 

ISText, Yesjoeritgo smithii Wagner, based on Ves2)ertilio minntus 
Smith, of the 'Illustrations' (1848), placed by Dobson under 
V. capensis, must be a different Bat altogether, as it is said to have 
a forearm no less than 42 mm. in length. 

Lastly, the Madagascar specimens referred by Dobson (and 
Peters, whose writing is on some of them) to ^^ Vesperugo minutiis" 
represent, as might have been expected, a species conspicuously 
different from its Cape ally. It may be called 

Yespertilio mateoka t, sp. n. 

Size about as in V, capensis, though the skull is shorter. 
General colour above uniform rich brown, the type matching 
" vandyke-brown " of Ridgw^ay, widely different from the greyish 
brown of F, capensis. Underside between "raw imaber" and 
" mummy-brow^n," rather lighter on the lower abdomen. Ears 
rather smaller than in F. capensis and antitragal notch deepei-. 
Other external characters apparently as in that species. 

Skull shorter, more rounded, and with a less flattened brain- 
case than in F. capensis. Molars rounded, not so broad trans- 
versely. Canines smaller and slenderer, the difference especially 
mai"ked in the lower jaw. Anterior lower premolar only about 
half the transverse diameter of the posterior one. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Forearm 33 "5 mm. ; third finger 57. 

[Head and body (of a sj)irit-siDecimen with forearm 32 mm.) 
43'5 ; head 15*5; tail 29-5; ear 11*3; tragus on inner edge 4 ; 
lower leg and foot (c. u.) 19.] 

Skull —greatest length 13*5; basal length in middle line 10; 
mastoid breadth 7*7 ; combined length of large upper pi'emolar 
and two molars 3'2 ; front of lower canine to back of m, 5. 

Rab. Madagascar. Type from Ambositra, Betsileo. Altitude 

about 1100 m. 

* Trans. Linn. Soc. ix. p. 163. 
t Malagasj' for "dark brown." 



1905.] MAMMALS PROM ZULULAND. 259 

Type. Male. B.M. no. 97.9.1.32. Original number 177. 
Collected 2. February, 1895, by Dr. C. I. Forsyth Major. 

This species is at once distinguishable from its mainland ally 
by its rich brown colour and differently shaped skull. 

11. MiNIOPTERUS SCHREIBERSI Natt. 

d. 921. Xgoye Hills. 

12. Amblysomus iris Thos. & Schw. 

AmUysomxis iris Thos. & Schw. Abstr. P. Z. S. Xo. 18, p. 23, 
April 25, 1905. 

c? 873. 2 829. Umvolosi Station, 50 m. 

(?) 2 874. Umvolosi Station. 

In view of the considerable cranial and dental differences 
occurring between the different groups of the Ohrysochlorid^e, we 
think it advisable to accept the subdivision of the old genus 
Ch-ysochloris into three, as proposed by Prof. Cope*. All the 
specimens as yet obtained by Mr. Grant belong to the genus 
A?nbli/sonius (type A. hottentottus Smith), no members of the 
genera C'hrysochloris (type C. asiatica Linn.) or Bematiscus (type 
B. villosibs Smith) having fallen into his hands. 

With regard to the milk-dentition in this group. Dr. Leche 
has recently shown that the tooth-change takes places at an 
unusually late period of life, so that there is no cranial evidence 
of immaturity in specimens still retaining their milk-teeth. It 
is on account of this obsei'vation that we provisionally assign 
specimen no. 874 to the same species as 873 and 829, for while it 
shows no indication of youth the considerable difference between 
its teeth and those of the others might be explained by a diffei'ence 
of dentition T. But if this is the case, we practically have to assume 
that the whole of the Museum series of A. hottentottus are also in 
the milk-stage, for all have their teeth shaped as in 874 rather than 
as in 873 and 829. In support of this view, it should l^e noted 
that these two latter specimens are the only members of the genus 
which have their molars conspicuously more worn than the teeth 
anterior to them, thus showing that they at least have their 
permanent dentition. 

Taking into consideration only the two specimens which are 
undoubtedly adult, the species may be described as follows : — 

Size markedly smaller than in A. hottentottus, and the claws 
rather feebler. Nasal pad apparently as in that species. Genei-al 
colour smoky blackish, the hairs slaty at their bases, dai-k silvery 

* Amer. Nat. xxvi. p. 127 (1892). The uew name founded by Cope, JBematiscus, 
has the unusual distinction of being omitted from Palmer"s ' Index Generum 
Mammalium.' Nor is it included in Trouessart's Catalogue, and we owe a knowledge 
of its existence to our friend Dr. Forsyth Major. 

t We have later found conclusive evidence that the broadly triangular premolars 
of No. 874, as figured in the Plate, are the milk-teeth. The British Museum has 
also since received from Mr. C. W. Turner a specimen of A. liottentottus with its 
permanent dentition in place. — 10 May, 1905. 



260 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

grey sulbterminally, the tips l^lack with a greenish iridescence. 
Sides rather lighter, but without rufous tinge, which is however 
present in specimen ISTo. 874. Under surface dark grey (" mouse- 
grey "), a narrow median line rather darker. Chin dull whitish, 
which colour extends u.p wards on each side on to the cheeks. 
Crown and top of muzzle browai, finely flecked with white, and with 
a patch about 2 mm. in diameter over each eye. Limbs grey like 
the lower surface, the wrists lighter. 

Skull similar in shape to that of A. hottentottus, but markedly 
smaller throughout. 

Teeth : second and third incisors and canine similar in shape, 
the last-named not markedly more triangular in section. First 
premolar (PI. XYI. fig. 1) triangular, not elongated transversely. 
Two posterior premolars, and the molars, quite separated from 
each other, broad transversely, very narrow antero-posteriorly, the 
outer cusps little developed, so that the outer antero-posterioi- 
diameter of p'* is only about I'l mm. In No. 874, which we 
suppose to show the milk- dentition of the same species, this last 
diameter (including the prominent antero-external cusp) is about 
1-5 mm, (see PL XVI. fig. 1). Below, the last two premolars and 
the two molars have each a low posterior basal ledge, off which a 
small cusp may have been worn. No. 874 has the usual distinct 
posterior basal cusps. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 
Head and body 116 mm. ; hind foot (s.u.) 13. 
Skidl — greatest length 25-4; basal length 20; greatest breadth 
15'6 ; greatest height 12'3 ; interorbital breadth 8 ; front of i^ to 
back of m^ 10 ; palate, breadth across premolars 8" 7. 
Hah. Umvolosi Station, altitude 50 m. 

Tyi)e. Adult male. B.M. no. 4.12.3.9. Original number 873. 
Collected 16 September, 1904. 

This distinct species may be readily recognised by its smaller 
size, as compared w'ith A. hottentottus. From A. obtusirostris it 
differs in having its upper anterior premolars of a distinctly pre- 
molariform shape, Peters's species apparently having them of the 
molariform outline also found in A. chrT/sillus, described below^ 

These three specimens are of particular interest as illustrating 
the very late change of dentition in the group, recently discovered 
by Prof. Leche* in Ckrysochloris asiaiica. 

While examining Mr. Kudd's specimens we have compared all 
the Museum examples of Amhlysoraus hottentotti's, and find that 
the form found in Pondoland difiers so much in colour as to 
deserve subspecific recognition. It might be called 

Amblysomus hottentottus PONDOLiiE, subsp. n. 
Similar to true A. hoitentottzis in size and other essential 
characters, but tlie dorsal area, from crowai to rump, is glossy 

* Zool. Anzeigei-, xxyii. p. 219 (1904). "We owe to the Idndness of Prof. Leche a 
drawing of a milk-premolar of the specimen he described. 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 261 

blackish, as in ^. iris, while the sides and under surface are still 
rufous, as in true hottentottus. But even the belly, in the most 
strongly marked examples, is of a rather smokier rufous than ui 
the typical subspecies. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 120 mm. ; hind foot 14. 

Skull— greatest length 27; greatest breadth 17 ; height 12-5. 

Hab. of type. Notinsila, W. Pondoland. Other specimens 
from Port St. John. 

Ttjpe. Male. B.M. no. 4.6.6.4. CoUected 10 February, 1904, 
by Mr. H. H. Swinny, Four specimens examined. 

The true A. hottentottus, of which the type is in the Museum, 
is a reddish animal, not or very slightly darkened on the back. 
The specimen from Zuurbrou, near Yfakkerstroom, obtained by 
Mr. Grant, and mentioned in our previous paper, agrees _ closely 
with the type, and other reddish specimens from King Williams- 
town and Albany are in the collection. 

The species described as Chrysochloris holosericeiis by Lichten- 
stein and C. rutilans by Wagner seem to be clearly referable to 
the true A. hottentottus. 

C. cdbirostris Wagn. is also a reddish form, but may prove 
to be distinct. Its identification v/ith G. leucorhtna Huet by 
Pousargues* is based on a mistake, for Wagner stated clearly m 
1855 t, though he did not in 1841 J, that it had only 36 teeth, a 
statement which was overlooked by Pousargues. 

Another member of the genus which we may take this 
opportunity of describing is 

Amblysomus chrysillus, sp. n. 

Nose-pad broad, more than twice as broad as long, its lateral 
corners angular, but not produced backwards into a long sharp 
point as in Chrysochloris; transverse groove or uifoldmg little 
prominent, not running to the lateral edges. Nostrils extremely 
complicated, even more so than in C. asiatica, the opening nearly 
blocked up by in-growing foliaceous projections. 

Size comparatively small. Large claw of fore foot small, slender, 
less curved than in A. hottentott^is ; its length 8-5 mm., its basal 
diameter 3-2 ; the small outer claw about | the length of the 
laro-e one therefore longer in proportion than in the alhed species. 
General colour pale, much paler than in any other species ; the 
hairs of the upper surface with only their extreme tips brown 
(" wood-brown" in a specimen skinned out of spirit), the greater 
part of their length being silvery whitish (with a tinge of yellow. 
in the type, but'^this is probably due to the spirit), very slightly 
greyer at their bases. The brown is as usual most intense on the 

* Auii. Sci. Nat. (7) iii. p. 263 (footnote), 1896. 
t Schr. Saug. Supp. v. p. 581. 
X Op. cit. ii. p. 121-. 



262 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [^P^"- l^j 

crown, where it contrasts with the cheeks, which are yellowish 
white. Under surface yellowish white, the hairs light to their 
bases, line of demarcation on sides not defined. A slight greenish 
iridescence on the dorsal hau-s. 

Skull small, in general outline more broadly triangular than in 
A. hottentottus ; the breadth across the molai'S nearly equalling the 
distance from the last molar to the tip of the first incisor. 

Second and thu'd upper incisors flattened and grooved ex- 
ternally. Canines more or less premolaiiform in shape, tiiangular 
in section. First premolar as elongated transversely as the first 
molar, its anterior lobe rounded and little projecting. Other 
premolars and molars with scarcely a trace of the usual antero- 
external projections. Lower teeth all imusually high ; pre- 
molai'S and anterior molars each with a small but distinct low 
secondary cusp at the postero-internal angle — absolutely intei-nal, 
not mesial as in other species. 

Dimensions of a specimen in spirit : — Head and body 93 mm. ; 
hind foot (s.u.) 1 ; nose-pad 5-4x11. The type is rather younger 
and smaller : head and body 82 mm. 

Skull (the larger specimen) — greatest length 22 ; basal length 
in middle line 18 ; greatest breadth 15-6 ; greatest height 10-5 ; 
interorbital bi-eadth 6-6 ; length of upper tooth -I'ow 9-2 ; greatest 
breadth across premolars 8. 

Hah. Delagoa Bay. 

Tyj^e. Female. B.M. no. 84.8.30.2. Presented by Mrs. Mon- 
teiro. Two specimens examined. 

This interesting little species has been hitherto confused with 
A. obticsirostris, but differs by its smaller size and wdiitish fur. 
Both species differ from A. hotfentoUus and its allies by the whole 
of their upper premolars taking on a molariform shape, while the 
canine even is pressed into the same sei'vice by having the shape 
usually characteristic of an anterior premolar. 

As a result of this modification thei'e are (putting aside the 
small m-) four large molariform teeth (p^'^ m^) as compared 
with three (p"'^ m') in A. hottentottus and its allies. (See PI. XVI. 
fig. 2 6.) 

13. Myosoeex sclateri Thos. &, Schw. 

S . 887, 888, 906, and one inspirit. $ . 886, 889, 190. iS^goye 
Hills. 

Myosorex sclateri talpinus, subsp. n, 

S . 814, 819, 823, and one in spirit. $ . 818. Umvolosi. 

Myosorex sclateri affinis, subsp. n. 

S . 584, 641, 642. $ . 580, 594, 643, 645, 666._ Sibudeni. _ 
A more detailed examination of the series on which this species 
was founded convinces us of the necessity of distinguishing sub- 
specifically the specimens from the three localities mentioned 
above. 



1905. J MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 263 

The characters of the three forms are l^riefly as follows : — 

Myosorex sclcderi sclateri. 

General colour dark bistre-brown. Skull in length 25 mm. or 
over, about 12 mm. in breadth. Hind foot 16 mm. 

Myosorex sclateri talpmiis, subsp. n. 

Larger. General colour above shining black, below sepia. 
Hind foot 18 mm. 

Myosorex sclateri affinis, subsp. n. 

Smaller, Colour as in true sclateri. Skull in length about 
24'5 mm., in breadth about 11-3. Hind foot 15 mm. 

Below is appended a full description of the two new subspecies :— 

Myosorex sclateri talpinus. 

General colour of upper surface shining black, lighter on flanks, 
passing to sepia on the under surface. Individual hairs above 
about 10 mm. long, basal four-fifths slate-grey, tip black. Long 
haii'S on rump projecting noticeably beyond the short hair. 
Fur of under surface very fine and close, about 5 mm. long, 
basal two-thirds slate-grey, distal third sepia. Upper sides of 
hands and feet light brown as in sclateri, claws light in colour and 
rather long. Tail dark brown above and below, no tuft at tip. 

Skull as in true sclateri, considerably larger and more strongly 
built than in M. varius. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 100 mm. ; tail 56 ; hind foot 18 ; ear 11. 

Skull — back of condyle to front face of i^ 25 ; basal length 21 ; 
breadth across brain-case 12-5 ; length of upper tooth-series 10'5, 

Hah. Umvolosi, Zululand, alt. 60 m. 

Type. Male. B.M. no. 4.12.3.20. Original number 823. 
Collected 23 July, 1904. Four specimens examined. 

This subspecies may be easily distinguished from any other form 
by its dark velvety coat, which is very like that of a Mole, 

" Zulu name ' ISTgoso ukulu.' 

" Inhabits the thick undergrowth on the banks of streams." — 
C. H. B. G, 

Myosorex sclateri affinis. 

Smaller. Colour as in true sclateri. Skull smaller throughout 
(see measurements below) ; the size I'ather more constant in the 
males than in females. The breadth across the brain-case is notice- 
ably greater in sclateri than in the present form, whose skull 
therefore appears very slender when compared with that of the 
Ngoye Hills race. The antero-posterior measurement of the 
second upper molar is slightly larger in sclateri than in affinis. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 84 mm. ; tail 46 ; hind foot 15 ; ear 9. 



264 MESSES. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

Skull — back of condyle to front face of i^ 24*5 ; basal length 
19*8; breadth across brain-case 11*5; length of upper tooth- 
series 10. 

Hah. Sibudeni, Zululand. Alt. 1700 m. 

Type. Male. B.M. no. 4.1.5.25. Original number 641. Col- 
lected 17 December, 1903. Eight specimens examined. 

14. Myosorex varius Smuts. 

$. 665. Sibudeni. 

c? . 806, 815 (1 in spirit). Umvolosi. 

" Zulu name ' Cwinini.' 

" They are common every whei-e, inhabiting the thick grass and 
undergrowth along the spruits, in the vleys and at the edge of the 
bush, also in the bush itself, especially under fallen trees. They 
apparently live on the surface of the ground and do not burrow. 
They feed principallv on small insects and are both nocturnal and 
diurnal."— C. H. B. G. 

A specimen collected at Umvolosi, B.M. no, 4.12.3.22, appears 
to represent a species allied to M. tenuis, but w^e are unable to 
decide definitely as it lacks its skull. 

15. Orooidura martensi Dobs. 

6 . 817. $ . 831 (2 in spirit). Umvolosi. 

c? . 909 (1 in spirit). Ngoye Hills. 
"Zulu name ' I^goso.' 

" Habits probably similar to G. flavescens. Not by any means 
common." — 0. H. B. G. 

16. Orocidura flavescens Geoff. 
(^ ._ 892. $ . 894. Ngoye Hills. 

This series agrees very well with the specimens we considei- 
typical oi flavescens Geoff., which is not the case with the series 
from Umvolosi. 

" Zulu name ' ISTgoso.' Common. Inhabits the cultivated and 
deserted native lands, the thick undei-growth in the vleys and on 
the banks of streams. Entirely nocturnal." — C. H. B. G. 

17. Crocidura flavescens flavidula, subsp. n. 

S. 860, 861, 870. § . 830, 866, 869. Umvolosi. 

Size smaller than in true flavescens. Colour throughout as in 
that animal, the tone, pei'haps, slightly warmer. 

Upper surface rather lighter than " Mars brown " (Ridgway) ; 
under sui-face smoke- grey, freqiiently with a yellowish suffusion. 
Interramia and wrists indistinctly white in several specimens. Old 
males with a well-developed lateral gland, the hair covering it 
conspicuously whiter than the surrounding pelage. 

Skull and teeth much smaller and more delicately built than in 
true flavescens, the difference in size being very marked in the 
molar teeth ; m" in the type oi flavidula is only 2 '6 mm. in breadth, 
while it is 3-2 mm. in the case of the larser form. 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 265 

Dimensions of tlie type (measured in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 102 mm. ; tail 51 ; hind foot 14*5; ear 10. 

Sknll — back of condyle to front face of i^ 23*5 ; basal length 
20*5 ; breadth across brain-case 10 ; length of upper tooth- 
series 9*8. 

Hah. Umvolosi, Zululand. Alt. 70 m. 

Tyi^e. Wdle. B.M. no. 4.12.3.29. Original number 861. Col- 
lected 5 September, 1904. Six specimens examined. 

While there is a general agreement in size throughout the 
Shrews assigned to C. flavescens, these specimens from. Umvolosi 
are so markedly smaller that we think they should have a sub- 
specific name. 

18. Hbrpestes GRACILIS PUNCTULATUS Gray. 

c?. 581. $.610,614,653. Sibudeni. 

S . 833. ■$ . 800. Umvolosi. 

5 . 899. %oye Hills. 

As we have shown in a previous paper, H. g. punctulatus is a. 
perfectly tenable subspecies, which is widely distributed over 
South-east Africa, being replaced further north by the paler 
II. g. cauui. 

" Zulu name ' Oagiti.' 

" Seems to be exclusively a bush animal, living singly or in 
pairs, but not iu colonies. It is more often taken with dogs than 
trapped. It sleeps and breeds in some hollow tree and lives 
principally on insects." — C. H. B. G. 

19. Herpestes galera Erxl. 
$. 917. Ngoye Hills. 

20. Orossarchus fasciatus Desm. 

S . 852, 853. $ . 855, 856. Umvolosi. 

" Zulu name ' Oguya.' On the whole rather a rare animal. It 
frequents the thorn-bush and thickly wooded sluits and river- 
banks, generally in parties of half a dozen. When chased the 
whole party will, as a rule, take shelter in the same hole. The 
skin, especially the banded part of the back, is valued by the 
natives. It feeds principally on coleopterous insects." — 0. H. B. G. 

21. Lycaon pictus zuluensis Thos. 

Two native skins. Itala Mts. 

" Zulu name ' N'Kenjane.' 

" The two specimens sent were obtained by the natives from a 
troop of some eight individuals which had probably come from the 
Umvolosi River. The survivors did not remain long, but returned 
to the river. 

" The natives say they are rather savage when hard pressed, 
and are very destructive to goats and sheep." — C. H. B. G. 



266 MESSRS. O, THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

22. P(ECiLOGALE ALBiNUCHA Gray. 
d. 659. Sibudeni. 

$. 598. Jnsusie Valley. 

"Zulu name ' Myenelesana.' 

" Common, but exceedingly diflficult to trap. They frequent 
the thick overgrown sluits and kloofs in and around the Kaffir 
mealie-patches, but do not live in the bush. 

" The male specimen was killed in the act of eating a vley 
Otomys. 

"They have a pungent smell, but not so strong as Ictonyx 
capensis"—G. H. B. G. 

23. SciUKUS PALiiiATUS ORNATUS Gray. 

c?. 880, 895, 901, 907, 910, 914. ?. 884, 891,903,908,912, 
913. Xgoye Hills. 

" Zulu names ' Inpuguloti ' or ' Ijindane.' 

" Similar in habits to the European squirrel. It is not easy to 
approach and keeps entirely to the thick forest. It does not 
seem to live in parties, but two are often observed together. This 
animal is curiously local in Zululand. It is common at ISTgoye, in 
the neighbourhood of Kosi Bay, and on the Ma.puta River. Near 
the mouth of the St. Lucia Lake and in the bush toward Gape 
Vidal it is rare. It is unknown between Ngoye and the Lake 
district and in Natal."— 0. H. B. G. 

24. Tatera brantsii Smith. 

d. 838, 842. 2.813,839,872. TJmvolosi. 

" Zulu name ' Ibuusi.' 

" Fairly common, especially in the native gardens and potato- 
patches. Their burrows are of considerable size, especially on the 
grass- covered flats, whei-e they are undisturbed. This animal is 
very wary of traps, and can only be caught Avith a buried trap 
baited with a sweet potato. I tried digging them out, but the 
holes went doAvn to such a depth that they were lost in the loose 
sand. Strictly nocturnal and a vegetable feeder." — 0. H. B. G. 

25. Graphiurus murinus Desm. 

S . 595, 656. 9 . 648, 663, 672. Sibudeni. 

" Zulu name ' Mpuguloti.' 

" Faii'ly common, but nocturnal. Almost exclusively a bush 
animal, though sometimes found in the rocks on the hill-sides 
some little distance from the bush." — 0. H. B. G. 

26. Otomys irroratus Brants. 

$ . 675. Sibudeni. 

This specimen agrees closely in skin and skull-characteis with 
the series collected by Mr. Grant in the neighbourhood of Cape 
Town, which may be considered as representing Brants's irroratus. 

" Zulu name ' Ibusi.' 

" Fairly common, frequenting the overgrown sluits and vleys 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 267 

close to water. Like other members of the genus, they will 
seldom take baits, but are usually caught by their accidentally 
running over the trap. They live singly or in pairs, and do not 
burrow."— 0. H. B. G. 

27. Otomys laminatus Thos. & Schw^. 

Otomys laminatus Thos. & Scliw. Abstr. P. Z. S. ISTo. 18 p. 23, 
April 25, 1905. 

c?. 657. ?. 673. Sibudeni. 

This species may be shoi'tly described as a member of the 
irroratus group, with nine or occasionally ten laminae on the thu-d 
upper molars instead of six or seven, and seven on the first lower 
instead of four. 

Genei-al colour of the upper surface, in the type, raw umbei- 
(Ridgway), slightly more rufous on the rump, which may, how- 
ever, be due to faded fur, and paler on the flanks. The female 
distinctly darker in colour, more as in irroratihs. Fur soft, fine, 
and thick, about 20 mm. long, basal four-fifths blackish slate, a 
subterminal ring rufous, exti-eme tip black. Under surface dull 
yellowish, the bases of the hau-s grey. Forehead and cheeks like 
back ; lips, interramia, and throat dull yellowish white. Ears of 
medium length, internal sm^face thinly covered with fine yellowish 
hair, naked externally. Upper surface of hands and feet blackish 
grey. Tail thickly barred, blackish above, dull buffy below. 

Skull as in irroratus, but with a widely different laminal for- 

, . 3—2—9 
mula, VIZ. : ^ — ^ — ^. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 180 mm. ; tail 120 ; hind foot 31 ; ear 22. 

Skull — greatest length 44 ; basilar length 35 ; zygomatic 
breadth 22 ; nasals 20 x 8-4 ; interorbital breadth 4-5 ; palate 
length 20'4 ; length of upper molar series (crowns) 9*7 ; antero- 
posterior diameter of bulla 7*2. 

Hah. Sibudeni, Zululand. Alt. 1050 m. 

Tyjye. Male. B.M. no. 4.5.1.45. Original no. 657. Collected 
-1 January, 1904. 

The difference between the laminal formula of this species and 
0. irroratus is so great that we have no doubt the former should 
be speciflcally distinguished. Mr. Sclater, in his ' Mammals of 
South Africa ' *, mentions a specimen from Pondoland that agrees 
with larainatus in having nine laminae on the third upper molar, 
and should probably be referred to this species. With the ex- 
ception of this specimen, no greater variation has been recorded 
than between six and seven. 

With regai'd to Lichtenstein's Euryotis ohscura from Kaffraria, 
we are infoi-med by Dr. Matschie that the type is not now to be 
found in the Berlin Museum, so that the name may well remain 
buried in the synonymy of the common 0. irroratus. 

* Vol. ii. p. 27. 



268 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apv. 18, 

28. Mus CHRYSOPHiLus cle Wint. 

J. 577, 593, 596, 661,670. $.592,575,591,658. Sibudeni. 

c?. 620. $.617,627. Jnsusie Valley. 

c? . 808, 812, 820, 858. $ . 797, 821, 835, 868. Umvolosi. 

c?. 885, 919. d. 918. Ngoye Hills. 

"Zulu name ' Gwenca.' 

" Inhabits the clumps of rocks on the hill-sides and krantzes, 
as in other parts of the country ; it occasionally invades houses, 
where it is a perfect nuisance. Mainly a vegetable feeder and 
nocturnal."— C. H. B. G. 

29. Mus DOLiCHURUS Smuts. 
6. 878. Ngoye Hills. 

30. Mus coucHA zuLUENSis, subsp. n. 

6 . 576, 579, 582, 644. $ . 574. Sibudeni. 

6. 513. $. 571, 572. Eshowe. 

cJ. 621, 628. Jususie Valley. 

S . 789, 807. $ . 786, 788. Umvolosi. 

A long- tailed, fulvous-sufFused form of the coucha gi'oup. 

General colour of the upper surface " bistre," with a distinct 
fulvous suffusion, which is much more marked in some specimens 
than others. Posterior half of the back strongly pencilled with 
black. Fur very soft and fine, the hairs of the back about 
10 mm. in length. Underfur slaty-grey basally, fulvous at tip. 
Flanks lighter than back, bufiy yellow fading into the greyish 
white of the under surface. Fur of belly grey basally, dii-ty white 
terminally, except on interramia, where it is entirely white. Head 
coloured like back. Ears covered with minute very dark brown 
hairs. Hands and feet dirty white or cream-colour, very diflerent 
from the snowy white feet of true coucha. Tail considerably 
longer than in coucha, brown above, lighter below ; scales about 
1 3 to the centimetre. 

Skull slightly larger than in the typical subspecies and with 
longer palatine foramina. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 123 mm. ; tail 123 ; hind foot 23 ; ear 19. 

Skull — greatest length 30*5 ; basilar length 25'0 ; brain-case 
breadth 12*0 ; zygomatic breadth 34*5; length of palatine foramina 
7*3 ; length of upper molar series 4"5. 

Hah. Umvolosi Station, Zululand. Alt. 70 m. 

Type. Female. B.M. no. 4.12.3.62. Original number 786. 
Collected 25 June, 1904. 

An examination of the type specimen of Smith's coucha, and of 
other modern specimens from the same region, shows that that 
animal is a shorter-tailed, smaller, whiter-footed, and greyer form 
than its representative in Zululand, to which we have therefore 
decided to give a special name. 

The only other South African form in this group is M. silaceus 
Wagn., of which Thomas has examined the type in the Munich 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 269 

Musevim. This has a tail only 85 mm. in length, as in concha^ 
and so may he provisionally retained in the synonymy of that 
species, where it has been placed by de Winton and Sclater, 

31. Mus COLONUS Brants. 

e . 787, 792, 793. $ . 798. Umvolosi. 

The four specimens correspond closely with the type of Mus 
natcdensis Smith. 

" Zulu name at Umvolosi 'Igundane,' literally 'a rat.' 

" Common everywhere, both in the country and the native kraals 
Nocturnal only."— 0. H. B. G. 

32. Leggada minutoides Smith. 

5. 589. Sibudeni. 

2 . 871 (1 in spirit). Umvolosi. 
" Zulu name * Ngoso.' 

" Apparently rare ; the specimens obtained were trapped in 
thick bushes close to houses. Nocturnal only." — 0. H. B. G. 

33. Arvicanthis dorsalis Smith. 

S . 882. 2 . 883. Ngoye Hills. 

" Zulu name ' Mbiba.' 

" It is undoubtedly i-are and very local." — C. H. B. G. 

34. Arvicanthis pumilio Sparrm. 

6 . 587, 590, 654, 655, 660. $ . 585, 649. Sibudeni. 
5 . 795. Umvolosi. 

This very richly marked series shows an unusual amount of 
variation from light yellowish grey to strong buffy yellow. 

"Zulu name 'Mbiba.' 

" Common in all grassy places, exclusively diurnal and a 
vegetable feeder. It makes single holes in which to breed and 
sleep."— C. H. B. G. 

35. Saccostomus mashon^ de Wint. 

J. 796, 851, 862, 867. Umvolosi. 

We are glad to be able to continue the use of the familiar 
generic name Saccostomus, as we do not consider that it is invali- 
dated by the existence of the earlier Saccostoma Fitzingei', on 
whose account Mr. Palmer has renamed it Eosaccomys *. 

" Zulu name ' Igundane.' 

" Uncommon. Inhabits the undergrowth on the banks of 
streams and the native lands. The pouches contained mostly 
sweet potato and seeds of various wild plants. Noctui-nal only " — 
C. H. B. G. 

36. Steatomys pratensis Peters. 
S. 791. Umvolosi. 

Should the Zululand form be found to differ from that in- 

* Science, (2) xvii. p. 873 (1903). 



270 



MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 



hiibiting the Zambesi Valley, the name krehsii Peters would 
probably be available for it. 

" Zulu name ' ISTgoso.' 

" The specimen sent was the only one observed and was caught 
in the long grass on a sandy slope close to a stream. The natives 
did not know whether it was common or not." — 0. H. B. G. 

37. Georychus hottentotus Less. 

$. 843. Umvolosi. 

" Zulu name ' Mfuvuzi.' 

" This animal makes runs and mounds similar to Amhlysoimts. 
It occasionally works just below the surface. It is very partial to 
the native lands and is strictly a vegetable feeder." — C. H. B. G. 

38. Dasymys incomtus Sund. 

c?. 651, 669. Sibudeni. 
" Zulu name ' Ibusi.' 

" Habits very similar to Otomys irrorattbs, frequenting the vleys 
like that species, but not necessarily close to w^ater." — 0. H. B. G. 

39. Thryonomys swinderenianus Temm. 

c? . 618. Jususie YaUey. 

o' . 875, 876 imm. Umvolosi. 

S ■ 850. Hlupluwe Stream, Hlatwa District. 

" Zulu name ' Ivondwe ' (' Mavondwe ' plural). 

" ISTot so common as it might be owing to its being killed off by 
the natives, both for food and because of the havoc it works among 
the mealies. It inhabits the thickly overgrown sluits and banks of 
streams, as a rule close to some mealie-gai'den. It is very quick 
when pursued and is only to be caught by using dogs. It cannot 
be trapped owing to the softness of its skin and flesh, the j)art 
that is trapped being pulled oflt' and left." — C. H. B. G. 

40. Lepus saxatilis zuluensis, subsp. n. 

S. 799. Umvolosi. 

Similar to the true saxatiUs, but smaller and with shortei' ears. 

Geneial colour above drab-brown, freely pencilled with black ; 
flanks much lighter, owing to the absence of the black annulation. 
Individual hairs about 20 mm. long, basal two-thirds grey (no. 9, 
Ridgway), subterminal ring dark brown, tip "ecru-drab"; under- 
fur very thick, gi'ey basally, dark smoky-brown terminally. Undei' 
surface pure snowy white ; throat coloured like back. Muzzle, 
interramia, and a ring round eyes dirty wdiite ; cheeks, forehead, 
and anterior surface of ears coloured like back, internal margin of 
ears lined with light bufly hairs, external margin with white, tips 
of ears black. ISTape of neck bright " ochraceous-bufl:'." Under 
surface of fore and hind limbs pure white ; upper siu^face light 
sandy grey. Tail black above, white below. 

Skull considerably smallei' than in the Cape form, and with 
smaller bull£e (see measurements below). 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 271 

Diiiiensions of the type (measurerl in the flesh) : — Head and 
body 467 mm.; tail 94;' hind foot 109 ; ear 106. 

Hah. Umvolosi Station, Zululand. 

r^/jfje. Male. B.M. no. 4.12.3.91. Original number 799. Col- 
lected 30 June, 1904. 

This Eastern form of the common L. saxatilis is so much 
smaller, and has such a conspicuously smaller skull, than its Cape 
ally, that we have no alternative but to give it a special subspecific 
name. Further material from different localities will be needed 
before any exact idea of its distribution can be obtained. 

While comparing the specimen with the Museum series of skins, 
we have also been much struck by the characters of the three 
specimens of this grouj) collected by Mr. Grant at Klipfontein, 
noticed by us in our paper on the l!^amaqualand collection. 

This Western race is markedly larger than the Southern or 
Cape form, represented in the collection by two specimens from ' 
Deelfontein collected by Messrs. Grant and Seimund during the 
late war. In agreement with Waterhouse* and other authors, 
we synonymise the remainder of the names hitherto applied 
to members of this group with the true Lejnts saxatilis Cuv., of 
which, in the absence of modern material from the neighbourhood 
of Cape Town, we provisionally take a Deelfontein example as 
representative. We propose to call the Namaqualand form 

LePUS SAXATILIS MEGALOTIS, Subsp. n. 

Size very large. General colour as in zuluensis; flanks and 
throat rather lighter ; muzzle, cheeks, and round the eyes silvery 
grey ; basal two-thirds of internal margin of ears lined with long- 
pale bufly hairs, distal third lined with black, external margin 
bordered with white. NajDe-jDatch between "clay-colour" and 
" isabella-colour " (Ridgway), rather darker than in zuluensis; 
hair on under surface of fore and hind limbs grey basally with 
white tips, producing a silvery appearance ; tail much longer than 
in the Zulu or Deelfontein forms. 

Skull approximatelj^ of the same size as that of the specimen 
fi"om Deelfontein taken as typical of true saxatilis, in spite of the 
fact that its external measurements are much greater. 

Dimensions of Specimen 

tlie tj^pe from from Deelfontein, 

Klipfontein. B.M. no. 3.3.6.11. 
mm. mm. 

Head and body 542 528 

Tail 132 115 

Hind foot 137 128 

Ear 147 130 

Hah. Klipfontein, Namaqualand. 

Type. B.M. no. 4.2.3.103. Original number 520. Collected 
23 June, 1903. 

* Nat. Hist. Mamm. vol. ii. p. 93 (1848). 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Vol. I. No. XVIII. 18 



272 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

A short table of comparative skull-measurements will serve to 
show the distinctness of the Zululand form, v/hile the ISTamaqua- 
land race may be distinguished at once by the great size of the 
ears. 

Specimen from 

Type of Deelfontein, Tjrpe of 

L. s. megalotis. B.M. no. 3.3.6.11, L. s. zuluensis. 

mm. mm. mm. 

Greatest length 102 103 91 

Basilar length 77-5 79 70 

Zygomatic breadth 44 45 "5 42 

Nasals, oblique length 43'5 44 40 

„ greatest breadth 23 23-4 21 

Interorbital breadth, inside 

wings 21 20 17-5 

Breadth of brain-case 33 33 29-5 

Diastema 30 30 25-5 

Palate length 37-5 38 34 

Palatal foramina 27x12 27-5x10 24-5x11 

Length of cheek tooth-series . 16 17 15*5 
Antero-posterior diameter of 

bulla 12 13 11 

It is perhaps worth mentioning that in the type of L. s. 
onegalotis the small postei'ior molar m^ is wanting on both sides 
of the upper jaw. This abnormality occurs, according to the 
observations of Dr, Forsyth Major, more frequently in Hares of 
this species than in any other, 

" Zulu name, ' Gwaja,' Rather scarce, oAving to the continuous 
persecution of the natives with traps and snares."^ — C H. B, G, 

41, Pronolagus ruddi Thos, & Schw, 

Pronolagus ruddi Thos, & Schw, Abstr, P, Z. S, No, 18, p, 23, 
April 25, 1905. 

c? , 664. Sibudeni. 

This fine Hare, which we have named in honour of Mr, Rudd, 
has a somewhat complicated history, owing to a confusion between 
it and the true P. crassiccmdatus Geoff, 

In 1832 the latter species was described on a specimen from 
" Port Natal " still in the Paris Museum, This typical specimen 
is mounted, and has its skull still in the skin, whence none of the 
successive Directors have thought fit to have it extracted. 

In 1853 the British Museum received from the Zoological 
Society's Museum a Pronolagus which was determined as P. crassi- 
caudatics, and remained the only adult representative of the group 
until comparatively lately. It was therefore always treated as 
being the true crassiccmdatus, as, for example, in Thomas's paper * 
describing Oryctolagus c, nyikce and curryi, where its hind foot 
and cranial lengths are quoted as being those of Geofiroy's 
animal, 

* Ann. Mag. N. H. (7) x. p 244 (1902). 



1905.] MAMMALS PROM ZULULAND. 273 

But on the arrival of the fine series from Deelfontein, 
JSTamaqiialanci, and Zuui-bron that have resulted from the Sloggett 
and Rudd collections, it soon appeared that this specimen belonged 
to quite a distinct species, different both in size and cranial 
characters, and of which we have had great pleasure in recognising 
a second specimen in the present example. 

The specimen, " No. 22972," used to illustrate P. crassicaudatics 
in Mr. Lyon's recent work on Leporidje * is evidently also an 
example of this larger and rarer species. 

But as the two species both occur in or at least near IsTatal, the 
type locality of crassicaudatits, and are vei-y similar externally, 
the question has naturally arisen as to which is the oi'iginal species 
described by Geoffroy. Fortunately Mr. J. L. Bonhote has been 
able to settle the question for us by taking over to Paris, and 
comparing dii'ectly with the type, an example of the smaller species 
from Natal collected by Mr. Wroughton. Judging mainly by the 
length of the foot and the quality of the fur, Mr. Bonhote is 
definitely of opinion that the type of crassicaudatus is the smaller 
form, and we therefore now describe the larger one as new : — 

Size larger than in crassicaudatus. Fur very distinctly harsher, 
as coarse as in a European Hare, while in ci^assicaiulatus the fur 
is very soft, especially on the feet. Ground-colour coarsely 
grizzled black and pale bufFy, the long hairs black with a pale bufFy 
subterminal ring. Wool-hairs everywhere slaty-grey basally, but 
their tips blackish brown on the back, buify rufous on the rump, 
and buffy on the sides. Head, and especially cheeks, clearer grey. 
Under surface reddish buflfy, the centre of the belly more wdiitish. 
Front half of outer surface of ears pale greyish brown, its basal 
portion fringed with dull whitish hairs, its upper third narrowly 
edged v/ith black, which disappears, however, on the extreme tip ; 
inner surface of ear pale greyish white. Nape-patch dull greyish- 
brown, with but little tinge of rufous. Limbs bufiy rufous, 
becoming more whitish on the digits. Tail not quite so bushy as 
in crassicaudatics, deep reddish throughout. 

While the external distinctions from crassicaudatus are but 
little tangible, the skulls are extremely difi'erent, as may be seen 
by the following contrasted descriptions : — 

In P. ruddi the skull is large (see measurements), heavily 
bviilt, the muzzle broad and heavy proximally, and the frontal 
profile convex. Postorbital wings proportionally small, the 
posterior angle between them and the brain-case broad and open. 
Anterior shoulder of zygoma-root strongly projecting forward. 
Palatal foramina large, broad mesially, narrowing posteriorly, 
where they are constricted by the sharp inwardly- directed edges, 
which entirely hide in this region the walls of the nasal chamber 
below them. Sphenoid openings on each side of the front half 
of the pi"esphenoid narrowed to mere slits. Bullae very small, con- 
siderably surpassed by the paroccipital processes. 

* Smiths. Misc. Coll. vol. xlv. (1904.). 



274 MESSRS. O. THOMAS AND H. SCHWANN ON [Apr. 18, 

Incisors with tlieir notch shallow, situated in a comparatively 
broad flattening of the front surface of the tooth. Large upper 
molars and premolars (shown in Lyon's pi. xci. fig. 8) with the 
uncrenulated anterior enamel- w^all of the posterior lamina of each 
tooth extending neai'ly halfway across the tooth towards the outer 
border ; crenulated adjoining outer parts of the enamel- walls of 
the two laminge subeqvial in development, strongly crenulated. 
Anterior lower premolar with its anterioi* enamel-wall deeply 
crenulated. Thin front wall of the hinder lamina of each lower 
tooth (apart from nig) very strongly crenulated. 

In P. crassicaudatios, on the other hand, the skull is small, more 
slenderly built, the muzzle narrow, and the frontal profile flat. 
Supraorbital wings larger, their hinder edge closer to the brain- 
case. Anteilor shoulder of zygoma small. Palatal foramina large, 
evenly broadened to their hinder edge, widely open behind, with 
slanting and scarcely ridged margins which do not hide the walls 
of the nasal chamber below. Sphenoid openings comparatively 
large. BuUse fairly large, not surpassed by the small paroccipital 
processes. 

Incisors with a comparatively deep sharj)ly defined notch 
dividing the two strongly convex poi'tions of the anterior siu^face. 
Large upper cheek-teeth with the uncrenulated pai't of the 
anterior enamel-wall of their posterior lamina? extending only 
about a third across the tooth ; in the ci'enulated part of the 
enamel-walls the hinder wall of the anterior laniin?e is considerably 
more developed than the front one of the posterior, and all are less 
strongly crenulated than in P. ruclcli. Anterior lower premolar 
simply notched in fi-ont. Front wall of the hinder lamina of the 
large lower cheek-teeth scarcely crenulated. 

It will thus be seen that while externally P. ruddi is very like 
P. crassicaudattis, the difierences in the skull are so considerable 
that almost any part of the skull, or any single tooth, can be 
readily assigned to one or the other. 

Dimensions of the type of P. ruddi (measured in the flesh) : — 
Head and body 482 mm. ; tail 52 ; hind foot 99 ; ear 98. (The 
hind foot of P. crassiccmdatus is seldom over 80 mm.) 

Skull — greatest length 92 ; basilar length 72 ; zygomatic breadth 
40; nasals 44x22; interorbital breadth 16; intertemporal 
breadth 13*3; diastema 30; palatal foramina 26 X 8"5 ; palatal 
bridge 9"7. 

Corresponding measurements of two members of the P. crassi- 
ccmdatus group are to be found in Thomas's descriptions of P. c. 
nyikce and P. c. curryi^ . 

Hah. Sibudeni, Zululand. Alt. 1100 m. 

Type. Male. B.M. no. 4.5.1.78. 

The discoveiy and elucidation of this remarkably fine hare is a 
vahiable result of Mi'. Rudd's exploration of S. Africa, and one of 
special interest, as it forms a second species of the recently erected 
genus Pronolagus. 

* Ami. Mag. X. H. (7) x. pp. 245-6 (1902). 



1905.] MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. 275 

Pronolagibs ruclcli would appear to be confined to a compara- 
tively small area in S.E. Africa, while P. crassicaudatus in its 
different subspecies {nyikce, onelaoiK.t'tts, curryi, &c.) is spread over 
all South Africa, from ISTyasa in the north and JSTamaqualand on 
the west to Wakkerstroom and Natal on the south-east. 

"^Zulu name ' Ntenetsha,' 

" Rather uncommon. Frequenting the stony crests of the hills, 
but taking to the bush if pursued. As in other parts of South 
Africa, Pronolagus frequents one particular spot to leave its 
droppings and may sometimes be trapped there in consequence. 
The natives hunt this species incessantly." — 0. H. B. G. 

42. Procavia capensis Pall. 

c? . 615. Sibudeni. 

" Zulu name ' Imbile.' 

" Uncommon — partly on account of its forming an article of 
food for the natives, and also because places suited to its habits 
are scarce in this district. It frequents the loose boulders under 
the krantzes, thickly overgrown with vegetation. 

" Other specimens besides the one sent home were shot, but 
were not secured." — C. H. B. G. 

43. Cephalophus statalensis Smith. 

c? . 863, 877. TJmvolosi. 

" Zulu nfime ' Mkumbi.' 

" This little buck seems to keep entirely to the coast-line of 
Zululand and Natal . It is rather local, but where found is common. 
It is strictly a bush-buck and in habits is veiy similar to the blue- 
buck, but perhaps is more partial to swampy ground." — 0. H. B. G. 

44. Cephalophus monticola Thunb. 

cJ. 674. $.611,616,646,662,667. Sibudeni. 

" Zulu name ' Impiti.' 

" Yery common in the bush, which it never leaves, even when 
hard pressed. It sleeps during the day under a fallen tree or in 
thick undergrowth in some dry place. When chased by a dog it 
invariably makes for the nearest sluit of running water and runs 
in the middle of it, going downhill. It makes a snuffling noise 
when running and a loud ' baa '-like cry when caught by a dog or 
badly wounded."— C. H. B. G. 

45. Cephalophus grimmi Linn. 
(^ . 619. Jususie Valley. 

c^ . 794, 826. 2 ■ 809, 857. Umvolosi. 

S . 849. Hlatwa District. 

" Zulu name ' Mpuiisi.' 

" This species and the Oribi are the only two open-country buck 
left in the greater part of the western districts of Zukiland. The 
latter is now extremely rare and rigorously protected. Unlike 



276 ON MAMMALS FROM ZULULAND. [Apr. 18, 

most South- African buck, the Duik;er never stands when once pyit 
tip until it is out of sight. To this it probably owes its existence in 
many parts, as a native will seldom risk wasting his powder and 
shot on a running object. It hes down during the day in the 
patches of thick grass on the hill-sides and feeds from sundown to 
just before sunrise. It is very destructive to pumpkins and sweet 
potatoes, but does not touch mealies." — C. H. B. G. 

46. Eaphiceros campestris Thunb. 

d . 803. 2 . 804, 810. Umvolosi. 

2 . 847. Hlatwa District. 

" Zulu name ' Nxiua.' 

" Common, inhabiting the grassy fiats and undulating open 
country. It is especially fond of lying in the long reddish grass 
in the dry vleys, probably because of the similarity of its own 
colouring."— C. H. B. G. 

47. Oervicapra arundinubi Bodd. 

^ . _. 2 . 848. Hlatwa District. 

$. 801. Umvolosi. 

" Zulu names ' Mplangu,' ' Sasako,' Sasogo,' and ' Umsigi.' 

*' Fairly common, frequenting the long grass on the flats and 
hill-sides and the deep reed-filled sluits. It is easy to approach 
and when fl.vished it stands and looks back before it has gone far. 
In this part of the country the does outnumber the bucks by quite 
six to one, owing to the latter having been killed out." — C. H. B. G. 

48. Oervicapra fulvorufula Afzel. 

S . 845. Hlatwa District. 

'' Zulu name ' Nxala.' 

" Fairly common. They keep entirely to the stony hill-sides 
and are not easy to approach. The most I saw together were 
four."— 0. H. B. G. 

49. Tragelaphus sylvaticus Sparrm. 
$. 668. Sibudeni. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI. 

Fig. 1. Ambli/somus iris i'p. 259). «. Upper view of skull, b. Left upper tooth-row, 
pennanent dentition, from the tvpe. c. The same, milk-dentition, from 
No. 874. 

2. Ambhjsomus cJirysilhis (p. 261). a. Upper view of skull, b. Left upper 

tooth-row. 

3. Amblysomus corria*. a. Upper view of skull, h. Left upper tooth-row, 

permanent dentition, c. The same, milk-dentition. 

4. Pronolacftis ruddi (p. 272). Skull of type, lower aspect. 

5. Fronolagus crassicaudattis curryi {^.27^). Skull of type. 



* Thomas, Abstr. P. Z. S. No. 20, p. 5, 23rd May, 1905. 



A 



1905.] ON- A NEW NEWT FROM YUNNAN. 277 

5. Description of a new New^t from Yunnan. 
By G. A. B0ULENC4EE, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

[Received April 13, 1905.] 

(Plate XYII.*) 

Mr. John Graham, Avho has made so many additions to our 
knowledge of the Reptiles, Batrachians, and Fishes of Yunnan, 
the latest of which is the remarkable Discoglossid described hy me 
as Bombinator maxivms t, has also obtained several examples of a 
new Newt, which I propose to name in honour of Dr. Wolterstorfi", 
of Magdeburg, one of our Corresponding Members, who for some 
years has been engaged on a Monograph of the Tailed Batrachians 
of the Old World. 

MOLGE WOLTERSTORFFI, sp. n. (Plate XYII.) 

Pronto- squamosal arch bony, thick. A chevron-shaped series 
of palatine teeth, the apex on a line with the choanfe. Tongue 
small, subelliptical, the sides slightly free. Head without 
grooves, once and one-fourth to once and one-third as long as 
broad, its length contained three and two-thirds to four times in 
the length to base of tail ; the greatest width of the head behind 
the eyes, which are rather small and feebly prominent ; snout 
broadly rounded ; labial lobes much developed. Body rounded in 
both sexes ; no dorsal crest, no vertebral ridge. Limbs moderate ; 
fingers and toes depressed, free ; outer carpal and tarsal tubercles 
small but distinct, the latter sometimes very prominent. Tail 
strongly compressed, blade-like, with upper and lower crest, 
obtusely pointed, its length about that of head and body. 
Cloacal lips as in AI. vulgaris. Skin perfectly smooth and shiny ; 
a strong gular fold. Blackish olive above, with an orange or 
orange-vermilion vertebral stripe, with or without round or 
roundish spots or dots of the same colour ; orange-vermilion 
beneath, with black spots or marblings, which may be confluent 
into longitudinal bands ; lower edge of tail vermilion-orange. 

<?. 9. 

mm. mm. 

Total length 110 140 

From snout to cloaca 55 70 

Head 16 19 

Width of head 12 15 

Fore limb 19 22 

Hind limb 22 24 

Tail 55 70 

Of the six specimens sent by Mr. Graham, all except the male 

* For explanation of the Plate, see p. 278. 

t Ann. & Mag. N. H. (7) xv. 1905, p. 188, pi. xiii 



278 DR. EINAR LONNBERG ON HYBRID [Apr. 18, 

of which raeasurements are here given have preserved the external 
gills, — another instance of the neoteny ah-eady observed in Tailed 
Batrachians living at great altitudes. The altitude of Yunnan fu, 
where the specimens were obtained, is about 6000 feet. The 
skull in these branchiferous specimens is fully ossified and has 
all the features of the mature state. The female is full of ripe 
spawn. 

In the structure of the skull and the absence of crest or digital 
web in the male this new species ajopi'oaches the Spanish- 
Portuguese M. hoscce Lat., and the Chinese- Japanese M. 2^yrrho- 
gaster Boie, the affinity of which I pointed out many years ago*. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE XVII. 

Molge toolterstorffi, S]p. n. 

a. Male, natural size, side view. 

h. Male, natural size, lower view. 

c. Female, natural size, side view and lower view. 



6. On Hybrid Hares between Lepus timidus L. and Lepus 
europceus Pall, from Southern Sweden. By Einar 

LoNNBERG, C.M.Z.S., &C. * 

[Received February 21, 1905.J 

(Text-figures 53 & 54.) 

Among the sportsmen of Southern Sweden it has for several 
years been regarded as a fact, that hybrids were produced between 
the native Variable Hare of Scandinavia {Lepus imiidus L.) and 
the Common Hare of Middle Europe {L. europceus Pall.), intro- 
duced for sporting purposes from Denmark or Gei^many. This 
opinion had not, however, been proved by any scientific inves- 
tigation, and the question therefore remained open. 

Hybrids between mammals living in an entirely wild state are, 
as is well kiiown, exceedingly rare, although such among domesti- 
cated mammals, or even those kept only in confinement, are quite 
common as well as numerous with regard to the combinations. 
It seemed thus desirable to subject the supposed Hybrid Hares of 
Scania to a closer examination. For this purpose I tried to obtain 
fui-ther information about them aiid material for investigation f. 
Thanks to the kindness especially of Count Tage Thott and Count 
0. C. Beck-Friis, I have succeeded in getting several specimens, 
which proved to be hybrids, and. the same and some other gentle- 
men furnished me with fresh material for compai'ison. 

* Bull. Soc. Zool. Prance, 1880, p. 37. 

t This material is now kept in the Swedish Museum of Natural Historj in 
Stockholm. 



1905.] HARES FROM SOUTHERN SWEDEN. 279 

The first Hare I had the pleasure of receiving, and about 
the hybrid nature of which there cannot be the slightest doubt, 
was shot the 28th of October, 1904, by His Royal Highness 
Gustavus Adolphus at Skabersjo in Scania, on the rich and well- 
kept hunting-grounds of Count Tage Thott, and immediately sent 
up to the Swedish Museum of Natural History in Stockholm, 
where it is now mounted. It is a female of rather large size, 
measuring about 60 cm. from the snout to the root of the tail. 
The length of the head is about 11 cm. The length of the 
ears, measured from their base on the outer side, but without 
the hairs at their tips, is 129 mm. (or with the hairs 137 mm.), 
the length of the hind foot from the heel to the tip of the 
middle claws is 17 cm., and the length of the tail, not counting 
the hairs, 87 mm. 

From these dimensions it may be seen that this Hare does 
not agree with Lejnis tmiidus or with L. europLHus with regard 
to such measurements that are of value for the distinction of these 
two species, viz., those of the ears, tail, and hind foot. The first 
two dimensions are plainly intermediate between the correspond- 
ing ones of the species of Hai-e mentioned above. The maximum 
length of the ear of Lepus timidus, measured as above, seems to 
be about 11| to 12 cm., and the same dimension of L. europcuus 
about 12 cm. The tail of the foi'mer without the hairs is about 
60 to 72 mm., and of the latter 95 to 105 mm. The hind foot of 
L. europceus does not seem to exceed 150 mm., at least not much, 
when measui-ed as above, while that of a full-grown L. tiinidus 
usually is from 160 to 165 mm. In this respect this hybrid 
specimen consequ^ently has attained a larger size than either 
parental species. 

A description of the colour of the hybrid reveals the double 
origin just as plainly as the measurements. It is almost com- 
pletely still in its summer pelage, but the new winter coat is showing 
here and there. The nose is rust-coloured above as in L. europceus. 
The sides of the nose are lighter, partly whitish. The lips are 
whitish, light greyish in the middle ; the chin and throat are 
white. The sides of the head and the nose are rust-coloured, 
but somewhat mixed with dark brown hairs. There is a darker 
vertical spot below the anterior angle of the eye. The anterior 
and upper vibrisste are black, the lower and posterior white. The 
hairs of the forehead are dark brown with yellowish- white tips, 
the combination producing a general yellowish-brown colour. 
The anteiior surface of the ears is quite similar to the fore- 
head, the median surface rust-coloured ; the posterior half and 
the base have assumed the winter coat and are white ; the tip is 
margined with black, a 15 mm. broad black band extending about 
27 mm. from the tip (including the hairs). The inside of the 
ear-conch is in the middle whitish, but the more conspicuous 
marginal jjarts are rusty yellow. The sides of the occiput from 
behind the eyes and below the ears rust-coloured mixed with 
white. The middle of the occiput, from behind the ears, and the 



280 DR. EliYAR LONNBERG OX HYBRID [Apr. 18, 

upper neck are white, but with the under-fur basally rusty yellow. 
The colour of the back is due chiefly to the longest hairs, which 
are dark brown with broad subapical rings of yellowish white. 
ISTeai-ly covered by these is a stratum of rust-coloured shorter 
hairs. The general colour of the upper parts of the body becomes 
through this arrangem^ent greyish 'orown, lighter than the 
summer coat of Lepus timidus, but less rusty red than that of 
L. eurojKeits. 

The under-fur is white, and on the sides the winter coat has 
developed so far that here and there cloudy sjDots of white are 
visible, and the lower parts of the flanks are clouded by white 
nearly all over. The shoulders could almost be termed yellowish 
white, the thighs ashy grey ("blue") with intermixed dark hairs 
and a slight tinge of rusty. The under parts are white with a 
yellow stripe bordering the flanks. The fore legs and feet are 
light rust-coloured as in Lepus eurojyceus, with white spots of the 
winter coat. The hind legs are as the thighs, only a little lightei-, 
but the heel has a dark spot like the back. The hind feet are 
almost white on their upper surface, but some rust-coloured 
patches are left of the summer coat. The tail is white with a 
blackish-grey stripe above, better developed than in Lepus timidus 
but much less so than in L. europceus. 

The chest is light brownish grey v.-ith the white -svinter coat 
showing through. The belly and inner side of legs are white. 

The white "blue" winter coat is to be regarded as an in- 
heritance from Lepus timidus, but it is evident that in the 
summer coat the head, neck, legs, and feet have had a colour that 
has agreed very well with that of L. europceus. Consequently it 
appears as if those parts which in summer are most like Lepus 
europceus in the winter become most like L. timidus, which is a 
rather interesting fact, 

"When skulls of these two species of Hares are compared with 
one another, the diflerence in the shape and size of the nasals is 
most conspicuous. Those of Lepus timichts are broader and 
shorter and form in the middle a rather bi'oad, flattened area, 
from which the lateral parts are almost angularly bent and slope 
down towards the premaxillary. In Z, europa:u,s the upper 
surface of each nasal is evenly convex, and this results in making 
the groove between the nasals in the median line deeper than in 
the former species. The upper and lateral parts are also less 
defined from each other in this species. The nasals in the hybrid 
are quite intermediate in shape. The convexity is less pronounced 
than in Lepus europceus, but the median groove is deeper than in 
L. timidus, and so on. The greatest width of both nasals is 
contained fully twice or more in the greatest length of the same 
bones in L. euro2)ceus, but, as a rule, this is not the case in 
L. timidus, with which the hybrid agrees in this respect. 

The zygomatic arches of L. tiraidus are more strongly developed 
and broader than in L. eurojxeus. The shape of the anterior end 



1905.] HARES FROM SOUTHERN SWEDEN. 281 

of each zygomatic arch is especially different in the two species. 
In L. eitropceus the distance from the anterior end of the deep 
groove for muse, masseter lateralis (portio profunda) to the 
anterior vertical border of the arch itself is greater than the 
height of the same portion of the zygomatic arch. In L. timidus 
the condition is quite the ojjposite, the height of the anterior 
portion of the zygomatic arch being greater than the distance 
from the anterior end of the groove or fossa mentioned above 
and the anterior boi-der of the arch. In the hybrid the condition 
is intermediate, but nearer that of L. ti7niclus. The anterioi", 
inferior angle of the orbit in the hybrid has a structui'e which, 
singularly enough, differs from that of both parental forms. 
In both the latter the jugale and the lower part of the 2^^'ocessus 
spheno-orhitalis of the maxillary project in such a way that a 
rather deep fossa is formed in the inferior anterior angle of the 
orbit between the bones mentioned and the alveolar protuberances. 
This fossa is, however, entirely missing in the hybrid. This 
depends evidently upon a different arrangement of the insertion 
of the muscles. In the parental foi-ms, to judge from my material, 
the anterior portion of the masseter lateralis is confined to the 
interior surface of the zygomatic arch and its upper margin in 
the anterior corner of the oi'bit ; but in the hybrid it spreads 
further forward on the facial area, where a tubercle and some 
rugosities indicate the limit of its insei'tion. The difference be- 
tween the hybrid and the parental forms indicates accordingly an 
increase of a part of the masticating apparatus in the former. 
The very great development of the whole zygomatic arch of the 
same shows that other parts of the masseter as well have been 
enlarged to a considerable extent. The greatest height of jugal 
is in the hybrid 12'5 mm., while the greatest corresponding- 
measurement for L. timidus is 10 mm., and for L. eurojiceus only 
a little more than 9 mm., so far as my material goes. The fossa 
pterygoidea in the hybrid specimen is larger (its width being more 
than 8 mm.) than in either of the parental species, and its shape 
is intermediate : thus the omisculits pterygoideus interims has a 
wider area of insertion in the hybrid than in the parental forms, 
and the great breadth of the lamina lateralis proves the same 
for the m. pterygoideus externus. The sidcus temjwralis of the 
squamosum has in the hybrid almost the same shape as in L. tim,i- 
dus, that is to say deeper and narrower than in L. europceus. 

The supraorbital processes are very strongly developed in the 
hybrid, but the frontal region of the skull behind the 2^'>'0cessus 
supraorhitales p)osteriores is very strongly constricted, not measuring- 
more than 13 mm. This, which is the more striking when the 
great size of the skull is considered, I regard as an inheritance 
from. L, eurojyaius ; as of ten skulls of L. timidus none is so narrow, 
the limits of variation being 15-19 mm. and the usual dimension 
17 mm. In L. eitropceus the same dimension is in my matei-ial 
from 12 to 15 mm. 



282 



DR. EINAR L0>7NBERG ON HYBRID 



[Apr. 18, 



The foremost premolar of the maxillary is moi'e simple in 
L, eu.ropcmbs, with, as a rule*, only two enamel- folds, while the 
same tooth in L. timidus has three. In this respect the hybrid 
resembles the latter species, as text-figui'e 53 shows. But the size 
of the teeth is, as also can be seen from the figure, larger than 
the average in the parental species. 

Text-fig. 53. 






First premolar of the maxillary : A of i. europmns, C of L. timidus, and B of 
hybrid between both. (A and C 10 times enlarged, B 8 times enlarged.) 

This description appears to be sufficient not only to prove the 
presence in the hybrid of characteristics from botlr the parental 
species, but also to show that the hybrid is physically very strongly 
developed, even more so in certain respects than either of the 
parents. The masticating-power of the hybrid appears to have 
been especially greatly developed, with a grinding-surface larger 
than the average in the parental species. This has needed a 
greater development of the muscles moving this apparatus, and 
with the increase in size of the muscles the bones standing in re- 
lation to them have become altered, which indicates how easily 
even such characteristics as those derived from the skull may 
become altered (see text-fig. 54, p. 283). 

Two months later, when all the Hai-es, even in Scania, had 
assumed their winter garb, some more specimens were received 
from Count Thott. They all differed somewhat in colour. The 
two darkest had the fore-neck and breast, the colour extending 
even somewhat on the flanks, uniformly deep rusty red. The 
hairs of the upper parts were mostly black with broad subapical 
or apical bands of a rusty yellow. In these two specimens 
there were only very few traces of a lighter winter coat on the 
sides of the hind legs. The third was a little lighter and had 
a broad band above the tail on the lower back mixed with 
bluish grey. These three were no doubt true examjsles of Lepus 
europceus. — The fourth, however, seemed more than doubtful. It 



* Indications of the third fold maj^, however, sometimes be seen. 



1905.] 



HARES FROM SOUTHERN SWEDEN. 

Text-fio-. 54. 



283 




Anterior part of the zygomatic arch : A of i. europceus, C of i timidus 
B of hybrid between both. (| nat. size.) ' ' 



284 DR. EINAR LONNBERG ON HYBRID [Apr. 18, 

was mucli lighter than the others. The genei'al colour of the 
back is a sandy greyish yellow, produced by the pale yellow to 
whitish-yelloAv tips of the hairs which almost entirely conceal the 
next portions of the hairs which a,re dark brown. The under-fur 
is silky white. The sides of the breast have a silvery-white haze 
on a rusty ground-colour, produced by long white hairs and white 
tips to the other hairs, the lower portions of which are rusty. The 
lower neck and chest have a pale rusty-yellow ground-colour, 
which, however, is almost concealed, or at least veiled over, by 
very long white tips to the hairs. The head is like that of a 
Lepus europceus in its winter coat, but the white areas are more 
extended and more purely white, and the darker parts lighter, 
rust-coloured. The throat is pure white. The ears are somewhat 
lighter than those of L. europceus. The hind-neck is rust-coloured, 
much mixed with white. Hind-quarters and a portion of the 
lower back to an extent of 7 cm. are bluish ash- coloured. Fore 
legs rusty red in front, otherwise white ; hind legs white with rusty 
patches. Tail white with a narrow stripe of greyish black 
above. 

The dimensions of this Hare were : — Total length about 58 cm. ; 
length of head 11| cm.; length of ears (measured as above) 
13 cm, ; hind foot 16 cm. ; tail 10 cm. These measurements are 
partly intermediate between the average measurements for 
L. timidus and europceiijS, especially the length of the ears. The 
hind foot is nearly as large as in L. timidus and the tail as in 
L. eiiropceus. These facts taken together with the colour indicate 
that this specimen is a hybrid. Such an opinion is also 
strengthened by an investigation of the skull. The greatest width 
of both nasals is contained more than twice in their length, as in 
L. europceus, but otherwise their general shape is intermediate. 
The height of the zygomatic ai'ch is only 9 cm,, but its foremost 
part in front of the deep gi'oove for the insertion of masseter 
latercdis is almost higher than long, and differs in this respect fi'om 
the condition found in Z. europceus. The foremost pi-emolar of 
the maxillary has three enamel-folds. 

Although, as the desciiption indicates, this specimen is a hybrid, it 
resembles L. europceus more than the former hybrid does, and it may 
therefore be possible that it is the product of a secondary crossing 
between a hybrid of the first degree and a specimen of L. europceus. 
No real proofs for such an hypothesis can be offered, but it is made 
probable per cmcdogiam by the existence of other specimens which 
also may be supposed to be pi'oducts of a secondary crossing, but in 
this latter case between hybi-ids of the first degree and L. timidus. 
The first of such specimens was received in the middle of January 
1905, from the estate Vrams-Gunnarstorp in Scania, belonging 
to Governor Tornerhjelm, Its ears wei^e intermediate in length 
and measured about 13 cm.* The tail was rather less than inter- 

* I regret to say that the head of this specimen had been cut away in front of the 
ears, as is an old and habitual custom in Sweden, probably originally an act of 
superstition. 



1905.] HARES FROM SOUTHERN SWEDEN. 285 

mediate, measuiing only 7^ cm., and the hind foot was 16 cm. 
In its general colour it resembles L. ti7nichis (bluish-grey variety) 
more than the specimen described above, but there is, on the other 
hand, a very conspicuous inheritance from L, europceus. The back 
has a rusty- brown colour modified by whitish and yellowish hair- 
tips, but below these tips the hairs are not so dark as in L, euro- 
2)cettSj and may be described as dirty umber-brown. On the sides 
of the breast the broad white or whitish-ashy tips dominate, and 
below them the hairs are rusty brown, and the under-fur is light 
rusty yellowish-gi'ey. The chest is covered by veiy long white 
tips to the hairs, but below these the fur is pale rusty yellow, a 
certain inheritance from L. europceus. On the neck and round 
the ears the rusty colour is less concealed as the wdiite tips are 
shorter. The flanks and hind-quarters are mostly bluish ash, 
pei-haps with a rusty hue on the flanks. The same colour extends 
on the lower back about 12 cm. from the tail. The feet are 
coloured as in the foregoing hybiid specimen, but the tail is less 
grey above, although more so than in L. thnidus. Still more 
like L. timidus was another hybrid presented by Count C. 0. 
Beck-Friis, and shot at Borringe, in Scania, at the end of 
January 1905. The greater part of the body of this Hare is 
bluish ashy, but a large patch 18 cm. in length and 7 cm. in 
breadth on the back behind the shoulders is sandy brown. This 
colour is produced by a mixing of rusty yellow, white, and brown 
tips to the hairs, but below these tips the hairs are almost as dark 
brown as in L. europceus, from which it undoubtedly is an inheri- 
tance. Towards the periphery at the patch mentioned this colour 
becomes paler. The under-fur has a more or less rusty tinge all 
over the back. The hairs of the neck are rusty with white or 
ashy tips, and the hairs of the chest and lower neck are pale rusty 
yellow with long white tips to the hairs ; but here, as well, the 
inheritance from L. europceus is quite conspicuous. ISTose and fore- 
head rusty ; sides of the nose and the head and a broad streak 
behind the eye white, a patch below and behind the eye ashy 
grey. Ears rusty brown on the anterior side, black-tipped, and 
white behind ; inside of the ear-conchs coloured as in L. europceus. 
Their length may be termed intermediate, as it measures 12*7 cm. 
The hind feet are also intermediate in length, measuring 15*8 cm. 
The skull resembles most neai-ly L. timidus with regard to the 
shape and dimensions of the nasals and the zygomatic arch. 
There are three enamel-folds on the first premolar of the maxillary, 
but the third is not much developed and it resembles therefore 
the same in L. europceus*. 

* rSiuce this paper was read I have had the opportunity of seeing another 
specimen of hybrid Hare which had been shot near Gothenburg. The " German 
Hares " introduced there had been obtained from Frankfurt-am-Main, where Lepus 
europceus assumes a more pronounced winter garb extending over the flanks and 
haunches. The Variable Hare has also in the neighbourhood of Gothenburg a 
lighter winter coat than in Scania, and is often quite white, consequently the 
hybrid Hare from Gothenburg was much lighter than the hybrids from Scania. 
It was almost white with a large brownish saddle-patch. The characteristic rusty 



286 DR. EINAR LONNBERG ON HYBRID [-^V^'' 1^, 

As the two specimens last described show mixed characters, 
derived from Z. etirojiceMS as well as from L. timidus, their hybrid 
nature appears to be proved. But, on the other hand, as the 
characters derived from the Variable Hare are more dominating, 
thei'e is a probability that they are products of a secondary crossing 
as alluded to above. If such a supposition be correct, the hybrids 
between the two sjDecies of Hare now living in Scania must 
be fertile with the parental stock. The genital organs of such 
specimens as I have had the opportunity of examining appeared 
to be quite noi-mally developed and not at all smaller than in other 
Hares, when killed in the winter. As the two species are closely 
related, the interbreeding and the fertility of the hybrids do not 
appear to be unnatural or unexpected. It is nevertheless inter- 
esting to verify this. 

Count Tage Thott informs me that it is a rather common 
occurrence, which he himself and his gamekeepers have observed 
many times, that Hares belonging to the two different species 
copulate with each other. It is evident from this that the two 
species have no antipathy, as sometimes is the case even between 
related sj^ecies. The result of this must therefore be that hybrids 
are produced in such localities where representatives of both 
species meet. It is especially likely that a crossing may take place 
when either species has been introduced into a country formeily 
inhabited only by the other, as is the case in Southern Sweden. 
It also appears as if the opinion of the sportsmen there was correct, 
and that there is an actual occurrence of hybrid Hai-es in all 
degrees of mixing of both species. If then, as is supposed and 
also seems probable, the hybrids are fertile, the final result may be, 
either a new race w^hich, so to say, swallows the two original species 
through unlimited intercrossing, or, may be, one of the races gains 
supei'iority over the other, the latter in course of time being 
eliminated and disappearing, while the former breeds true and 
becomes more and more pure again. At least in some pla,ces in 
Scania, as for instance at Skabersjo, the latter seems to be the 
case with Lej^us europcuus, or the " German Hare," as we call it 
in this country. Count Thott has told me that when this species 
had been recently introduced, such specimens as he regarded 
as hybrids were rather numerous, but later they have become 
more and more scarce, so that among the first two hundred 
Hares shot this last season only one (viz., the one first de- 
sci*ibed in this paper) seemed doubtful ; the others were considered 



colour of the under-fur of the chest, the broad Ijlack stripe on the comparative^ vei"y 
long tail, prove a certain amount of inheritance from JL. eu7'op(sus. The measure- 
ments and the characteristics of the skull indicate the hj'brid nature of the specimen 
as well. 

The differences between the specimens of L. eu7'op<sus from Eastern Germanj'- 
and those from Denmark alluded to above are rather striking, at least when both are 
in winter garb, the latter being much darker above and having the chest coloured 
with a deep rustj' red. It appears, therefore, that the Danish Hares form a separate 
geographical race.] 



1905.] HARES FROM SOUTHERN' SWEDEN. 287 

to be true L. europceus. Whether the condition is different at 
other places in Scania, T do not know. 

The two species have not, as is well known, the same habits. 
The " German Hare " frequents open and cultivated fields, 
in which it seems to select and prefer the most fertile spots. 
The Variable Hare, again, gives preference to a landscape where 
forests or groves and shrub-covered hills alternate with pastui-es 
and cultivated fields*. These biological differences might perhaps 
result in a third kind of inodus vivendi, viz., that either species may 
select its own suitable localities and " settle " there, without mixing 
any more with the other or interfering with the same on its own 
grounds, so to say. In such a way an explanation might he found 
for the fact that in other countries, where both these species of 
Hares occur side by side in a wild state, or where, at least partly, 
their areas of distribution overlap, so very few hybrid-crossings 
have been found, to judge from the available litei-ature. Or is it 
probable that such hybrids are not so very uncommon ? In such a 
case they must have been overlooked, for the literature concerning 
similar cases is very scanty. 

In ' Zool. Garten ' f 0. von Loewis writes that he has seen at 
least a dozen such hybrids within 20 years in Livonia, and states 
that he has ascertained the correctness of this opinion through 
comparative measurements ; but his narrative is confined to this, 
and he does not quote any measurements nor give any description. 

In Switzerlancl it appears that hybrids have been found between 
the Common Hare {L. eurojxetts Pall.) and the Alpine Hare 
(Z. varronis Miller). At least parti-coloured specimens have been 
described as such by Tschudi and others. Captain Th. C. zu Balden- 
stein described 1863$ a Hare which he had obtained in Dec. 1862 
at Paspels in Switzerland, and which seems to have been most 
probably a hybrid, to judge from its colour and from the statement 
that the ears and tail w^ere shorter than in L. eitropceus, with 
which the specimen otherwise agreed in size. There is, however, 
no description of the skull, so that it would have been fortunate 
if the case had been more fully proved, even if it must be admitted 
as very probable. 

* From this maj^ be concluded that the food chosen hy the two sjiecies is some- 
what different, and that of -L. europceus probahlj' more tender. This again may 
serve as an explanation of the differences in the development of the masticatiug- 
apparatus of the species in question, that of L. europcetis being somewhat weaker, 
with narrower zygomatic arch, &c. (conf . above) . 

tJahrg.1877. 

X Jahresber. d. naturf. Ges. Graublindens, n. F. viii. Jahrg. 



Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. IS^. XIX. 



288 MR. A. L. BUTLER ON THE GIANT [Apr. 18, 

7. On the Giant Eland of the Bahr el Grhazal, Taurotragus 
derhianus gigas (Heugi.). Bj A. L. Butlee, F.Z.S., 
Superintendent of Game Preservation, Soudan. 

[Received March 21, 1905.] 

It is with great pleasure that I at last find myself able to 
give a fairly accurate description of the Giant Eland of the 
Bahr el Ghazal — the grandest of all African antelopes. 

The name Boselaphus gigas was given to the Eland of this 
region by Von Heuglin in 1863, and was based only on a massive 
pair of horns v/hich measured 35 inches in length and 32 inches 
between the tips. Later on, the observations of Schweinfurth 
proved that this Eland belonged to a striped form, but from that 
day until now no complete description of the animal has ever been 
recorded. 

In the ' Book of Antelopes ' this Eland is treated as a subspecies 
of Tatirotragus oryx, but, naturally, no description of the animal 
being available, Messrs. Sclater & Thomas were very doubtfvil 
where to place it. Thus (' Book of Antelopes,' vol. iv. p. 199) 
they say : — " In these respects (the great size of the horns and 
the presence of white stripes) it would seem to appi-oach Tauro- 
tragus derhiamis, but Schweinfurth says nothing about the black 
neck of that species." And on p. 208 they remark : — " It may be 
identical with Taurotragus oryx livingstonii, but as Heuglin has 
given it a name we will allow him the benefit of the doubt for the 
present, and will call this northern striped form Taurotragus 
oryx gigas until further investigations have been made." 

This name I have ventured to alter to Taurotragus derhianus 
gigas, as there is now no doubt whatever that the animal is no 
subspecies of Taurotragus oryx, but a vexy close ally of the West- 
African Eland. With this it agrees in its large, wide ears, in 
having the neck black with a shai-ply defined white posterior 
margin, in the black on the lower surface, in the stripes, and in 
the black patches above the inside of the knees. (These patches 
are present also in T. oryx, bvit absent or only faintly grey in 
T. oryx livingstonii, from which the Bahr el Ghazal Eland proves 
to be quite distinct.) Indeed, from T. derbianus the Soudan 
form seems to difier only in its much lighter body-colour (a pale 
" cafe-au-lait " fawn instead of a rich ruddy brown), in the 
greyish white of the black-maned dewlap, and in carrying even 
grander horns. 

I have from time to time been able to examine nine pairs of 
horns of this Eland, and they are wonderfully large and massive. 
The finest pair I myself have handled measured 39| inches 
(straight) in length and 39 inches between the tips, but several 
of the other heads were very little inferior. It is probable that 
a length exceeding 40 inches is occasionally attained. What seem 



1905.] ELAXD OF THE BAHR EL GHAZAL. 289 

to me typical horns are very straight, stout, and heavy, have the 
spiral ridges very strongly developed, and generally measure 
nearly as much between the tips as they do in length. 

The first specimens of this Eland killed by an Englishman (to 
my knowledge) were shot about two years ago by Col.-Sergt. 
Boardman, Egyptian Army, in the country west of Dem Zubeir— 
just north of the 7th degree of N. latitude. The extreme 
thickness of the neck-skins proved too much for the worthy 
sergeant's taxidermic ability, and he managed to save only the 
skulls and horns. Beyond the facts that the animals were striped, 
that he could only just get his arms round theii- necks, and that 
he shot them in pyjamas from the door of his tent (!), I could not 
obtain much information fi-om him. 

About a year ago the late Captain Haynes, R.A.M.C, while 
accompanying a punitive expedition in the Niam-Niam country, 
wounded a bull, but had to leave the animal owing to want of 
time. A few days later the gallant officer received the wound 
which caused his death, subsequent to which the head of his 
Eland was recovered and brought in by natives. 

In 1903 Mr. Leo Franco, an employe of the Forest Depart- 
ment, shot two bulls near old Wau, but also faUed to preserve the 
thick skins ; and quite recently thi ee British officers have suc- 
ceeded in shooting specimens only a short distance from Wau. 

One of these fortunate sportsmen — Bimbashi Collins, Egyptian 
Army — has kindly sent me a letter containing a description and 
measurements of the two animals shot by him, and also their 
head-skins and hides to forward to England. From his letter, 
and from my examination of the skins, the following description 
(the credit for obtaining which belongs entirely to Bimbashi 
Collins) is drawn up : — 

Description o/" Taurotragus derbianus gigas, adult mcde. 

Height at withers 68 inches. 

The frontal mat of hair dark chocolate brown, merging into the 
colour of the nose, which is black. Sides of the head light grey, 
becoming pale fawn-colour on the cheeks. From the anterior 
angle of each eye a narrow white stripe runs forwards and 
inwards, sharply defining the edges of the frontal mat. On each 
cheek, about 2 inches behind and rather below the eye, there is a 
circular white spot about an inch in diameter, surrounding two or 
three coarse black hairs an inch in length. 

The upper lip and chin are white. 

The ears are large and wide, externally mostly black, but with 
grey bases and conspicuous white tips ; inside they are black and 
white. The lai'ge, pendulous dewlap is whitish grey, with a 
narrow mane of coarse black hair running below it from the 
throat to the chest, where it terminates in a lai-ge tuft. The 
hairs in this mane are from 2 to 4 inches in length ; at the centre 
of the dewlap there is a small mingling of white hairs. The sides 

19* 



290 ON THE GIANT ELAND OF THE BAHR EL GHAZAL. [Apr. 18, 

of the neck are covered with longish, coarse hair, brown and black 
mixed. Round the base of the neck the hair becomes entirely 
black, forming a conspicuous collar about 8 inches wide. This is 
sharply separated from the colour of the body by a narrow half- 
collar of pure white, which extends from the chest tuft half way 
to the withers. 

The body is very pale fawn-colour, almost (as Bimbashi Collins 
terms it) " cafe-au-lait," becoming white on the belly. On the 
white of the under surface there is a long black patch, com- 
mencing in a point between the fore legs and extending backAvarda 
to the navel. A black spinal stripe of longer hair runs the 
whole way along the neck and body, and from this about ten 
white stripes run down the sides and haunches. The hair of the 
body is very short, smooth, and sleek. 

The limbs are pale fawn-coloured, like the body, white on the 
inner sides, with black patches at the back of the fetlocks and 
round the pasterns, and black patches 4 inches in length on the 
back of the fore limbs, just above the knees. 

The following additional notes and measvirements are from 
Bimbashi CoUins's letter to me : — 

" I killed one old solitary bull and one younger herd bull. In 
the herd which I saw I counted 50 horned heads and 10 calves 
running with them, and I am told there is another herd on the 
same ground. The horns of my lone bull I make out to be 
39 inches, and those of the herd bull 38 inches, but I am not 
quite sure of my measurements. 

" Dimensions of solitary bull were : — - 

Height from heel, leg in standing position, 5 ft. 8 in. 

(17 hands). 
Nose to base of tail (along curves ? A. L. B.) 9 ft. 
Length of body, shoulders to hindquarters, 6 ft. 2 in. 
Length of tail, 2 ft. 3 in. 
Girth 6 inches behind shoulder, 7 ft. 1-^ in. 
Girth rovuid centre of neck, 4 ft. 2^ in. 

" In the herd which I stalked there was one bull which looked 
enormous, and must have had horns well over 40 inches, but I 
lost sight of him in the bush, and shot the younger bull in 
mistake for him. 

" The animals were very tame, and were not much disturbed 
by my firing one shot, but the herd was spread out over so much 
ground that it was next to impossible to stalk any particulai- 
animal. 

" According to natives, old bulls have a curious habit of rubbing 
the mat of hair on the forehead in the puddle made by their own 
urine. The old bull had damp mud on the forehead which smelt 
distinctly of urine. The young bull's forehead was dry and 
clean." 



1905.] ON THE A^fATOMY OP THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 291 

8. Notes on the Muscular and Visceral Anatomy o£ the 
Leathery Turtle [Dermoclielys coriacea). By R. H. 
BuRNE, B.A., F.Z.S. 

[Received Mavcli 20, 1905.] 

(Text-fig-ures 55-73.) 

In May 1904 the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons 
obtained a specimen of the Leathery Turtle {Dermochdys 
coriacea L.) from Japan, with the object, mainly, of adding the 
skeleton to the Museum. 

On account of the rarity of the animal, it was thought advisable 
to make also a careful dissection of the soft parts, more particularly 
of those that must of necessity be destroyed in the preparation of 
the skeleton. 

The notes taken during this dissection, arranged for easy 
reference and collated with previous descriptions of the anatomy 
of the animal, form the contents of the present paper. 

The specimen was a young female of the following dimensions :— 

centim. 
Total length (following the curve of the carapace). . 135 

Length (between the bases of the flippers) 68 

Girth (under fore limbs) 13o 

Girth (midway between the limbs) 140 

Girth (at base of hind limbs) 91 

Length of fore limb, from its point of emergence 

from the body (following the outer curve) 82 

Greatest breadtli of hand 20 

Length of hind limb (tibial border) 33 

Girth of head at hinder extremity of the gape 53 

From point of snout to inner canthus of eye 8-5 

From point of snout to nostril 2*0 

In colour the animal was black above, blotched with irregular 
white spots, each of which measured on an average 1-2 cm. m 
diameter. The ventral surface of the body, limbs, and tail was 
dirty white, marked with irregular longitudinal bands and blotches 

of black. . ■,.-11 

The six longitudinal areas into which the carapace is divided 

by seven bony ridges are approximately of equal breadth— 11 cm. 

in the middle of the trunk,— gradually narrowing towards the tail 
There are six rows of scutes half embedded in the thick plastral 

integument— a double row along the mid-line, with two single 

rows about 1 1 cm, apart on either side. 

The true plastron-bones (text-fig. 57, p. 298) lie close beneath: 

the deep surface of the integument, and form a ring whose: 

lateral parts lie about half way between the mid-line and the 

lateral margin of the plastron. They do not seem to bear any 

particular relation as regards position to the superficial rows of 

scutes. 



292 MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE [Apr. 1 8, 

The libs and the nuchal plate are embedded in the deep sui'face 
of the dense integumentary cai-apace. In a similar way, the 
dorsal parts of the dorso-lumbar region of the vertebral column 
are partially embedded in the deeper parts of the carapace as far 
back as the last ribs. The sacrum and tail are free. The sacral 
region had been injured by a spear-thrust and the surrounding- 
parts were somewhat decayed, so possibly the freedom of the 
sacrum may have been artificial. 

The Muscular System. 

The muscles of the trunk of a young animal have been 
described by Rathke*. and those of the shoulder in another small 
specimen by Furbringer t. As most authors, who have dealt with 
the muscles of Reptiles, have used dififerent names for the same 
muscle, I have thought it best to adopt the names and numbers 
given by Hoffmann in Bronn's ' Thierreich ' (Bd. vi. Abt. iii.) — in 
the first place because they do not carry witii them any implied 
homology with the muscles of mammals, and in the second place 
because a full synonymy is given with each name and the com- 
parison with other descriptions is thereby very much simplified. 
An exception has been made in the case of the hind-limb muscles, 
for which Dr. Gadow's + names and numbers are used. 

Muscles of the Head and Keck. 

Sqimmoso-maxillaris (dep7^essor maxillce) (text-fig. 55. 11).— 
Origin: hinder edge of the squamosal. Insertion: ventral surface 
of the angle of the jaw. 

A cylindrical muscle with fieshy origin and insertion. Separated 
at its origin into two pai'ts by the insertion of a slip of the 
mylohyoid. 

Dilator tuhce (text-fig. 55. 12). — Origin : squamosal, internal to 
origin of squamoso-maxillaris. Insertion : upon the external 
meatus. 

Testo-occvjntis (text-^g.^^. 13). — Origin: the anterior part of 
the nuchal plate, close to the mid-line. Insertion : the hinder 
edge of the parietal, 2 cm. from the mid-line. 

A cylindrical muscle 2 cm. in diameter. 

TestO'Capitis (text-fig. 55. 14). — Origin: the carapace, along a 
line that slopes outwards from the point of the fiist rib to the 
second. Insertion : the hinder margin of the skull between the 
insertion of the testo-occipitis and the origin of the squamoso- 
maxillaris. 

A very powerful muscle, with an extensive narrow origin. 

Cervico-capitis (text-fig. 55. 15). — Origin: the dorsal parts of 

* Eathke : Ueber die Entwickkmg der Scliildkroteu, 1848, p. 154. 

f Furbringer : " Zur vergl. Aiiat. der Schultermuskeln," Jena. Zeits. Bd. viii. 
1874, p. 221. 

J Gadow : " Beitr. zur Mj-ologie d. liinteren Extremitiit der Reptilien," Morpli. 
Jabrb. Bd. vii. 1882, p. 329, 



1905.] ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE, 

Text-%. 55. 



293 




Dermochelys coriacea, muscles of the neck. 



11. Depressor maxillfe, 12. Dilator tubaj, 13. Testo-occipitis, 14. Testo-capitis, 15. 
Cervico-capitis, 16. Testo-cervicalis, 17. Trail sversalis cervicis, 18. Testo- 
cervicalis lateralis, 19. Spliiiicter colli, 26. Dorso-occipitis, 28. Collo-squa- 
mosus, 29. Loiigus colli, 38. Capiti-plastralis, 40. Collo-scapularis, 42. Testo- 
coracoideus, 49. Testo-humeralis dorsi. 



294 MR. R. H, BURNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

vertebrae iv., v. Insertion : the hinder margin of the parietal 
between the insertion of the testo-occipitis and the mid-line. 

This muscle usually takes origin from vertebra? iii., iv., v. 
(Bronn's ' Thierreich,' Bd. vi. Abt. iii. p. 79.) 

Testo-cervicalis (text-fig. 55. 16). — This muscle can be separated 
into a superficial and a deep part : — 

(a) Superficial part. — Origin : the nuchal plate parallel to the 
anterior border of the scapular articulation. Insertion : the 
latero-dorsal parts of vertebrae iii., iv., v., vi. 

(b) Beep part. — Oiigin : the carapace along the median border 
of the scapular articulation. Insertion : doi'sal surface of vertebra? 
v., VI., VII. 

The two parts of the muscle form a very powerful mass, clearly 
separable in fi'ont and at their origin, but fused posteriorly. 
The muscle does not agree very well with the description of any 
of the neck- muscles given by Hofiinann in Bronn's 'Thierreich,' 
but most nearly resembles the testo-cervicalis, especially that of 
Trionyx, which rises from the nuchal plate and is inserted upon 
the 7th vertebra. 

Transversalis cervicis (text-fig. 55, 17). — Origin : the lateral 
parts of vertebrae iv., v., vi., vii. above the transverse processes. 
Insertion : basioccipital and posterior zygapophyses of vertebrae 
I., II. 

This muscle is the most lateral of the strictly dorsal neck- 
muscles. In other Chelonians it seems (HofiTmann, p. 80) to rise 
further forward and not to be inserted upon the skull. 

Testo-ce7'vicalis lateralis {text-'&g. 55. 18). — Origin: by several 
flat strands from the deep surface of the testo-capitis near its 
origin. Insertion : by a round tendon to the transA^erse process 
of vertebra ii. in conjunction with part of the sphincter colli. 

Sphincter colli (text-fig. 55. 1 9). — A sheet of muscle that covers 
the front of the throat from the tij) of the posterioi- cornu of the 
hyoid to the clavicle. It varies considerably in muscularity in 
different parts. At its anterior and posterior ends it is strongly 
muscular, but in its central parts almost entirely fibrous and 
quite thin. It is inserted along the sides of the cervical vertebrae 
from the ii"*^ backwards and to the inner antei'ior border of the 
scapvila. I can find no mention of the sphincter colli being 
attached to the scapula in other Chelonians. 

Mylo-hyoideus (19ffi). — An anterior extension of the sphincter 
colli sheet. Insertion : into the whole length of the inner surface 
of the mandible, just ventral to the genio-hyoideus, and by a 
small separate slip into the squamosal in the middle of the origin 
of the squamoso-maxillaris. 

Capiti-plastralis (text-figs. 55 & 59. 38). — A sheet of muscle 
covering the venti'al sui'face of the throat deep to the sphincter 
colli. Insertion : the outer end of the clavicle, the lateral parts 
of vertebrae ii,, iii., iv., and by a separate and very definite slip 
into the inner surface of the squamosal, just dorsal to the dilator 
tubae. 



1905.] ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 295 

The muscle can be separated into three strands. The most 
anterior is the part inserted upon the skull, and forms a very 
definite muscle that passes from the mid-line of the thi-oat just 
internal to the middle cornu of the hyoid. The other two strands 
are thinner and less defined. All three parts form towards the 
mid-line of the throat a fairly continuous sheet, whose hinder 
part extends back beneath the clavicular portion of the deltoid to 
the clavicle. 

Coraco-hyoicleus (text-figs. 58-60. 20). — Origin : from _ the 
antero-dorsal boi-der of the coracoid about its middle. Insertion : 
upon the ventral surface of the body of the hyoid. In its course 
it passes dorsal to the clavicle. 

Coraco-ceratohyoideus (21). — This muscle was continuous with 
the longitudinal muscles of the oesophagus. No origin _ from the 
coracoid was seen (it may have been missed). Insertion : into 
the ventral surface of the body and middle and posteiior cornua 
of the hyoid. It is stated (Hofi'mann, p. 82) that this muscle is 
peculiar to Chelone. 

Genio-hyoideus (22). — Origin: the anterior two-thirds of the 
inner surface of the mandible, just above the insertion of the mylo- 
hyoid. Insertion : upon the anterior iDorder and ventral surface 
of the middle cornu of the hyoid. 

Gerato-maxiUaris (23). — Origin : the tip of the middle cornu of 
the hyoid. Insertion : upon the inner surface of the angle of the 
jaw, just above the insertion of the squamoso-maxillaris. 

Geratoglossus (24). — Origin : the ventral surface of the proximal 
end of the middle cornu of the hyoid. Insertion : into the 
tongue. 

Dorso-occijntis (text-fig. 55. 26).— -Origin : by tendon frona the 
ventral surface of the second dorso-lumbar vertebra. Insertion : 
by a narrow tendon to the base of the skull 3-5 cm. in front of 
the foramen magnum. 

A flattish muscle, lying just ventral to the roots of the brachial 
plexus. It passes dorsal to the outer end of the posterior cornu 
of the hyoid, and at this point forms a narrow tendon. 

In most Chelonia (Hofi'mann, p. 83) this muscle appears to 
have a more extended origin, including usually several dorso- 
lumbar vertebra?, as well as the ribs connected with them. In 
its insertion it resembles the dorso-occipitis of Ghelys and 
Ghelemys. 

Gollo-squamosus (text-fig. 55. 28).— Origin : from the lateral 
parts of vertebrae ii., iii. Insertion : upon the squamosal close 
above the dilator tubfe. 

Longus colli (text-fig. 55. 29).— A complex mass of muscle 
covering the ventral surface of the cervical vertebrae. Upon its 
surface are a number of half independent tendinous slips. The 
detailed origins and insertions of its various parts were not made 
out. 

There was no origin from the anterior ribs or nuchal plate such 
as seems to occur generally (Hofiinann, p. 84). 



296 



MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



One muscle in the neck-region I have not been able to 
satisfactorily identify : — 

(Text-fig. 55. 29 a.) Origin : from the ventral surface of the 
last cervical and first dorso-lumbar vertebrae. Insertion : upon^the 
ventral and lateral surfaces of vertebrae iv., v., vi., vii. 

This muscle, the front end of which lies lateral to the longus 
colli, can be separated with difficulty into at least three more or 
less separate bellies. 

Vestigial Bach- Muscles. (Text-fig. 56.) 

The dorsal surface of the dorso-lumbar region of the vertebral 
column is covered by a layer of intermingled muscular and 
tendinous tissues that represents the back-muscles in a degenerate 
condition. 

Text-fiff. 56. 




Dermochelys coriacea, anterior part of the vestigial muscles of tlie back. 



In this mass three parts can be distinguished by their position^ 
although they ai-e in no other way separable from one another : — 

a. Fibres running from spine to spine. These parts are con- 
tiguous in the mid-line, except where they are interrupted 
by the neural spines. 

h. Fibres that run beside the neui^al arches above the necks of 
the ribs. 

c. Fibres running from lib to rib. 

In f I'ont of the second pair of ribs these parts can be to a 
certain extent separated mechanically. 

In the anterior thoracic region parts h and c are strongly 



1905.] ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 297 

muscular, and in front form a rounded tendon that runs forward 
above the transverse process of the last cervical vertebra towards 
the anterior cervical vei-tebrss. Its insertion was, unfortunately, 
not seen. Posteriorly, this mass is attached partly to the second 
rib, partly to the sides of the second dorso -lumbal- vertebra, and 
partly goes on directly above the neck of the second and succeeding 
ribs. Part a (interspinales) in this region foi'ms a definite 
strand of muscle running between the spines of the last cervical 
and first two dorso-lumbar vertebra?. 

These degenerate muscles could not be followed beyond the 
sacrum, owing to injury of that part, but behind the ninth rib 
they showed no signs of diminution, so that probably, as in very 
young animals, they passed on over the sacrum. 

In Chelonia in general these muscles terminate from the second 
to the eighth ribs in the adult, while the interspinales are entirely 
lost. 

As regards these muscles, therefore, Dermochelys is less spe- 
cialised than the rest of the Chelonia. And as the degeneration of 
the back-muscles is due to the immobility of the carapace, we 
may infei- that the relative softness of the carapace in Dermochelys 
is a primitive condition — a stage in the development of a ti'ue 
carapace, and not a secondarily acquired softness brought about 
by retrograde modification of a hard carapace. 

Muscles of the Shoulder Girdle mul Fore Lwib. 

Collo-scapida7'is (text-figs. 55 &. 60. 40). — Origin : from the 
lateral parts of vertebrae iii., iv., v., vi., vii. Insertion : upon 
the median border of the scapular fossette and upon the median 
surface of the head of the scapula. 

This muscle is separated by the roots of the brachial plexus 
into four layers. The insertion does not agree mth that given by 
Fiirbringer for Sphargis and C/felone. 

Another muscle (text-figs. 55 & 59. 40 «), which I cannot very 
satisfactorily identify, may possibly be part of the collo-scapularis. 
It takes origin from the lateral parts of the second vertebra in 
forward continuation of the preceding muscle, and is inserted 
upon the upper end of the scapula just dorsal to the insertion of 
the posterior part of the sphincter colli. 

Testo-coracoideus (text-figs. 55, 57, 58, & 60. 42). — Origin : the 
plastron, along a line that runs diagonally forward and outward 
along the posterior edge of the outer part of the origin of the 
pectoralis, and thence passes behind the arm to the carapace and 
along the anterior border of the second rib to the hinder margin of 
the scapular fosette. The origin from the plastron is fleshy, from 
the border of the rib tendinous. 

Insertion : fleshy, to the deep surface of the posterior half of 
the inner end of the coracoid, and by thin tendinous aponeurosis 
along the coraco-clavicular ligament and down the inner border 
of the scapula very nearly to its dorsal end. 



298 



MR. K. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 

The part of this muscle that rises nearest the vertebral column 
and is inserted upon the extremity of the scapula corresponds, I 
think, to the testo-scapularis of Fiirbringer. This part, by its 
thickness and fleshy structure, could be distinguished from the 



Text-fie-. 57. 




Dermochelys coriacea, inner surface of the plastron. 

42. Testo-coracoideus, 43. Pectoralis, 44 «. Supra-clavicularis, 73. Obliquus 
abdominis internus, 75. Rectus abdominis. 



1905.] 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



299 



rest of the scapular portion of the testo-coracoideus, although it 
seemed to be continuous with it. 

Pectorcdis (text-figs. 57 & 58. 43).— Origin : from the plastron 
by a large anteriorly concave semikuiar attachment, the middle 
(longest) arm of which extends from 13 cm. behind the anterior 

Text-fio-. 58. 




Dermoclielys coriacea, muscles of the right shoulder, ventral aspect. 

20. Coraco-hj'oideus, 42. Testo-coracoideus, 43. Pectoralis, 44 a. Supra-clavicularis, 
44 6. Supra-coracoideus, 45. Coraco-brachialis orevis externus, 46. Coraco- 
brachialis brevis interims, 47. Coraco-antebrachialis, 50 a & 6. Deltoideus. 
65. Humero-digiti I.-V. volaris. 



border of the plastron to 11 cm. behind its mid-transverse line. 
The muscle-fibres converge towards the shoulder. Insertion : by 
mixed tendon and muscle upon the lateral process of the humerus 



300 



MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



in conjunction with the tendons of the supra- clavicularis and 
supra-coracoideus. 

Fiirbringer states that in Chelone and Sphargis the tendon of 
the pectoralis divides into two, one of which extends on to the 
radius. I did not see this part of the tendon in my specimen. 

Supra-clavicularis (text-figs. 57-61. 44a). — Origin: from a 
median raphe and the plastron in front of the clavicle ; from, 
the anterior, ventral, and posterior surfaces of the clavicle. 
Insertion : upon the lateral process of the humerus. 

This is a very large mass of muscle, measuring, at 6 cm. from 
its insertion, 10 cm. x 2 cm. Towards its insertion its deeper 
parts blend with the supra-coracoideus. Fiirbringer states that 
this muscle is weak in Sphargis, but peculiarly strong in Chelone. 

Text-fig. 59. 




Dermochelys coriacea, left shoulder-girtUe, antevior view. 

38. Capiti-plastralis, 40 a (see text), 44 a. Supra-clavicularis, 50 a. Deltoideus 
(clavicular part), 50 b. Deltoideus (scapular part), 52. Scapularis. 



Supra-coracoideus (text-figs. 58 & 61. 44 b). — Origin : from the 
anterior margin and median end of the dorsal and ventral 
surfaces of the coracoid. Insertion : upon the latei-al process of 
the humerus. 

This is a relatively thin sheet, separable at its origin with some 
difficulty from the coi-aco-antebrachialis. 

Coraco-hrachialis brevis externus (fcext-figs. 58, 61, & 64. 45). — 



1905. J ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 301 

Origin : from the ventral surface of the outer third of the coracoicl. 
Insertion : upon the humerus in the hollow between the lateral 
and median processes, just proximal to the insei'tion of the 
pectoralis. 

A thin sheet of muscle capping the shoulder. The median 
nerve follows its hinder border, lying between it and the coraco- 
brachialis brevis internus. 

Coraco-hrachicdis brevis internus (text-figs. 58, 60, 61, & 64. 
46). — Origin : from the outer three -fourths of the hinder border of 
the coracoid, encroaching somewhat upon both dorsal and ventral 
surfaces. Insertion : upon the processus medialis of the humerus. 

An undetermined muscle (text-figs. 60 & 62. 46 «), pi-obably a 
separate part of the coraco-brachialis brevis internus. Origin : 
from the ventral and posterior border of the coracoid, extending 
slightly on to the coraco-scapular ligament. Insertion : upon 
the extensor surface of the median process of the humerus between 
the insertions of the coraco-brachialis brevis internus and of the 
subscapularis. 

Coraco-antehrachialis {biceps) (text-figs. 58, 61, & 64. 47). — 
Origin : from the median end of the ventral surface of the 
coi'acoid, posterior to the oiigin of the supra-coracoideus. In- 
sertion : by a round tendon to the heads of the radius and ulna. 

This muscle passes into the arm between the head of the hu.merus 
and the median process, overlying the median nerve. As it 
enters the arm it forms a single rounded tendon that extends to 
the hollow of the elbow. Here, the tendon unites to a gi'eat 
extent with the dense connective tissue upon the surface of the 
humero-radialis longus dorsalis, but strands can be ti'aced to both 
the ulna and radius. Fiirbringer describes a separation of the 
muscle into definite superficial and deep parts during its passage 
along the humerus. 

Humero-antebrachialis inferior (text-fig. 64. 48). — Origin : 
from the flexor surface of the humerus distal to the lateral 
process. Insertion : by tendon upon the flexor surface of the 
head of the ulna, in common with the tendon of the biceps. 

Testo-humeralis dor si (latissimus dor si) (text -figs. 55 & 62, 
49). — Oiigin : fiom the carapace along the anterior border of the 
second rib just in front of the testo-coracoideus, and along the 
outer margin of the scapular fossette to the posterior limit of the 
nuchal plate. Insertion : upon the middle of the extensor surface 
of the humerus between the insertion of the subscapularis and 
the origin of the anconfeus. 

Fiirbringer states that in Ghelone (adults) the origin of this 
muscle extends back to the third rib, but that this is a backward 
migration that takes place after embryonic lif^ 

Scapido-clavicido-plastro-hicmeralis (Deltoideus) (text-figs. 58, 
59, & 62, 50). — This consists of two entirely independent 
muscles : — 

a. Pars clavicido-plastro-himiercdis. — Origin : from a median 
ventral raphe in front of the shoulder-girdle and from the anterior 



302 



MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



and dorsal surfaces of the median half of the clavicle. Insertion : 
upon the extensor surface of the humerus, close to the insertion 
of the latissimus dorsi. 

The tendon of this part of the muscle overlies a bursa as it 
passes OA^er the antei'ior edge of the humerus. 



Text-fig. 60. 



Text-fia-. 61. 




Dermochelys coriacea, 
right shoulder-girdle, dorsal view. 



DermocheU/s coriacea, 
left shoulder-girdle, ventral view. 



Text-fig. 60.— 20. Coraco-hyoideus, 40. Collo-scapularis, 42. Testo-coracoideus, 44 «. 

Sunra-clavicularis, 44 6. Supra-coracoideus, 46. Coraco-brachialis brevis lu- 

ternus, 46 «. (see text), 50 a. Deltoideus (clavicular part), 52. Subscapularis, 

52 a. (see text). 
Text-fi.g.61.— 44 a. Supra-clavicularis, 44 6. Supra-coracoideus, 45. Coraco-brachialis 

brevis externus, 46. Coraco-brachialis brevis iuternus, 47. Coraco-ante- 

brachialis. 



1905.] 



ANATOMY OP THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



303 



b. Pars scapulo-hitmeralis (text-figs. 58, 59, & 64. 50 h). — 
Oi'igin : from the whole aiitei-ior surface of the scapula. Insertion : 
by a round tendon to the proximal parts of the processus lateralis 
humeri — in a position on the flexor surface of the humerus exactly 
opposite that occupied by the insertion of the pars claviculo-plastro- 
humeralis on the extensor surface. 

Text-fia-. 62. 




DermocJielrjs coriacea, right fore limb, extensor surface. 

46 rt. (see text), 49. Testo-linmeralis dorsi, 50 a. Deltoideus (clavicular part), 52. Sub- 
scapularis, 52 n. (see text), 53. Anconajus, 56. Humero-carj)ali-nietacar- 
palis I., 59. Ulna-carpo-ulnaris, 60, 61. Ulna-carpo-radialis + carpali digiti 
I.-V. dors., 63. Humero-carpali-ulnaris, 65. Huinero-digiti I.-V. volaris, 
X ulna-carpalis, Y intrinsic hand-muscles. 

Fiirbringer mentions that in Chelone and Sjihargis these two 
parts are more independent than usual, but states that both are 
inserted upon the processus lateralis humeri. 

The two parts together form a very large mass of muscle. 
Proc. Zool. See— 1905, Vol. I. No. XX. 20 



304 MR. E. H. BURNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

Suhscapularis (text-figs. 59, 60, & 62. 52). — Origin : from the 
whole length of the outer surface of the scapula and pai-tly also 
from the anterior and posterior surfaces. Insertion : along the 
extensor surface of the humerus from the median process to the 
origin of the anconseus. Fiirbringer gives an origin also from 
the inner surface of the scapula. 

A muscle (text-figs. 60, 62, & 64. 52 a) I was unable to deter- 
mine, but probablj^ a separate part of the suhscapularis. Origin : 
from the posterior surface of the scapula (except its dorsal thii-d). 
It passes behind the outer end of the coracoid, and is inserted 
between the median process and the head of the humerus. 

AnconcBus. Pars ancongeus humeralis (text-fig. 62. 53). — 
Origin : from the distal half of the extensor surface of the 
humerus. Insertion : upon the head of the ulna. 

Fiirbringer speaks of this muscle as taking origin equally from 
both sides of the humeinis. In my specimen, the flexor surface of 
the humerus was occupied by the origin of the humero-radialis 
longus dorsalis, 

Humero-radialis longus do7-salis (text-figs. 63 & 64. 55). — A 
large but thin sheet of muscle that arises from the I'adial half of 
the flexor surface of the humerus distal to the lateral process, and 
extends on the radial side of the foreai-m to the wi-ist. 

The surface of the muscle is covered by a layer of dense con- 
nective tissue, but by cutting this away three fairly distinct 
muscle-bellies can be made out. From the ulnar side these ai-e : 

(1) a part united by fibrous tissue to the tendon of the biceps, 
and inserted just to its radial side upon the head of the radius ; 

(2) a part extending down the flexor surface of the radius and 
inserted about its middle ; (3) a part closely applied to the outer 
border of the anconfeus, and inserted upon the whole of the radial 
and part also of the extensor surface of the radius down to the 
wrist. 

Humero-carpali'metacarpalis I. (text-figs. 62 & 63. 56). — Origin : 
from the outer condyle of the humerus, between the anconseus and 
the humero-radialis longus dorsalis. Insertion : upon the head of 
metacarpal I., and to the back of the hand by a tendinous expansion 
that runs diagonally towards the little finger. Hofimann gives an 
insertion for this muscle in other Chelonia upon the radius and 
carpus. 

Ulna-carpo-radialis + Cmyali digiti I.-V. dorsalis (text- figs. 62 <k 
63. 60 -f 61 ). — Origin : from the inner surface of the ulna,, fiom the 
ligaments of the extensor svirf ace of the wrist, and from the greater 
part of the extensor surface of metacarpals I.-IV. Insertion : 
by a slip into the head of metacarpal I., and by flat tendons into 
the distal phalanges of digits I.-IV. and into metacarpal V. 

This is a thin muscle-sheet of very degenerate character, espe- 
cially towards the ulnar side of the hand. Its tendons are bound 
closely to the periosteum of the finger-bones and can have little 
or no play. It corresponds fairly to the above-mentioned muscles 
of Hofiniann. The part proper to digit V. forms, however, a 



1905.] 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



305 



completely sepai-ate muscle, that rises from the wrist proximal to 
the origin of the part proper to digit II., and thence runs almost 
directly outwards to the head of metacai-pal Y. and the pisiform. 
I saw no signs of a humero-digiti I.-Y. dorsalis (extensor com- 
munis). 

U'lna-car2)o-ulnaris{text-6.gs. Q2& Q3. 59). — Origin: from the 
inner condyle of the humerus. Insertion : upon the proximal 
edge and flexor surface of the pisiform and to most of the inner 
surface of the ulna. 

This does not agree in detail with Hoffmann's description of the 
muscle in other Chelonia,, but from its position and attachments 
is evidently an extensor carpi ulnaris. 

Text-fig, 63. 




iise 



Dermoclielijs coriacea, muscle-attachments upon the extensor surface of the 
forearm and liancl. 

55. Humero-radialis longus dorsalis, 56. Humero-carpali-mctacarpalis I., 59. Ulna- 
carpo-ulnaris, 60, 61. Ulna-carpo-radialis + carp. dig. I.-V., 63. Humero- 
carpali-ulnaris, X ulna-carpalis, Y intrinsic muscles of hand. 

{Llna-carjxilis) (text-figs. 62 & 63, X). — Origin: from the inner 
surface of the shaft of the ulna beneath the ulna-carpo-radialis. 
Insertion : into the skin of the wrist above the oi-igin of carpali- 
digiti V. 

This is a small muscle running diagonally towards the little 
finger. I could find nothing in Bronn to coiTespond with it, so 
have called it ulna-carpalis. 

Hicmet'O-radialis volaris (text-fig. 64. 62). — Origin : from the 
flexor surface of the inner condyle of the humerus. Insertion : 
upon the inner surface of the shaft of the radius, passing super- 
ficial to the tendon of the humero-antebrachialis inferior. 

ff'umero-carpali-ulnaris (text-figs. 62-64. 63). — Origin : from 
the ulnar border of the humerus proximal to the oriain of the 

20* 



306 



MK. R. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



ulna-carpo-ulnaris. Insertion : upon the proximal edge of the 
pisiform, extending onto its flexor and extensor surfaces. 

JIumero-digitil.-Y.vola7^is{te'xt-&gs. 62& 64. 65). — Origin : from 
nearly the whole length of the ulnar edge of the humerus, passing 
at the proximal end somewhat onto the flexor surface alongside 
the median nerve. Insertion : partly into the dense fibrous tissue 
that covers the flexor sui'face of the wrist, and partly (by its ulnar 
side) into the deep flexor, contributing to form the tendons for 
digits III. & IV. 

Text-fig-. 64. 




Dermochelys coriacea, right fore limb, flexor surface. 

45. Coraco-bracliialis brevis externns, 46. Coraco-brachiaiis bi'evis internus, 47. 
Coraeo-antebrachialis, 48. Humero-antebrachialis inferior, 50 h. Deltoideus 
(scapular part), 52 «. (see text), 55. Humero-radialis longus ilorsalis, 62. 
Humero-radialis volaris, 63. Hnniero-carpali-ulnaris, 65. Hvimero-digiti 
I.-V. volaris, 67. Plexor digitornm profundus, Y intrinsic hand-muscles. 



The distal part of this muscle is represented by an independent 
short flexor sublimis. Oriein : from the dense fibrous tissvie that 



1905. J AKATOMY OP THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 307 

covers the flexor surface of the wrist and partly from the outer 
side of metacarpal I. Insertion : upon the penultimate phalanges 
of digits II., III., IV,, and upon the flexor sin^faceof the pisiform 
and of metacarpal Y. The parts of the muscle pi-oper to digits 
II., III., lY. are perforated by the tendons of the deep flexor. 

Ulna-digitil.-Y . (ilexor digitonwip7'ofunch(,s) (text- fig. 64. 67). 
— Origin : from the whole length of the flexor surface of the ulna 
and from that of the ulnar half of the carpus exclusive of the 
pisiform. Insertion ; by four round tendons to the terminal 
phalanges of digits I.-IY. 

Intrinsic muscles of the hand (text-fig. 64, Y). — These are seven 
in number. They take origin from the distal parts of the flexor 
surface of carpus and are inserted upon the metacarpo-phalangeal 
joints. There are two in connection with the thumb, very much 
matted together and partly fused with the tendon of the deep 
flexor ; one to the second digit, having a common origin with the 
outer one of the two to the thumb ; two to the third digit ; and 
one each to the outer side of digits lY., Y. 

Ahdomincd Muscles. 

Rectus abdominis (text-figs. 57, 65, 66. 75). — a. Anterior part. 
Origin : from the plastron about 4 cm. behind the pectoralis by a 
backwardly concave semilunai' attachment. Insertion : into the 
anterior margin of the lateral horn of the pubis. The insertion 
encroaches somewhat upon both dorsal and ventral surfaces of the 
pubis, 

h. Inner posterior part. Origin : from the hinder edge of the 
plastron close to the mid-line. Insertion : upon the anterior end 
of the epipubis. 

c. Outer posterior pai't. Origin : from the hinder edge of the 
plastron to the outer side of the origin of " 6." Insertion : upon 
the ventral surface of the latei-al hoi'n of the pubis posterior to 
the insertion of " «." 

The anterior part is a large fan-shaped muscle, the outer parts 
of which are lost in the loose skin of the groin. The two posterior 
parts are ribbon-shaped and fairly stout. The part " ft " does not 
tally with any part of the rectus abdominis described by Gadow*, 
but I think it must be regarded as forming part of this muscle- 
sheet. 

Ohliquus abdominis intermits (text-figs. 57 & 67. 73). — Origin : 
from the plastron close outside the lateral part of the origin of the 
anterior rectus abdominis, and from the loose skin of the groin. 
Its fibres run inwards and forwards dorsal to the thigh and are 
inserted upon the dorsal posterior border of the lateral horn of 
the pubis. 

Transversus abdominis (74). — A very small muscle-sheet lying 
between the lateral parts of the obliquus internus and the perito- 

* Gadow : " Uuteisuchungen iiber die Bauchmuskeln dei- Kvokodile, Eidechsen 
und Schildkroten," Morph. Jabrb. Bd. vii. (1882) p. 57. 



308 



Mr. r. h. burne on the 



[Apr. 18, 



neum. Its fibres run forward and towards the mid-ventral line. 
The dorsal limit (origin) of this muscle was not clearly seen. 



Muscles of the Hind Limb. 

Amhiens (text-figs. 65, 67. 1). — Origin : from the outer extremity 
of the upper surface of the lateral horn of the pubis. Insertion : 
into the superficial fascia upon the inner surface of the knee 
proximal to the insertion of the pubi-tibialis. 

iText-fis. 65. 




Dermochelys coriacea, left hind limb, ventral aspect. 

1. Anibiens, 3. Femora-tibialis, 8. Flexor tibialis externus, 9. Flexor tibialis internus, 
11. Ischio-femoralis, 11 «. (see text), 12. Pubi-tibialis, 14. Pnbi-ischio- 
femoralis externus, 17. Tibialis anticus, 20. Gastrocnemius, 20 a. Perfoi-ated 
flexors, 21a. Flexor longus digitorum, 21 6. Tibialis posticus, 23. Flexores 
breves, 75. Rectus abdominis. 

The tendon of insertion is usually (Hoftniann) combined with 
that of the femoro-tibialis. 



1905.] Anatomy of the leathery turtle. 309 

Extensor ilio-tihialis (text-fig. 67. 2). — Origin : outer surface of 
the head of the ilium, distal to the origin of the ilio-fibularis. 
Insertion : to the outer side of the knee-joint. 

Femoro-tihkdis {extensor cruris) (text-figs. 65-67. 3). — Origin : 
from the anterior (extensor) svu^face of the proximal three- 
fourths of the shaft of the femur. Insertion ; upon the head of 
the tibia. 

The proximal part of this muscle is divided into two heads by 
the insertion of the pubi-ischio-femoralis externus. 

I could not distingviish the separate pai'ts (vastus externus and 
internus and crurseus) mentioned by Gadow. 

llio-fibidaris (text-fig. 67. 4). — Origin : from the ventral part 
of the outer surface of the head of the ilium. Insertion : to the 
outer side of the fibula just above the ankle. 

Ilio-femoralis (text-fig. 67. 5). — Origin : from the anterior and 
outer surfaces of the ilium in posterior continuation of the oiigin 
of the pubo-ischio-femoralis internus, and also from the carapace 
(?) or vertebral column (?) just in front of the sacro-iliac articti- 
lation. This pai't of the muscle was damaged, so that its exact 
attachment is doubtful. Insertion : upon the outer side of the 
neck of the femur, in outward continuation of the insertion of the 
pubi-ischio-femoralis internus. 

Flexor tibialis internus (text-fig. 65. 9). — Origin : destroyed on 
both sides, probably from the vertebiul column close behind the 
ilium. Insertion : to the inner side of the tibia, in common with 
the distal part of the pvibi-tibialis. 

Flexor tibialis externus (text-fig. 65. 8). — Origin : destroyed, 
probably from the vertebral column in the neighbourhood of 
the origin of the flexor tibialis internus. Insertion : into the 
tegumentary fold betAveen the tail and the heel, on a level 
with the ankle. 

Ischio-femoralis (text-figs. 65-67. 11). — Origin : from the deep 
surface of the posterior half of the laphe of oiigin of the pubi- 
tibialis, and from the ventral sui'face of the ischium. Insertion : 
upon the distal three-fourths of the posterior and inner surfaces 
of the femur. 

A separate portion of the Iscliio-femoraUs (text-fig. 65. 11 a). — 
Origin : from a median i-aphe behind the ischium, in common 
with the pubi-tibialis. Insertion : by a round tendon into the 
flexor svirface of the capsule of the knee-joint. 

Pubi-tibialis (text-figs. 65 & 66. 12). — Origin: in a continuous 
line from the ventral surface of the latei-al horn of the pubis 
posterior to the insertion of the rectus abdominis ; from the 
margin of the pubo-epipubic notch ; by tendinovis fibres from 
the epipubic part of the pubi-ischio-femoralis externus ; from a 
median raphe extending back to the ischium ; from the ischial 
symphysis and from a short post-ischial median raphe. Insertion : 
upon the ventral and inner side of the tibia from the distal limit 
of the insertion of the ambiens half way along the shaft. The 
upper part of the insei-tion is attached to superficial fascia only. 



310 



MR. R, H. BURNS ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



This muscle is indistinctly separable into two parts comparable 
to the ischio-tibialis and pubi-tibiaiis of Hoffmann (Bronn's 
' Thierreich/ Nos. 86, 87). 

In Ghelone there is apparently no origin from the lateral horn 
of the pubis. 

Text-fi^. 66. 




Dermoclielys coriacea, muscle-attaclimeiits to the left hind limb. 

3. Femoro-tibialis, 11. Ischio-femoralis, 12. Pnbi-tibialis, 13. Pubi-ischio-femoralis 
intenius, 14. Pubi-ischio-femoralis extenius, 20 a. Perforated flexor V, 
21. Flexor longus digitornm, 21b. Tibialis posticiis, 23. Flexores breves, 
75. Rectus abdominis. 



Ptihi-isc/no-fe7norcdis internus {text--&gs. 66,67. 13). ^ 

from the gieater part of the doi'sal surface of the pubis from the 



Oiigin : 



1905.] 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE, 



311 



pubo-epipubic notch to the obturator foramen. Insertion : upon 
the inner half of the neck of the femur, continuous upon the 
anterior eclo'e of the bone with the ilio-femoralis. 



Text-fig. 67. 




DermocJieli/s coriacea, muscle attachments to the doisal surface of the 
left hind limb. 

1. Arabiens, 2. Extensor ilio-tibialis, 3. Femovo-tibialis, 4. Ilio-fibularis, 5. Ilio- 
femoralis, 11. Ischio-femoralis, 13. Pubi-iscliio-femoralis internus, 14. Pubi- 
ischio-femoralis cxtenius, 16. Extensor longus digitorum, 17. Tibialis anticus, 
18. Peroneus, 22. Extensor brevis H.-IV. + Extensor Hallucis proprius, 
73. Obliquus abdominis internus, 75. Rectus abdominis. 

This muscle answers to the pubic part of Gadow's pubi-ischio- 
femoralis internus. 



312 MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

Piobi-ischio-femoralis externvjS (text-figs. 65, 66. 14). — Origin : 
from the whole ventral surface of the pubis and epipubis between 
the insertion of the epipubic pait of the rectus abdominis and the 
origin of the pubi-femoralis and the obturator foramen ; from 
the venti-al surface of the ischium between the obturator foramen 
and the mid-line ; and from the dorsal surface of the ischium and 
the root of the ilium. Insertion : upon the tuberosities of the 
femur, just distal to the posterior third of the neck. 

The part of this muscle that arises from the dorsal surface of 
the ischium and from the ilium is probably the representative of 
Gadow's pubi-ischio-femoralis posteiior. 

This muscle, with the pubi-ischio-femoi^alis internus and the 
ilio-femoralis, forms a thick continuous muscular sheath around 
the hip-joint. 

Extensor longus digitorum (text-fig. 67. 16). — Oi'igin : from 
the external condyle of the femur covered by the insei-tion of the 
extensor ilio-tibialis. Insertion : by tendinous expansion to the 
extensor surface of metatarsals TV. and Y., in conjunction with the 
peroneus ; by tendinous slips between each of the four inner toes 
on the level of the metatarso-phalangeal joints ; and by a strong 
tendon to the inner margin of the head of the first metatarsal. 

The insertion is less definite than that described for this muscle 
in other Chelonia. 

Tibicdis anticus (text-figs. 65 & 67. 1 7). — Origin : from the upper 
two-thirds of the inner (radial) margin of the radius. Insertion : 
upon the extensoi- surface of the head of metatarsus I. and also 
by a tendinous expansion to the fibrous tissue on the fiexor 
sui'face of the ankle. 

/•ero^teits (text-fig. 67. 18). — Origin: from the distal half of 
the extensor sui-face of the fibula and fi-om the extensoi- surface 
of the fibular side of the tarsus. Insertion : upon metatarsals lY. 
and Y. The i-adial side of this muscle is continuous with the 
deeper pai'ts of the extensoi- longus digitorum. 

Gastrocnemius (text-fig. 65. 20). — Origin : from the inner 
condyle of the f emui- and f I'om the innei' and flexor surfaces of the 
shaft of the tibia, around the insertion of the pubi-tibialis. 

At the heel the muscle is transformed into a dense sheet of 
fibrous tissue, from which arise in the sole of the foot the super- 
ficial (perforated) flexors of the digits. 

The gasti'ocnemius has also direct attachments to the base of 
metatarsal I. and to metatai'sal Y. 

Perforated flexors (text-fig. 65. 20 a). — Origin : from the fibrous 
expansion of the gastrocnemius. Insertion : into the fii-st phalanx 
of digits I. to lY. These small muscles surround the tendons of 
the deep flexor and are inserted directly into the peiiosteum. 

Flexor longus digitoruin (text-figs. 65 & 66. 21). — Origin : 
from the hinder (flexor) surface of the internal condyle of the 
femur, from the whole flexor surface of the fibula, and from the 
proximal half of the fibular side of the tarsus. 



1905.] ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 313 

Towards its distal end the muscle divides in two fairly distinct 
sheets : — 

a (superficial). Giving off four rounded tendons inserted 
respectively into the distal parts of the four inner toes. 
The tendons towards their ends blend with the periosteum 
so that their exact point of insertion is not definite. 

h (deep). Inserted upon the tibial side of the heeh 

The superficial part is the deep flexor proper, the deeper layer 
is Gadow's tibialis posticus. 

Two small slips, to which I can find no reference, pass from the 
surface of the deep flexor (just above the ankle) to the base of 
metatarsus Y. 

Extensor h^evis II.-IV. + Extensor hallucis j^ro-prius (text-fig. 
67. 22). — Origin : from the inner border of the shaft of the 
fibula and extensor surface of the tarsus in a line with digit III., 
and from the extensor surface of metatarsals I., II., III., IV. 
Insertion : by tendons that gradually fuse with the periosteum to 
the terminal phalanges of digits I., II., III., lY. 

Flexores breves (text-figs, 65 & 66. 23). — Five small muscles 
inserted upon the base of the first phalanges of digits I., II., 
III., lY. Origin:— 

i. From the radial side of the tarsus, it is partly fused with 

the deep flexor, 
ii. By two heads, one from the head of metatarsus II., the 

other from the fibular margin of the tai-sus. 
iii. From the fibular margin of the tarsus. 
iv. From the head of metatarsus Y. 

There is no interosseics cruris, which in Ghelone is a very strong 
muscle. 

Eye. 

The eyelids (text-fig. 68) have the same general form and 
structure as those of Ghelone. Their inner surface, and moi-e 
especially that of the nictitating membi-ane, is deeply pleated. 
The pleats, or rather lamina?, lie close togethei- like the leaves of 
a book and run approximately parallel to the margins of the lids. 
The basal parts of each lamina are the seat of smaller secondary 
pleats. 

In Chelone there is a somewhat similar but relatively extremely 
feeble pleating of the conjunctival surface of the lids, and in this 
case the epithelium that covers the ridges consists almost entirely 
of mucous cells. It seems probable that in Dermochelys also the 
object of the pleating is to extend the mucous secreting surface. 

The contents of the orbits were decayed, with the exception of 
the bulbus oculi, but a large mass of granular greasy debris was 
most probably the remains of an enormous lacrymal gland such 
as that found in Chelone. The globe of the eye measures 55 mm. 



314 



MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 



in transverse diameter x 26 mm. in depth. Its hinder parts are 
encased in a thick cartilaginous sclerotic, which thins out anteriorly 
where it meets the circlet of sclerotic bones. 

The latter i-esemble those of Chelone in form, number, size, and 
ari'rangement, but are stouter. 

Text-fiff. 68. 



..pyn> 




n,m/ 



Dermccheli/s coriacea, lids of the left eye seen from within. 



LI. lower lid, I. p.m. levator palpebrsu muscle, n. nictitating membrane, 
n.m. nictitator muscle. 

The outer parts of the sclerotic cartilage are hyaline, but 
towards the innei- surface it gets more and more fibrous, the inner 
parts consisting of fibrous tissue interspereed with small and 
scattered centres of cai'tilage formation. 

The lens, like that of Chelone, is relatively very small ; it 
measures 7 mm. in the antero-posterior and 7*5 mm. in its trans- 
verse diameter. 

The Alimentary System. 

The genei-al anatomy of the alimentary canal has been accurately 
described by Rathke*, and more recently by Yaillantf. The 
following additions may be made to their accounts of these organs. 

The (Eso2:)hagus. 
(R. C. S. Museum, Physiol. Series 461 B, 0, & D.) 

The horn-capped piocesses that beset the inner surface of the 
oesophagus are of all sizes. The larger ones average about 4 cm. 
in length, and, except in the pharyngeal region, ai-e set so close 

Rathke : " Ueber die Luftrohre, die Speiserohre und den Magen der Spliargis 
coriacea," Arch. f. Anat. u. Physiol. 1846, p. 292. 

t Vaillant : " Remarques sur I'appareil digestif et le mode d'alimentation de la 
lortue luth," Comptes Rendus Ac. Sci. t. cxxiii. 1896, p. 654. 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



315 



1905.] 

together that their backwardly directed points form practically 
the whole of the exposed inner surface. Between the larger 
processes and upon their bases are smaller ones of various sizes. 
The processes are different in shape in the various regions of the 
oesopha,gus. Near the phaiynx they have a spur-like, slender, and 
slightly flattened form and ai-e always single. Further down 
they become far stouter with a thick conical point, and are often 
bifid or even trifid (text-fig. 69). The horn cap has a very definite 

Text-fio-. 69. 





Dermochelys coriacea, ccisophagus. 

A. Bifid process from the middle part. 

B. Trifid process from the lower end. 

limit towards the base of the process, beyond which the siuface of 
the shaft is relatively soft and more or less wi-inkled. In Chelone, 
so far as I have seen, the processes are far more regular- in form 
and are always single. 

Stomach and Intestine. 

The tubular part of the stomach (R. C. S. Museum, Physiol. 
Series 51 6 A) is partially divided into compartments by thirteen 
or so low irregular transverse folds, none of which is, however, 
sufiiciently mai-ked in this specimen to warrant the expression 
" diaphragms perforated in their centre " used by Yaillant in his 
description of them. The inner surface of the stomach is smooth. 

The intestine (text-fig. 70, int.) passes at first in an antei'ior 
direction from the pylorus to the median border of the left lobe of 
the liver. It then turns to the right along the dorsal surface of 
the isthmus to the outer border of the right lobe. The bile and 
pancreatic ducts open into this transverse segment, and hei-e also 
lies the transversely elongated pancreas, as in Testudo. Near the 
outer border of the right lobe of the liver, the mesenteiy increases 
very much in extent and the gat is thrown into numerous coils, 
that occvipy the right side of the abdominal cavit}^ 

The small rounded spleen (text-fig. 70, spl.) is lodged in a fold 
of the peritoneum at the root of this mesentery under cover of 



316 



MR. R. H, BURNE ON THE 



[Apr. 18, 

the apex of the right lobe of the liver. It has a similar position 
in Eniys and Tesludo. 

The lining membrane of the first fourteen feet of the intes- 
tine is strongly i-eticulated, as in Chelone imhi-icata (Bronn's 
' Thierreich,' Bd. vi. ph 38. fig. 1). 

The last thirty- two inches form the rectum, distinguished by a 
finely villous lining. 

Text-fiff. 70. 




Dermocheli/s coriacea, al)dominal viscera seen from the ventral aspect. 

asc.oes. ascendinp: limb of (^sopliagus, desc.ces. descending- limb of oesopbag-us, 
ffl.b. gall-bladder, ffl.st. globular part of stomach, int. intestine, l.a.ahd.v. 
left anterior abdominal vein, pc. pericardium, pt.s. peritoneal sac, r.a.ahd.v. 
right anterior abdominal vein, s.v. sinus venosus, spl. spleen, th.st. tubular 
pait of tlic stcivnach. 



The Liver. (Text-fig. 70.) 

The liver consists of a large light and a smaller left lobe united 
by a nari'ow ti'ansvei'se isthmus, and thus has xevy much the same 
form as that of Testudo, 



1905.] 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



317 



The gall-bladder lies half embedded in the deep svirface of the 
right lobe, just distal to the attachment of the duodenal mesentery. 
A very short coiumon bile-duct, formed by the union of the cystic 
duct with an hepatic duct coming from the left lobe, enters the 
wall of the intestine slightly to the left of the gall-bladder. 

The duct does not, however, open into the intestine here, but 
runs on, as a dilated channel 15 mm. in diametei', for another 
9 cm., away from the pylorus, and there opens by a long slit-like 
mouth bordered by foliate lips. A similar ariangement of the 
bile-duct has been briefly described by Temminck*. 

The Mesenteries. 

When the body-cavity is opened along the venti-al surface, the 
coils of the small intestine are seen lying to the right and the 
oesophagus, stomach, and first part of the intestine to the left. 
The coils of the intestine are suspended by a sheet of mesentery 
in the ordinary way, but the complex on the left is apparently 
enclosed almost completely within a loose peritoneal bag (text- 
fig. 70, pt.s.). The relations of this bag to the vai-ious parts of 
the alimentary canal in connection with it were not determined 
in every particulai-, but so far as seen were as follows : — 

Text-fiff. 71. 



fkdr 




Bermoclielys coriacea, diagrammatic transverse section through the mid-vegion 
of the peritoneal sac. 

Letters as in text-fig. 70. 

The descending cesophagus when it enters the abdominal cavity 
is surrounded by a loosely fitting layer of splanchnic peritoneum. 
Alon^ the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the esophagus this 
laver''<^ives off a pair of mesenteric sheets that form by then- 
union ^'a closed sac (text-fig. 71, pt.s.). In the dorsal wall 
of the sac are suspended the coils of the tubular stomach, and 
in its ventral wall the first segment of the small intestine. Free, 
within its cavity, lie the ascending arm of the oesophagus and 
the ^lobular region of the stomach suspended by a mesentery 
given off from "the left surface of the descenduig cesophagus. 

* Temminck : Fauna Japonica (Reptilia), 1838, p. 6. 



318 MR. R. H. BURNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

Anteriorly, part of the ventral wall of the sac is attached to the 
dorsal surface of the left lobe of the liver in continuation of the 
mesentery of the transverse segment of the intestine and also to 
the lateral border of the liver. Otherwise, the anterior attach- 
ments of the sac were not very satisfactorily made out, but in all 
probability it merges with the peritoneum that lines the anterior 
end of the abdominal cavity. Another detail that does not 
appear so clearly in my notes as I could wish, is the exact point 
at which the oesophagus comes to lie entirely free within the 
sac. 

In Emys, although there is no similar sac of anything like 
these dimensions, there is an arrangement of the mesenteries that 
seems to represent it in a very much less developed condition. 
The cesophagus and stomach are suspended from the deep sur- 
face of the liver by a mesentery continuous with that which 
supports the transverse segment of the small intestine. This is 
no doubt comparable to the ventral wall of the sac in Dermochelys. 
But there is also a more dorsally placed and much looser sheet of 
mesenteiy that extends from the peritoneal lining of the anterior 
parts of the abdominal cavity to the stomach and lower end of the 
cesophagus. This, which I take to i-epresent the dorsal wall of 
the sac, encloses between itself and the first-mentioned mesentery 
a deep povich that lies behind the liver in the bend formed by the 
oesophagus, stomach, and intestine, but does not enclose within its 
cavity any fi-ee parts of the alimentary canal. The great develop- 
ment of this mesenteric sac in Dermochelys is most probably to be 
referred to the excessive length and bent form of the oesophagus 
and to the much complicated stomach. 

Ten inches beyond the point of entry of the bile-duct into the 
intestine wall, a free mesenterial fold appears vipon tlie anti- 
suspensory surface of the gut. The line of attachment of the fold 
is at first rather to one side of the mid-ventral line of the intes- 
tine, and in this part the fold is deep, and owing to the shortness 
of its free border compared with the length of its attachment 
forms a pouch in which are contained three coils of the gut. 
Beyond the region of the pouch the fold I'apidly diminishes in 
depth and continues along the ventral surface of the intestine for 
some 16 inches. It terminates by branching oil' to either side to 
lose itself in the doi-sal mesentery. In the angle between these 
two terminal folds is a small pigmented nodule, which may 
possibly be an extremely vestigial Meckel's diverticulum. I can 
find no indication of this ventral mesenteiy in Emys. 

Food. 

With the exception of the mouth, in which there was a small 
Teleostean fish, the only part of the alimentary canal that con- 
tained food was the tubular region of the stomach. In this part 
there were numerous tests of compound Tunicates, several small 
simple Ascidians, and a small piece of seaweed. 



1905.] ANATOMY OP THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 319 

In the specimen examined by Vaillant there were in the 
stomach remains of Hyperla gcdha, fragments of Meclnsfe, as well 
as 20 grms. of plant-debris. I have also come across a statement 
in Tickell's ' Reptilia ' that, according to Audubon, the food of 
this Turtle consists of Mollusks, Fishes, Crustaceans, Sea-urchins, 
and various mai-ine plants. 

Its diet appears, then, to be chiefly animah 



Organs op Circulation. 

The Heart. 

The heart agrees with that of other Chelonia in all essential 
characters. It diflers, however, from the normal condition in 
shape, being somewhat long and narrow instead of peculiarly 
broad. The length is chiefly due to the narrowness and elon- 
gation of the ventricle, the apex of which tapers to form a very 
long and stout gubernaculum cordis attached distally to the 
pericardium. In connection with the queslion of shape, it is 
interesting to note that Rathke* mentions that in embryos of 
Chelone the heart is relatively longer and narrower than in the 
adult. 

The great trunk-veins open into a sinus venosus of moderate 
size, which in turn opens into the right auricle by a long slit-like 
orifice the axis of which slop3s from below upwards and to the 
right, and which is guarded laterally by a pair of simple valves. 
The posterior wall of the sinus venosus is attached by a stout 
band of splanchnic pericardium containing the coronary vein to 
the right upper part of the ventricle. A similar band is figured 
by Fritsch f in the hearts of Chelhydra serpentina and Crocodil'us ; 
and I have seen one in Testudo indica, but it is apparently absent 
in Chelone. 

The left auricle, as usual, is relatively very small, being not 
more than a quarter the size of the right. The pulmonary veins 
unite as they enter it, and their common opening is protected to 
some extent by a valvular flap, formed by a prolongation of its 
upper and outer lip into the auricular cavity. As a rule, in the 
Chelonia the opening of the pulmonary veins into the auricle is 
not valved in any way. 

The interauricular septum is convex towards the left auricle. 
Its lower edge is thickened and longitudinally split to form a 
valve for each auriculo-ventricular opening. 

The walls of the auricles are very thin in comparison with those 
of Chelone mydas and show little trabecular structure. 

The cavity of the ventricle is peculiarly small and scarcely 
extends half way to the apex. The lower half of the ventricle, 

* Rathke : Entwicld. p. 210. 

t Fritscli : " Zur vevgl. Aiiat. der Amphibienlierzeii," Arch. f. Anat. 1869, p 737, 
pi. 17. fig. 2, and pi. 18. fig. 2. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1905, Yol. I. No. XXI. 21 



320 Mil. R. H. BURNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

although to a certain extent trabecular in structure, consists 
practically of solid muscle. The ventricular septum is quite 
normal. 

The great vessels arise from the ventricle in the usual positions, 
but it is worth noting that the carotids, 7 cm. above their origin 
from the innominate artery, suddenly dilate to at least twice 
their original diameter and then very gradually narrow again 
towards the head. 

The arches of the two aort?e are equal in size — 2 cm. in diameter 
when ilattened. They unite on a level with tlie apex of the 
ventricle. The cceliac artery arises from the left arch close to its 
union with the right, the mesenteric from the left side of the 
upper extremity of the abdominal aorta. 



The Veins. 

The Renal Portal System (text-fig. 72). — The chief affluent 
(text-fig. 72, il.v.) of the afferent renal vein is formed by the 
union of a number of small vessels upon the inner side of the 
ilium. The trunk thus formed runs forward to the hinder end 
of the kidney, and there divides into two branches — a dorsal one 
(the afferent renal vein) that runs upon the medio-ventral sur- 
face of the kidney, lateral to the ureter, and very soon becomes 
embedded in the kidney-substance ; and a ventral branch that, 
after taking up the obturator vein,, forms one of the roots of the 
anterior abdominal vein. The latter branch lies upon tlie dorsal 
surface of the intra-pelvic muscles, and appears upon the surface 
of the body- wall in the pubo-epipubic notch. Just in front of 
the epipubis it unites with its fellow of the opposite side, and the 
trunk formed by the union runs forward in the substance of the 
body-wall to the cleft between the ends of the coracoids. Here 
it receives vessels from the muscles of the left coracoid, then dips 
down towards the liver and enters it about the middle of the 
ventral surface of the left lobe. This is the left anterior abdo- 
minal vein. The right anterior abdominal vein is represented 
only by the small vessel formed by the union of the veins 
from the muscles of the light coracoid. It enters the posterior 
edge of the isthmus of the liver about its middle, in relatively the 
same position as the fully developed right anterior abdominal vein 
of Emys. 

The persistence of only one (the left) anterior abdominal vein, 
although normal in Amj^hibia and Lizards, is not the condition 
generally described as typical of Chelonia, in which [Testudo, Emys) 
both veins persist, forming right and left antei-ior abdominals. 
I notice, however, that Rathke* mentions that in young indi- 
viduals of Chelone and in his specimen of Dermochelys the left 
anterior abdominal vein only is present. In Testudo grceca also 

* Ratlilve : Eiitwickl. p. 213. 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



321 



1905.] 

the right anterior abdominal vein may be quite insignificant, not 
more than a quarter the size of that of the left side. 

Within the liver there is an open communication between the 
anterior abdominal and hepatic portal veins. 



Text-fig. 72. 




Dermochelys coriacea, left kidney wltli its associated veins and arteries. 

af.r.v. atferent renal vein, ao. aorta, ef.r.v. efferent renal vein il. i!j""^,i?.«. chief 
affluent of afferent renal vein, l.a.abd.v. left anterior abdominal vein, oM.v. 
obturator vein, ttr. nretur, v.c.i. vena cava inferior. 

The efferent renal veins are in no way peculiar. They rvui 
forward, one on either side, along the median borders of the 
kidneys, and at their anterior extremities unite to form the vena 



322 MR. R. II. BUBNE ON THE [Apr. 18, 

cava inferior. The vena cava lies to the right of the aoi'ta, and 
enters the deep surface of the right lobe of the liver. Just 
before leaving the anteiior border of the liver, it receives a large 
hepatic vein. 

Two trunks of the hepatic portal system were noted, one 
coming from the stomach and entering the liver at the anteidor 
end of its left lobe, the other from the first part of the intestine 
opening into the lower border of the same lobe. 

The Thyroid Body. 

The thyroid body has the normal position between the roots of 
the carotid arteries ; it is supplied with blood by branches of the 
subclavians. 

Organs of Respiration. 

The Larynx. — The larynx closely resembles that of CheXone. 
The prociicoid cartilage is not, however, a completely separate 
nodule, but forms a process of the anterior dorsal border of the 
crico-thyroid. 

The iirst complete tracheal ring lies 7 cm. behind the anteiior 
margin of the crico-thyroid cartilage. In front of it, inckided 
within the crico-thyroid cartilage, there are six imperfect or 
slightly indicated lings. These, as usual, are more marked and 
extend further forwai'd on the venti'al surface than on the doisal. 

The constrictor and dilator laiyngis muscles are quite normal. 

The Trachea. — The lower end of the trachea is divided into 
two lateral channels by a dorso-ventral partition for a distance 
of 11 "5 cm. upwards from the bifurcation of the bronchi. This 
has been accurately described by Rathke (Miiller's Arch. 1846, 
p. 292). 

In this joart of the trachea the rings tend to be somewhat 
irregular and frequently show partial duplication. 

Renal Organs. 

The kidneys are large and flattened doi'so-ventrally. Each 
measures 23 cm. in length by 11 cm. in breadth at the hinder 
end, and 6 cm. at the anterior end. 

Like the kidneys of other Rejatiles they are much lobulated, 
the lobes having roughly the form of iiregular ti-ansverse bands, 
which are themselves further subdivided by close convolutions. 

The ureters emerge from the hindei- part of the ventral sui-face 
of each kidney between the main trunks of the afierent and 
efferent renal veins, and from this point I'un directly backwards 
to the lateral walls of the uro-genital sinus, into which they open 
upon a pair of prominent papillae. The walls of the ureters are 
thick and pigmented. 



1905. 



ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. 



323 



Reproductive Organs. 

The ovaries are attached by the parovarium to the dorsal pei-i- 
toneuni just lateral to the efferent renal veins. They are very 
similar to those of Chelone, and, in this young individual, have 
the form of a flattened band veiy much folded transversely upon 
itself. They extend from about 3 cm. behind the posterior end of 
the kidneys to nearly the same distance in front of their anterior 
end. 

The oviducts, like the ovaries, are in a very immature con- 
dition. Each extends from the uro-genital sinus to a point some 
little distance in front of the ovary, suspended from the dorsal 
body- wall by a peritoneal fold that passes on anteriorly for some 
distance beyond the mouth of the duct. The duct does not 
occupy the free bordei- of the peritoneal fold, but lies about 1 cm. 
within it ; the mouth, however, opens actually upon the free 
border. The anteiior part of the oviduct is slightly wavy. 

Posteriorly the oviducts enter the lateral walls of the uro- 
genital sinus, near the ureters ; but on neither side do they in 
any way communicate with the cavity of the sinus. After an 
injection of water into both oviducts had failed to show any such 
opening, the oviducts and ureters were slit up (text-fig. 73). Upon 

Text-fig. 73. 




U/T 



Dermocheljjs coriacea, part of wall of uro-geuital sinus, witli termination of 
oviduct and ureter (right side). 



entering the wall of the uro-genital sinus, the character of the 
lining of the oviduct suddenly altered, from being perfectly 
smooth it became deeply laminate longitudinally. This pleated 
segment of the duct passed towards the urinary papilla and 
gradually narrowed to a blind end. Fluid injected down the 
right ureter entered the uro-genital sinus by two mouths situated 
on the apex of the urinary papilla. When the ureter was opened 
it was found that close to the apex of the papilla it forked, each 
branch being in connection with one of the two openings. 

On the urinary papilla of the left bide there were also two 



324 ON THE ANATOMY OF THE LEATHERY TURTLE. [Apr. 18. 

openings ; but here one only was in connection with the ureter, 
the other led into a blind pit. 

This imperforate condition of tlie oviducts is probably normal 
in immature individuals. Professor Stewart has pointed out to 
me a somewhat similar " hymen" observed by him in a young 
female Crocodile {Crocodihcs acutus, R. Coll. Surg. Museum, 
Physiol. Series, 2725 B), in which the mouth of each oviduct is 
covered by a delicate membrane. 

The cloaca and clitoris closely resemble those of Chelone. The 
cloaca is 25 cm. long. The clitoris is bluntly conical and free at 
its extremity. It is situated 15 cm. from the external opening of 
the cloaca. 



INDEX. 



Acanthias 

vulgaris, 42, 45, 47, 
48, 49. 
Acara 

'punctulata, ir>2. 

tetramerus, 190. 

vittata, 190. 
Acavopsis 

nagsa, 190. 
iEgolius 

hraehyotus, 252. 

hjjpoxantha, 83. 
Agama 

colonorum, 11, 14. 
Agelastes 

meleagrides, 203, 206. 
Ageniosus 

onUitaris, 190. 
Agoniates 

haleciims, 190. 
Alauda 

arvensis, 55. 
Alcedo 

amazona, 252. 
Alcis 

iiausori, 94, 95. 

tongaica, 94. 

vitensis, 93, 95. 
Alestes 

baremose, 151. 

dentex, 151. 

nurse, 151. 
Alopias 

vulpes, 46, 47. 
Amblysomus, 270. 

chrysillus, 254, 260, 
261, 276. 

corricB, 276. 

hottentottus, 130, 259, 
260, 261, 262. 

— 2oondoli(B, 260. 

ms, 254. 259, 261, 
276. 



Amblysomus 

obtusirostris, 260, 
262. 
Ampin bolurus, 5, 14, 16, 
17, 18, 19. 

harbaUis, 22. 
Amphilius 

anc/nsf/frons, 64. 

atesuensis, 64. 

brevis, 64. 

grandis, 63, 64. 

longirostris, 64. 

platycliir, 64. 

nranoscopus, 6 1 . 
Anacyrtus 

gibbosiis, 190. 
Anas 

boschas, 147, 148. 

pacilorhi/ncha, 147, 
148, 149. 

superciliosa, 147, 148. 
Aneistrus 

hracliyurus, 190. 

gibbiceps, 190. 

fictus, 190. 
Angiostomum 

serpenticola, 251, 253. 
Auisodes 

porphyropis, 94. 
Anolis, 19. 
Anomaluriis 

6a/<?sj, 82. 

beecrofti, 81, 82, 200, 
205. 

beldeni, 82. 

fulgens}, 82. 
Anoploplerus, 04. 
Anostomus 

gracilis, 189. 

tcBniatus, 189. 
Auseranas 

aemipalmaia, 118. 
Aiithropoides, 117. 

paradisea, 111, 113. 



Anthropopithecus, 68 

h'oglodytes, 205. 
Antilocapra 

americaiia, 118, 191. 
Aiitilope 

cervicapra, 118. 

cliora, 140. 

te.ndal, 140. 
Aphanopiis 

carbo, 252. 
Aquila, 109, 111, 117. 

verreau.ri, 108. 
Ara, 107, 117. 

hyacintliina, 105, 106. 
Arcilasisa 

plagiaia, 93. 
Arctocebus 

aureus, 72. 
Argyrothripa 

nigrosirigata, 93, 95. 
Aristodesimis, 229. 
Avvicantliis 

c^orsa/is, 269. 

pyidchellus, 84. 

pumilio, l.j6, 269. 
Ascaris 

anqusticoUis, 251 
253. 

capsularia, 252, 253. 

lumbricoides. 252, 253. 
Asio, 117. 

accipitrimis, 252. 

brachyotus, 252, 253. 

mexicanus, 108. 
Aspidosiphon, 181. 

elegans, 33, 40. 

insular is, 40, 41. 

steenstrupii, 39. 

truncatus, 34. 
Asteronotus, 177. 
Asterophysus 

batrachus, 190. 
Athene 

chiaradice, 149. 



326 



INDEX. 



Atherura 

afncana, 84, 200. 



Babnx 

lanceolaius, 54. 

waddeUi, 54, 55. 
Bagrus 

hay ad, 151. 
Balanus, 178. 
Barbus 

cjibbosus, 63. 

hindii, 63. 

longicauda, 63. 

miolepis, 63. 
2wrjplexicans, 63. 

thikensis, 63, 64. 

werneri, OS. 
Eatracliops 

cyanonotus, 164, 156. 

oceUatus, 154. 

pundulatus, 154, 156, 
168. 

retkulatus, 154, 155. 

semifasciatus, 154, 155. 
Bcleogale 

nigriiies, 76. 
Belone 

ianiaia, 189. 
Beuiatiscus 

villos^is. 259. 
Bison 

priscus, 63. 
Boggiania 

ocelluta, 154. 
Bombinator 

maximus, ''Jill. 
Boocerciis 

eurycerKS, 77. 
Bornella, 177. 
Bos 

primiqeimm, 51, 63, 
231. 
Bosolaphus 

^i^ffs, 288. 
Brontosaunis, 242. 
Brycon 

^jesM, 190. 

schomburgkii, 1 90. 
Biibalis 

7Ho>r, 201 , 205. 
Buceros 

camurus, 207. 
Euteo 

vulgaris, 251 . 
Bvcnniste?, 204. 



Oallichthys 
asper, 190. 
longifilis, 190. 



Callithrix 

cuprea, 118. 
Callopbysvis 

lateralis, 190. 
Calotes, 2. 
Carnelus 

bactrianus, 231. 
Candiella 

lineata, 177. 
Canis, 98. 

vulpes, 187. 
Carapus 

fasciatus, 190. 
Carcharias 

glaums, 42, 43, 48. 

laticaudus, 43. 
Cariama, 113, 117. 

cristata, 113. 
Cathartes, 117. 

atratus, 111. 
Cebus 

fatuellus, 249. 
Centetes 

ccmtdalus, 253. 
Centrina 

salviani, 45. 
Centromochlus 

heohelii, 190. 
Centrophorus 

sp., 42. 
Ceplialopbus, 187. 

callipygus, 77. 

castaneuH, 77. 

(?ort>, 198, 205. 

grimiiii, 138, 275. 

Jen till /a, 201. 

ma.vweUi, 205. 

onelanorrheus, 77. 

monticola, 275. 

natalensis, 275. 

niger, 205. 

sylvicultrix, 201. 
Ceratogymna, 204. 
Cercocebus 

o^«7/s, 71. 

albigcna, 71. 

coUaris, 71. 
Cercopitbecus 

cephus, 70. 

cZiawa igniia, 199, 
205. 

erxleheni, 70. 
lalandii, 255. 

neglectus, 70. 
nictitans, 70. 

pousarguci, 1. 

pygerytlirus, 255. 
talapoin, 70. 
Cervicapra 

arundinum, 276. 

fidvonifida, 276. 



Cervns 

sp., 210. 

eZa;?3tes, 191,210,211. 
Ceryle 

torquata, 252, 253. 
Cetiosanrus 

Zee&i, 232-243. 
Cetopsis 

ccecutiens, 190. 
Oetorhinus, 42. 
Ceuthmochares 

ceneus, 208. 
flavirostris, 208. 
Chalceus 

macrolepidotus, 190. 
Chalcopsittacus 

ai-er, 231. 
Chelhydra 

serpentina, 319. 
Ohelone, 300. 301, 303, 
310, 313, 314, 315, 
319, 320, 322, 323, 
324. 

imbricata, 316. 

my das, 319. 
Cbiloscyllium 

indie mn, 44. 
Chimsera 

inonstrosa, 43, 46. 
Cbimarrboglanis, 64. 
Chlaruyclosaurus 

Tcingi, 9-22. 
Cblamydoselach us 

cmguineus, 47. 
Cbi'omis 

cro/ws, 89. 
Cbroniodoris, 177. 
Cbrysocbloris 

albirostris, 261. 

asiaiica, 269,260, 261. 

holosericetis, 261. 

leucorhina, 261. 

rut Hans, 261. 
Clirysococcyx 

cupreus, 208. 
Cicbla 

lahrina, 159. 

ocellaris, 190. 

temensis, 158, 190. 
Cichlosoma 

coryphcBHoides, 190. 

festivum, 190. 

sevcruvi, 190. 
Cisticola 

lateralis, 209. 
Citharinns 

citharus, 15 J. 
Clamator 

ca/er, 208. 
Clarias 

lazcra, 151. 



INDEX. 



327 



Olarotes 

laticeps, 151. 
C'loeosiphon 

aspergillmn, 33, 39. 
Cobus 

singsing, 202. 
Coccystes 

cafer, 208. 
Colobus 

ferrugineus, 199, 205. 

polycomus, 199. 

ursinus, 199, 205. 

verus, 199. 
Corallum 

riibrum, 173. 
Corythffiola, 203. 

cristata, 203, 208. 
Crenacara 

elegans, 152. 

mamilafa, 153. 

pimctulata, 152, 153. 
Crenicicbla 

acutirosiris, 158, 164, 
168. 

adspersa, 167, 168. 

ant hums, 160. 

arggnnis, 159. 

hrasiliensis cuhpicrsa, 
167. 

— fasciata, 166. 

— Johanna, 168. 

— lenticulata, 167. 

— luguhris, 165. 

— marmorata, 158. 

— strigata, 165. 

— vittaia, 165. 

cincta, 158, 166. 

cyanonotus, 156. 

elegans, L55. 
frenata, 159. 
funebris, 165. 
geayi, 157, 161. 
Johanna, 157, 158, 166, 
■ 168, 190. 

— adspersa, 167. 

— funebris, 165. 

— Johanna, 168. 

— lenticulata, 167. 

— lugubris, 165. 

— strigata, 165. 

— vitlata, 165. 
lacustris, 158, 162. 
lenticulata, 158, 167, 

189, 190. 
lepidota, 157, 158. 
/«ci«.s, 157, 160. 
I'lu/ubris, 158, 165, 

'190. 
nywrophtha'mus, 158, 

162. 
multisjmiosa, 158, 164. 

Proc. Zool. Soc. — 190 



Orenicichla 

obtusirostris, 168. 
orwate, 158, 167, 168. 
polysticta, 162. 
proteus, 159. 

— argy7inis, 159. 
punctata, 162. 
reticulata, 155, 156. 
saxatilis, 157, 159, 

190. 

— albopunctata, 159. 

— semicincta, 159. 
semifasciata, 155. 
strigata, 158, 165, 

168. 
vaillanti, 159. 
vittata, 158, 163. 
tvallacii, 158, 163, 168, 
189, 190. 
Crenucbus 

spilurus, 190. 
Cricetomys, 200. 
gambianus, 84. 
Oriniger 

verreauxi, 208. 
Crocidura 
flavescens, 130, 264, 
265. 

— flamclula,'lM. 
flavidula, 264. 
martensi, 264. 

Crocodilus, 222, 319. 

acutus, 324. 
Crossai'cbus 

fasciafus, 265. 

obscurus, 76, 205. 
Ctenaeodon, 98. 
Cnriraatus 

alburnus, 189. 

elongatus, 189. 

schombiirgkii, 189. 

spilurits, 189. 
Cycbla 

fasciata, 166, 168. 

lacustris, 162. 

rutilans, 159. 
Cycloptenis 

Imnpus, 252. 
Cyniotis 

penicillata, 132, 135. 
Cynocephalus, 69. 
Cynodon 

■pectoralis, 190. 

scombroides, 190. 
Oynognathns, 96, 98, 99, 

100, 102, 227. 
Oynopitbecus 

niger, 22-26. 

Dadessa 
fluminalis, 95. 

5, Vol. I. No. XXII. 



Dafila 

ffc«i;«, 147, 148. 
Dama 

vidgaris, 190. 
Dasycbira 

vitensis, 92, 95. 
Dasymys 

incomtus, 270. 
Dasypus, 101. 
Dasyurus, 102. 
Deilemera 

fasciata, 92. 
Deilephila 

placida-torenia, 96. 
])endrobyi'ax 

dorsalis, 79. 
Dendromus, 136. 

melanotis, 136, 137. 

mesomelas, 136, 137. 

messorius, 84. 
Dendromys, 137. 
Deomys 

ferrugineus, 84. 
Dei'iuocbelys 

coriacea, 291-324. 
Diadectes, 214. 
Diademodon 

onastacus, 9G-102. 
Dicros.sus 

maculatus, 153. 
Dicyuodon, 214. 
Diplodocus, 235, 238, 
239 242. 

carnegii, 231. 
Discognathus 

blanfordii, 62. 

hindii, 62, 64. 
J)isticbodus 

brevipinnis, lol. 

rostratus, 151. 
Distoma 

croi'ttij, 249. 

pulmonale, 248. 

p)ulmonis, 248. 

ringeri, 248. 

westermani, 248. 
Dodecaceria 

conchantin, 181. 
Dolabella, 177. 
i )ora8 

cataphractus, 190. 

heckelii, 190. 
Dorcatberiuiii 

aquatieum, 78, 202. 
Drouiseus, 117. 

norm-holla ndicE, 105. 



Echidna, 100, 101. 
Ecbinometra 

subangularis, 182, 184. 

22 



328 



INDEX. 



Echinorhiniis 

spmosiis, 46, 47. 
Echinorhynchus 

crotali,' 249. 

hooniiiis, 249. 

sjyirukt, 249, 253. 
Elephas 

c^ricamis, SO. 
Emys, 316, 318, 320. 
Enhyclra, 98. 
Eosaccouiys, 269. 
Epomophorus, 199. 

frcmqueti, 72. 

wahlbergi, 256. 
Equus 

heinionus Idang, 186. 
Erythrinus 

loiigipinnis, 189. 

lalmoneus, 189. 

unitcsniai'us, 189. 
Eunice 

fasciafa, 177. 

siciliensis, 177, 181, 
182. 

torquata, 177. 
Euryotis 

obsnira, 267. 
Eurystomus 

gularis, 207. 
Eurytorna 

heterodoxa, 95. 



Falco, 111,117. 

lanarius, 109. 
FavorinuB 

carneus, 177. 
Eelis 

cehdogabfer, 199 205. 

/;?/«a^, 186. 

ocrcaia cafra, 132. 

■pardus, 74. 

— tuUiana, 187. 

served, 206. 

tigris, 253. 
Filaria 

foveatet, 252, 253. 

helicinei, 253. 

inliy&alureb, 252, 253. 

pisckim, 2^)2. 

quiscali, 252, 253. 
Fraiicolinus 

ahemtensis, 203. 

lathami, 203. 



Gad us 

morrJiuei, 252. 
Galactoclirysea 

Uheria-, 206. 



Galago 

alleni, 71. 

crassicaudatus, 256. 

demnloffi, 71. 

pallida, 71. 
Galeorhinu.s 

c«9«"s, 42. 

japonicus, 42. 
Galeus 

c««/5, 47, 48, 49. 

(Galeorhinus) ceinis, 
44. 
Ganirex,203. 
Garrulax 

sannio, 55. 

tihetamis, 54, 65. 
Genetta, 75. 
Geophagus 

ciipido, 190. 

dmmon, 190. 

junipari, 190. 

surweimensis, 190. 
Georychus 

hottentotus, 270. 
Gerbillus 

bremlsii, 136. 
Gerrhonotus, 7. 
Giraffa 

camclopeirdatis, 119. 

— cmtiqiiorum, 248. 

— cottoni, 121. 

— peralta, 119, 120. 
121, 244, 248. 

— rothscliildi, 121. 

— tippehJdrchi, 119, 
121. 

— ;!?/?3?V«, 120, 121. 
Glareola 

mcgapodu, 206. 

inichalis lihericp, 206. 
Glyphodes 

ccEsalis, 95. 

psiffacedi.t, 95. 
Gomphoguatlnis, 96, 9S. 
Gorilla, 67. 

castaneiceps, 50. 
Goura, 105, 114, 117. 

coronata, 114. 

victories, 1. 
Graph iurus 

/«;£;;/, 200, 205. 

murivvs, 266. 
Guttera 

cristeda, 203, 206. 
Gymnarc4ius 

niloticus, 151. 
Gymnorliina, 107, 116. 
117. 

IcKConola, 114, 115. 
Gyniuolus 

elccfrirus, 190. 



Gypobieras 
angoknsis, 203. 

Hagedashia 

hagedash, 207. 
Halcyon 

cyanoleucus, 207. 
Ilaplocanthosaurus, 242. 
ITaploceros 

montemus, 56. 
Hatter in, 2, 4, 5, 221. 
Heliobucco 

honapeertei, 73. 
Heloderma, 7, 8, 19. 

suspectum, 7- 
Helotarsus 

ecaudatus, 252, 253. 
Hemiodus 

immactdatns, 189. 

ummac^dedus, 189. 
Heptanchus 

cinereus, 42, 47. 
Herpestes 

cauui, 136. 

gedera, 266. 

gracilis, 76. 

— cauui, 136, 265. 

— punctulatus, 135, 
265. 

??ffso, 76. 
Herpetodrya.s 

carincdus, 251, 253. 
Hosione 

sicida, 177. 
Heterobrancbus 

sencgedensis, 151. 
Heterodon 

platyrhinus, 251, 253. 
Heterodontus 

(Cesfcracion) philippi, 
45. 
Hexabrancbus, 177. 
Hippopotamus 

liherieusis, 205. 
Hipposideros 

mjfcr, 130, 256. 

comonersoni, 73. 

«/c/o;.)s, 73, 82. 
Hydrocyon 

brevis, 151. 
Hylocboerus 

meinertzhageni, 199. 
Hypa3na 

masurialis fcrriscitcdis, 
93. 
Hyperia 

galba, 319. 
Hyperopisus 

6eie, 151. 
Hypsignatbus 

moiisfrosus, 72. 



329 



Ibis 

hagedash, 207. 
Ichthyosaurus, 219. 
Ictouyx 

capensis, 135, 266. 
Idiurus, 73, 82. 
Iguana, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 16, 17, 18, 19. 

tuherculata, 6, 16. 
Iiiuiis 

ecaudatus, 249. 



Labeo 

horie, 151. 

senegalensis, 151. 
Laoerta, 7, 8, 20. 

galloti, 17. 

muralis, 118. 
Lamna 

cormibica, 47. 

(Osyrhina) cornuhica, 
44. 
Lauius 

algeriensis, 55. 

fe««ff, 55. 

schaoh, 55. 
Larentia 

rewacnds, 94, 95. 
Lates 

niloticus, 151. 
Leggada 

minutoides, 136, 269. 
Lemur 

sp., 118. 

hrunne-us, 249, 253. 

coronatus, 249, 253. 

mongoz nigrifrons, 249, 
Lepidopus 

arggreun, 252. 

caudatus, 252, 253. 
Leporinua 

affinis, 189. 

fasciatus, 189. 

frederici, 189. 

leschencmltii, 189. 

margarifaccus, 189. 

natter eri, 189. 

nigrotceniatus, 189. 

striatus, 189. 
Lepus 

angolensis, 138. 

capensis, 137. 

europcsits, 278-287. 

ochropus, 137. 

saxatilis, 138, 270, 
271. 

— mcgalotis, 271, 272 

— zuhensis, 270, 272. 
//;Hic^«s, 278-2S7. 
varronis, 287. 



Linguatula 

proboscidea, 249. 

quadriimcinal a, 249. 
Lithophagus, 179, 181, 

184. 
Lithothamnion, 179, 181, 

186. 
LobopbytuLU, 177. 
Locastra 

r/r«^c/:, 94, 95. 
Lophius 

^nscatorius, 252. 
Lopbocero.s 

camurus, 204, 207. 

olivcwea, 177. 
Lopburoniys, 200. 

sikapusi, 84. 
Loricaria 

carinata, 190. 

maculaia, 190. 
Loxosoma 

sp., 28. 
Lutra, 98. 

maculicollis, 205. 
Lycaon 

picttis ztdueusis, 265. 
Lysidice, 181. 



Macrodon 

trahira, 189. 
Malacomys 

longlpes, 84. 
Man is 

gigantea, 85^ 202. 
Margarona 

oceanitis, 95. 
Megalobrycon 

cephaliis, 190. 
Menapetaloneina 

■physalurum, 253. 
Mesogonimus 

wesfermani, 248. 
Mesosaurus, 213, 214, 

216, 217, 228. 
Microgomphodoii, 102, 

225, 227. 
Mierolestes, 98. 
Miniopteriis 

schrcibcrsi, 259. 
Mocklorhinus, 219. 
Molge 

So.'ipo, 278. 

pyrrlwg aster, 278. 

woUerkorffi, 277, 278. 
Monitor, 12, 17. 
Morinyrus 

caschive, 151. 

JiiJicliui, 151. 
Mot;icilla 

y/r7M«, 209. 



Mus 

alexandrinus, 200. 
barbariis, 200. 
clirysophilus, 268. 
colonus, 136, 269. 
co2w^a, 268, 269. 

— suluends, 268. 
doUcJmrus, 268. 
dorsalis, 200. 
musctiloides, 200. 
naialensis, 269. 
nigricauda, 200. 
nfinus, 200. 
siUwcus, 268. 
trimrgatus, 200. 
iullbergi, 83. 
univitiatus, 83. 

Mustelus 

^(Kws, 44, 47, 48, 49. 

vulgaris, 42. 
Myletes 

asterias, 190. 

diiriventris, 190. 

ellipticus, 190. 

hypsauchcn , 190. 

rhoinhoidalis, 190. 

ruhripinnis, 190. 

schomburgkii, 190. 

setigcr, 190. 
Myliobatis 

aquUa, 46, 47. 
Myo.sorex, 254. 

.sftoeri, 131, 132, 262, 
263. 

— r/#MM, 262, 263, 

— sclatcri, 263. 

— talpiiius, 262, 263. 
;fe«.?«s, 131, 132, 264. 
MJ7MS, 130, 131, 263, 

264. 
Myrmica 

ruginodls, 8(). 
Mystroniys 

albicaudatus, 137. 

— fumosus, 137. 

Nan d in i a 

hinotata, 75, 200, 205. 
Necrosyrtes 

monanis, 203. 
Neinertes 

■iieesii, 177. 
Neotragus 

bafesi, 77. 
Nereis 

dumerUii. 177. 
Nicidion, 181. 
Notidanus 

cinereus, 49. 

(Heptancb us) cinerc^is, 
44. 



330 



Numida 

cristata, 206. 
Nycteris, 73. 

capensis, 257. 

damarensis, 257. 
Nyctinouius, 73. 



(Eonistis 

delta, 92. 

entella, 92. 
Ornithopsis, 232. 
Oriiithorhvnchup, 98, 

229. ' 
Ortholophus 

albocrisfcdus, 204. 

Icucolophus, 204. 
Orycteropus, 99. 
Oryctolagus 

crassicaudahts curn/i, 
272. 

— nyih'CB, 272. 
Oryx 

heisa, 187. 
Osteoglossiim 

hicirrhosum, 189. 
Otocorys 

elwcsi, 55. 
Otomys 

irroratus, 135, 266, 
270. 

laviincdug, 267. 
Oiirebia 

haggardi, 169. 

Icenym, 169. 

montana, 169. 
Ovibos 

moschatus, 50-53. 
Ovis 

musimon, 1)8. 
Oxydoras 

carinatus, 190. 

lipophfhalmus, 190. 

sleno2yeliis, 190. 



Palaiohatteria, 213, 214, 

228. 
Papio 

porcarius, 255. 
Paradisea 

apoda, 231. 

minor, 231. 
Paragonimus 

westermcmi, 248, 253. 
Parci.-isaurus, 214, 215, 

217, 220, 223. 
Paiioticbiis, 214, 215, 

216. 
Parus 

cinereus, 55. 



Pavo 

nigrijoennis, 149. 
Pecten, 180. 
Peleeanus, 113, 117. 

fuscus, 108, 109. 
Pentastomum 

clavatum, 2.50. 

crofali, 250. 

imperatoris, 249. 

ononiliforme, 249, 250. 

qjroboscideum, 249. 

stdwylindricum, 2150. 
Perca 

brasiliensis, 158. 

saxatilis, 159. 
Perodiclipiis, 71. 

;:.o«o, 249, 253. 
Petrocephalns 

Jrt^e, 151. 
Petropbryne, 225. 
Pbaeocba?rus 

wiMopicus, 118. 
Pbascologale 

penicillata, '2o\ . 
Pbascolomys, 101, 102. 
Pbascolosoina 

disso7-s, 33. 

gkmcum, 32, 35. 

papilliferum, 33. 

■pelhcciduin, 28. 

pyriformis, 36, 39, 41. 

aemperi, 31. 

vulgare, 27. 

— selenka, 31, 35. 

— tropicum, 31. 
wasini, 32, 35. 

Pbassodes, geu. nov., 89. 

himorpha, 91. 

.9«^Ar«", 90, 95. 

nausori, 91, 95. 

(Hlorevalmda, 89, 90, 
95. 

retvaensis, 91, 95. 

vitensis, 92, 95. 
Pbiline 

a.;jcr;'a, 177. 
Pbocosauriis, 227. 
Phcenicopbaes 

(siieus, 208. 
Pbractocepbalus 

liemiliopterus, 190. 
Pbrynosoma, 9, 18. 
Pbyllidia, 177. 
Pbyllodoce 

2mucerina, 177. 
Physcosoma 

cvisceraium, 31, 35. 

gaudens, 36, 38, 41. 

lurco, 37. 

nigrescens, 30, 36. 

jisaron, 38. 



Pbyscosoma 
sco/o/js, 28, 30, 36. 

— mossaoiibicense, 30. 
socium, 37, 41. 
weldonii, 36, 38. 

Physignathus, 9-22. 

lesueuri, 22. 
Pica 

hottanensis, 55. 
Pimelodus 

cristatus, 190. 

e2'?«es, 190. 

holomelas, 190. 

maculatus, 190. 

Tmielleri, 190. 

oriiatus, 190. 

raninits, 190. 

seS«, 190. 
Pipistrellus 

^«/i/«", 2.58. 

— fuscatus, 129,257. 
«.«.?H<s, 129, 258. 

Piratinga 

^ofe?:/*, 190. 
Pirinampus 

typus, 190. 
Pitbecus 

innuus, 249. 
Plagiaulax, 98. 
Platynematii'litjiys 

punctulatus, 190. 
Platystoma 

planicei^^, 190. 

tigriwum, 190. 
Plecosfcomus 

guacari, 190. 
Pliosaunis, 228. 
Plotug 

anhinga, 253. 
Poecilogale 

albinucha, 266. 
Poeocepbaliis, 204. 
Poiana 

richardsoni, 75. 
Polyodon 

spathula, 41. 
Polystoma 

■proboscideum, 249 
Pontis, 177. 
Porocephalus, 248. 

annulatus, 250. 

f-rote^z, 249, 253. 

herpetodrijadoa, 250, 
251,253. 

moniliformis, 250, 
253. 

subuliferus, 260. 

!;or;'MS, 250, 
Potauiocboerus 

peniciUatvs, 202. 

porcus, 78. 



INDEX. 



331 



Potamogale 
velox, 73. 
Pratincola 

ruhctra, 209. 
Pristis 

perotetti, 42. 
Pristiurus 
sp., 42. 

melanoslomus, 42, 44, 
48. 
Procavia 

capensis, 138, 275. 
Prochilodus 

iiisignis, 189. 
Procolophon, 212-230. 
cicnciceps, 221, 224, 

226. 
griersoni, 221. 
'laticeps, 220, 221, 223, 

224, 226, 229. 
minor, 218, 219. 
platyrhiims, 226. 
sphenorhinus, 226, 

227. 
trigoniceps, 218, 219, 
220, 221, 223, 224, 
225. 
Pronolagus 
sp., 13S. 

crassicaudatits, 272, 
273, 274, 275. 

— curnji, 138, 274, 
275, 276. 

— melaimrus, 275. 

— nyikce, 274, 275. 
/'iifZtZ?, 254, 272, 273, 

274,275,276. ' 
Psamm osaurus 

griseus, 15, 17. 
Psilogramma 

jordana, 88, 95. 
Psittacus 

ihnnch, 204. 
Psophia, 111, 117. 

leucopfera, 111. 
Plerophyllum 

scalarc, 190. 
Pycnonotus 

barbatus, 209. 

— inornatus, 209. 
Pyrrhulina 

Jilamentosa, 189. 
Python 
sp., 253. 



Quiscalus 

versicolor, 253. 

Rnja 

clavata, 43, 46, 49. 

Pkoc. Zool. Boc- 



Rana 

alticola, 59, 61. 
Raphiceros 

campestris, 276. 
Rhiiia 

sguatina, 45, 47, 49. 
Rhinobatus 

frodiKtus, 45, 47. 
Rhinoceros 

unicornis, 66. 
Rhinolopbus 

augur, 130. 

— zuluensis, 256. 

fZe»^'^, 130. 
Rhodoneura 

myrtaa, 92. 
Rhynchobatis 

djeddensis, 43. 



Saccostomus 

mashoncp-, 269. 
Saraia 

cecropia, 86, 87. 
Sarcophytum, 177. 
Saurodesmiis, 229. 
Saurosteruoii, 217. 
Scarus 

pavoninus, 159. 

rufescens, 159. 
Scbilbe 

mysius, 151. 
Scisena 

amazonica, 190. 
Sciurus 

auriculatus, 83. 

isabella, 82. 

Icmniscatus, 82. 

mysfax, 83. 

nordhoffi, 82. 

palliatus ornaius, 266. 

poensis, 83. 

pyrrliopus, 83. 

rufobrachiatus, 82, 

wilsoni, 82. 
Scomber 

scomber, 252. 
Scotopbiliis 

nigrita, 257. 
Scotornis 

climacurus, 207, 208. 

longicaudus, 207. 
Scylliuin 

burgcri, 42. 

canicula, 42, 44, 47. 
Semnopithecus, 23. 
Serpula, 178, 180, 184. 
Serrasalmo 

dcnticulatus, 190, 

gymnogenys, 190, 

humeralis, 190. 

scapular is, 190. 

1905, YoL. I. No. XXIII 



Siderastrsea, 177. 
Sipunculus 

australis, 30, 36. 

billifonensis, 30. 

boholensis, 27. 

cumanensis, 27, 29, 36, 
37, 

— opacus, 27, 36. 

— semirugosus, 29. 

— vitreus, 27, 29. 
r.dulis, 29. 
indicus, 29. 
robust-US, 27. 
titubans, 29. 

Sorex 

Cfcye?-, 131. 
Sparus 

saxatiUs, 159 
Spermestes 

iicofor, 210. 
Sphargis, 300, 303. 

coriacea, 314. 
Spheniscus, 107, 117. 

dcmersus, 105, 109, 
110. 
Sphenodon, 213, 214, 

215,216,217, 
Sphyrna 

malleus, 47, 

(Zyg£Ena) malleus, 43. 
Spinax 

wig'er, 42. 
Spiroptera 

sp., 253. 
Spirostreptiis 

pyrocepha lus, 118. 
Sporseginthus 

melpodus, 205, 210. 
Squatina 

vulgaris, 42. 
Staurocepbalus 

ruhroviltatus, YiT. 
Steatomys 

krebsii, 270. 

pratensis, 270. 
Stereosternum, 216. 

tumidum, 228. 
Sternarcbus 

nattereri, 190. 
Sternopygiis 

carapus, 190. 
Stictoptera 

describens, 93. 
Strepsiceros 

abyssinicus, 140, 

capensis, 140. 

imberbis, 141, 142. 

strepsiceros, 1. 

— chora, 140. 

— strepsiceros, 141, 
zambesiensis, 141. 

23 



332 



INDEX. 



Strepsimelii 

pseudadel'pha, 95. 
Strombus, 180. 
Strutlno, 105, 114, 117. 

7nasaicus, 102, 103. 
Suricata 

suricat/a. 134. 

— hamiltoni, 133, 
134. 

— .lophurus, 133, 134. 

— namaquensis, 134. 
Sus, 202. 
iSymbi'rtnchus 

marmoratus, 189. 
Synodontis 

baicvsoda, 151. 

clarias, 151. 

sorratus, 151. 
Syrniuai, 107, 117. 

aluco, 107. 

TiBuiura 

motoro, 189. 
Tantalus, 113, 117. 

i/;js. Ill, 112. 
Taphozous 

'peli, 73. 
Tatera 

brant sii, 135, 2G6. 
Taiu'otragus 

derhianus, 288. 

— gigas, 288, 289. 
oryx, 230, 288. 

— gigas, 288. 

— livinqstouii, 288. 
Tejus, 224. 
Telerpeton, 217. 

dginense, 217. 
Telesto, 177. 
Teretocnemus, 228. 
Testudo, 222, 315, 31G, 
320. 

graca, 320. 

indica, 319. 
Teti'agouopterus 

ahramis, 190. 

hartletti, 190. 

caudomacxdatus, 190. 

chalceus, 190. 

chrysargyreus, 190. 

graiidisqiiamis, 190. 



Tetragon op terus 
oligoleins, 190. 
luappi, 190. 
Tetrodon 

fahaJca, 151. 
Tlialassema 
sp., 34. 

haronii, 34, 177. 
dp.cameron, 35. 
moehii, 34. 
■peUucidum, 35. 
sahinum, 40, 41. 
Thalassodes 

veraria, 94. 
Thryonomys, 200. 

smndereniaims, 270. 
Tilapia 

nilotica, 151. 
Tiliqua, 12. 
Titanosuchus, 227. 
Tokus 

camurus, 207. 
Torpedo 

marmorata, 43. 

ocdlata, 46, 47. 

Tragelaplius, 77. 

sylvalicus, 276. 

Tribolodon, 100. 

Trigla 

gurnardus, 252. 
Trirachodon, 96, 98, 

219. 
Tritylodon, 98, 99. 
Troglodytes 

uiiihropopithccus, 252, 
2.53. 
Tropidonotus 
?/ai;m', 190. 
Trygon 
scphen, 43. 
imlga, 46, 47. 
Tiibipora, 177. 
Turacus 

crif'taius, 208. 
gigantetis, 208. 
macrorhynchus, 203. 
fcr^a, 203. 
Tursiops 

sp., 125, 126. _^ 
ahu&alam, 125. 126, 
127, 128. 



Tursiops 

catalania, 122, 125, 

126, 127, 128. 
fcrgtismii, 122, 125, 

126, 127, 128. 
.9iKi, 126, 127, 128. 
■parvimaniis, 12(5. 
!jMrsio, 125, 126, 127 
128. 
Turtur 

orientalis, 55. 

Uromastix, 2-19. 

acanthmurus, 14. 

hardwickii, 2-9. 

sjnnipes, 2-9, 18. 
Ursus, 98. 

piscator, 1. 
Utetheisa 

pulchella, 93. 

Vaudellia 

aV;-Aosa, 189, 190. 
Varanus, 12, 19. 
Vespa 

vulgaris, 86. 
Vespertilio, 73. 

capensis, 257, 258. 

— gracilior, 257. 

matroka, 258. 

minutus, 257, 258. 
Vesperngo 

smitliii, 258. 

suhiilis, 258. 
Vidua 

principalis, 209. 

Serena, 209. 
Viverra 

cjw«a, 74, 205. 

Xiphorhampbus 

falcirostris, 190. 

/c;-o.r, 190. 
Xiphostoma 

lateristriga, 190. 

ocellahivi, 190. 

Zanienis 

mucosus, 250, 253. 
Zenkerella, 82. 



THE END. 



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January 17, 1905. 

Page 
The Secretary. Eeport on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in December 1904 . . 1 

Tlie Secretary. Esliibition of a photograph of an Indian Rhinoceros 1 

1. Some Notes on the Cranial Osteology of the Mastigure Lizard, TJroviastix. By Fuaxk 

E. Beddard, M. a., F.E.S., Prosector to the Society * 2 

2. A Contribntion to the Anatomy of the Frilled Lizard {Clilamydosaurus kingi) and some 

other Agamida. By Frank E. Beddarb, M.A., F.E.S., Prosector to the Society .... 9 

r>. A Note on tlie Brain of the Black Ape, CynopithecKS niger. By Frank E. Beddard, 

M.A., F.E.S., Prosector to the Society , 22 

4. On a Collection of Sipunculids made at Singapore and Malacca. By W. F. Lanciiester, 

M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology in University College, Dundee . 26 

r». The Marine Fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, from Collections made by Cyril 
Crosslaud in the Years 1901 and \%Q1. — Ge])hyrea. .By W. F. Lanciiester, M.A., 
Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology in University College, Dundee. 
• (Plate I.) 28 

(). On the Sipunculids and Echiurids collected during the ' Skeat' Expedition to the Malay 
Peninsula. By W. F. Lanchesteu, M.A., Assistant Lecturer and Demonstrator in 
Zoology in University College, Dundee. (Plate II.) 35 

7. On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmohranch Fishes. By A. D. Iji.ms, B.Sc. 

(Loud.), Zoological Laboratory, University of Birmingham. (Plate III.) 41 

5. Note on some recently discovered Remains of the Musk-Ox {Ovihos moschatus 

Zimmermann, sp.) from the Pleistocene Beds of Southern England. By C. W. Andrews, 
D.Sc, F.Z.S. (British Museum, Natural History) 50 

\). Descriptions of Three new Species of Birds obtained during the recent Expedition to 

Lhassa. By Henry E. Dresser, M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. (Plates IV. & V.) 54 

Febnxaiy 7, 1905. 

Tlie Secretary. Exhibition, on behalf of the Hon. Walter Eothschild, of a pair of mounted 

Gorillas olJ 

Mr. Frederick Oilletfc, F.Z.S. Exhibition of some mounted heads of the Eocky Mountain 

Clout 5t; 

.Mr. R. H. Burne, b'.Z.S, Exhibition of, and remarks upon, specimens made from the 

visuera of an ludian Rhinoceras that had died in the Gardens 5r> 

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1870 






,. 9s. 


6^;. '. 


.,, 12s 

. . , 6s. 


. . 33s. 


9d. ... 


45s 


Index, 


1861-1870 




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1871 






.. Qt. 




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. . 33s. 


9d. ... 


45s. 


1872 






.. 9s. 




... 12s.*.... 


. . 33s. 


9d. ... 


455.t 


1873 






.. 9s. 




... 12s 


. . 33s. 


9^. ... 


45s. 


1874 






.. 9s, 




... 12s.t.... 


. . 36s. 




48s.t 


1875 






,. 9s. 




... 12s 


. . 36s. 




48s. 


1876 






.. 9s, 




... 12s 


. . 36s. 




485. 


1877 






.. 9s. 




,,, 12s 


.. 36s. 




48s. 


1878 






.. 9s. 




.., 12s 


.. 36s, 




48s. 


1879 






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... 12s 


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48s. 


1880 






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48s. 


Index, 


1871-1880 




.. 4s. 


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... 6s, 

.,, 12s 


.. 36s. 






1881 




.. 9s. 


48s, 


1882 






.. 9s. 




.,, 12s 


.. 36s. 




48s. 


1883 






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,., 12s 


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48s, 


1884 






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.. 86s. 




48s. 


1885 






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48s. 


1886 






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48s. 


1887 






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. . 365. 




48s. 


1888 






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1889 






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1890 






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1881-1890 




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. . . 6s. 








1891 












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48s 


1892 












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1893 












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1894 












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1895 












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1896 












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1897 












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1898 












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1899 












. . 365. 


48s 


1900 












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48s 


Index, 


1891-1900 




. . 45. 


Qd. . 


. . . Qs. 






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June, 1905. 

Zoological Society of London, 
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P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, 

Secretary. 



LIST OF VOLUMES of the 'ZOOLOGICAL EECOED.' 



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Na_13. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.' 

January 17th, 1905. 

G. A. BouLEXGER, Esq., F.R.tS., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read a report on the additions that had been 
made to the Society's Menagerie during the month of December 
1904, and called special attention to a young male Greater Koodoo 
{Strepsiceros kudtt) presented by Major Irvine, I. M.S. ; to a 
Hairy-eared Bear {Ursus piscator) presented by Mr. Frederick 
Ringer ; to two Victoria Crowned Pigeons {Goura victorice), 
obtained by purchase ; and to a young specimen of Pousargue's 
Guenon {Gercopithecus pousaryuei) presented by Mr. L. Lester. 
The last-named animal was new to the Collection. The total 
number of additions during the month was 125. 

The Secretary exhibited an enlarged photograph, taken by 
Mr. H. Sandland and presented by hin to the Society, of "Jim," 
the Indian Rhinoceros which had recently died in the Gardens 
after an existence there of forty-one years. 

Mr. F. E. Beddard, F.R.S., lead the following three papers 
based on observations he had made on specimens that had died 
in the Society's Gardens : — (1) Some Notes on the Cranial 
Osteology of the Mastigure (f/'romasiia;) ; (2) A Contribution to 
the Anatomy of Chlamydosav,rus and some other Agamidce ; and 
(3) A Note on the Brain of Cynopithecus niger. 

In three communications by Mr. W. F. Lanchester, M.A., 
was given an account of (1) a collection of Sipunculids made at 
Singapore and Malacca ; (2) a collection of Gephyrean Worms 
from Zanzibar ; and (3) the Sipunculids and Echiurids collected 



* This Abstract is published by the Society at 3 Hanover Square, London, 
W., ou the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. It will 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings ' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
a1 the price of Swjjence, or, if desired, sent post-free for the sum of Six 
Shiliinijs per annum, payable in advance. 



2 

during the " Skeat Expedition " to the Malay Peninsula. Four 
new species were described in the second paper and nine in the 
last. 

A communication was read from Mr. A. D. Imms, entitled 
On the Oral and Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobranchs." The 
Author had found that these denticles were present in varied 
abundance over the mucous membrane lining both the oral and 
pharyngeal cavities in many of these fishes. Out of the specimens 
of the nineteen species (representing eighteen genera) examined, 
only five, belonging to as many genera, were found to be totally 
devoid of these structures. In some cases the denticles were 
uniformly distributed over the whole of the mouth, pharynx, and 
branchial ai'ches, and this appeared to be the primitive method 
of distribution. In other forms they tended to disappear from 
the roof and floor of the mouth and pharynx and became more 
or less restricted to the branchial arches, or confined almost 
entirely to the oral cavity. The structure of the denticles proved 
that they were undoubtedly placoid scales. They did not appear 
to subserve any definite function, and they were probably to be 
regarded as vestigial organs. 

Dr. C. W. Andrews, F.Z.S., exhibited and made remarks upon 
the skull of a Musk-Ox from the river-gravels of the Severn 
Valley at Fi-ampton-on-Severn, near Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
The specimen consisted of the cranial portion of the skull of 
an old bwll, and was found by Mr. W. T. Rennie, of Chepstow, 
who had presented it to the British Museum. Remains of this 
species were comparatively rare in Biitain, and the nearest 
previously I'ecorded locality to that described was Barnwood, near 
Gloucester. 

Mr. H. E. Dresser, F.Z.S., exhibited and described three new 
birds obtained by Col. Waddell, C.B., on the recent expedition to 
Lhassa, these being the ornithological first-fruits of that expe- 
dition, viz. : — 

Babax avaddelli, nearest to, but difiering widely from, Babax 
lanceolatus ; 

Garrulax tibetanus, a much darker and more uniformly 
coloured bird than Garrulax sannio, with the terminal part of the 
tail white ; and 

Lanius lama, a much darker bird than Lanius schach, with less 
white on the forehead, no rufous on the back or scapulai's, and no 
trace of an alai' specidum. 



The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will be 
held on Tuesday, the 7th February, 1905, at half-past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — ■ 

1. Mr. ISTelson Aistnandale. — On Abnormal Ranid Larva? from 
North-eastern India, 

2. Mr. G. A. BouLEKGBR, F.R.S.— On a Second Collection of 
Fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Kenya District, East 
Africa. 

3. Dr. R. Beoom, O.M.Z.S. — On some Points in the Anatomy 
of Biademodon. 

4. Mr. George L. Bates. — Notes on the Mammals of Southern 
Cameroons and the Benito. 



The following Papers have been received : — 

1. Mr. Martin" A. C. Hinton. — On some Abnormal Remains of 
Cervus elaphus from the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the South 
of England. 

2. Mr. G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. — A Contribution to our 
Knowledge of the Vaiieties of Lctcerta onundis in Western 
Europe and North Africa. 

3. Mr. G. T. Bethune-Baker, F.Z.S.— Notes on a small Col- 
lection of Heterocera from the Fiji Islands, with Descriptions of 
some new Species. 

4. Mr. R. Lydekker. — On Dolphins from Travancore. 

5. Mr. R. Lydekker. — On the Nigerian and Kilimanjaro 
Giraftes. 

6. Mr. Cyril CROSSLA^^D, F.Z.S. — The Q^lcology and Deposits 
of the Cape Verde Marine Fauna. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zoological Society of Londoin' should be addressed to 

P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, >Secrei>ny. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
2ith Jammry, 1905. 



No. 14. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON* 

February 7th, 1905. 
Howard Sauxdebs, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary exhibited, on behalf of the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, F.Z.S., a pair of mounted Gorillas. The animals 
appeared to be nearly adult and were probably from 12 to 13 years 
old. Tlie male was unusually red on the head, while the female 
displayed no trace of this colour. This difference of coloration 
confirmed Mr. Rothschild's opinion that Gorilla castaneiceps of 
Slack was an aberration and not entitled to specific or subspecific 
rank. 

Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S., exhibited some mounted heads 
of the Rocky-Mountain Goat {Haploceros movtamis), with the 
object of calling attention to a gland lying at the base of each 
horn, M'hich he believed had not been previously described. 

Mr. R. H. BuRNE, F.Z.S., exhibited some specimens made from 
the viscera of the Indian Rhinoceros " Jim " that had lately died 
in the Society's Gardens. 

A communication from Mr. Kelson Annandale contained a 
description of two i^bnormal larvfe of the Frog Eana alticola. 

Mr. G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S., gave an account of a second 
collection of Fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Kenya 
District of East Africa. Examples of five species were contained 
in the collection, three of which were new to science. 



* This Abstract is publisbed by the Society at 3 Hanover Square, Loufion, 
W., on the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. _ It will 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings ' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
at the price of Sixpence, or, if desired, rent post-free for the sum of Six 
Skiliinffs per annum, payable in advance. 



A paper was read from Dr. R. Broom, C.M.Z.S., entitled " On 
some Points in the Anatomy of a Theriodont Reptile." 

A communication from Mr. George L. Bates contained field- 
notes on the Mammals of Southern Oameroons and the Benito. 

A communication from Mr. G. T. Bethujs-e-Baker, F.Z.S., 
contained an account of a collection of Heterocera from the Fiji 
Islands. Of the species enumerated eleven were new to 
cience. 

Mr. F. E. Beddard, F.R.S., read a paper entitled " A Contri- 
bution to the Knowledge of the Arteries of the Brain in the 
Class Aves." 

Mr. Macleod Yearsley. F.Z.S., read a paper on the Function 
of the Antennae in Insects. After reviewing the literature on 
the subject he pointed out that Lowne, in his work on the 
Blowfly, suggested that the antennae were probably balancing 
rather than auditory organs. Lord Avebury and Latreille were 
cited in favour of this view, and the work of Yves Delage on 
Crustacea and of Clemens upon a moth {Samia cecropia) as 
confirmatory expeiiments. 

The Author then gave details of experiments upon 30 Wasps 
{Vespa vulgaris) in which the antennae had been removed. The 
results of this mutilation were : — 1. Loss of power of flight ; 
2. Loss of sense of direction ; 3. Noticeable slowness in all 
movements. The conclusion arrived at was that, in Wasps, the 
antennae were equilibrating in function. This supported Lowne's 
surmise and corroborated the experiments of Clemens on Samia 
cecropia. 



'The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will 
be held on Tuesday, the 21st February, 1905, at half- past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — 

1. Mr. G. A. BouLENGER, F.R.S. — A Contribution to our 
Knowledge of the Varieties of Lacerta muralis in Western 
Europe and North Africa. 

2. Mr. R. Lydekker.— On the Nigerian and Kilimanjaro 
Giraftes. 

3. Mr. Cyril Crosslakd, F.Z.S.— The CEcology and Deposits 
of the Cape Yei'de Marine Fauna. 

4. Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and Mr. Harold Schwann, 
F.Z.S.— The Rudd Exploration of South Africa.— II. List of 
Mammals from the Wakkerstroom District, South-eastern 
Trar-svaal. 



The following Papers have been received : — 

1. Mr. Martin A. C. Hinton. — On some Abnormal Remains 
of Cervus elaphus from the Post- Pliocene Deposits of the South 
of England. 

2. Mr. R. Lydekker. — On Dolphins from Travancore. 

3. Dr. R. Broom, O.M.Z.S. — On the Affinities of Procoloplion, 

4. Mr. R. I. PococK. — On the Greater Kudu of Somaliland. 

5. Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S. — A Revision of the Fishes of 
the South- American Cichlid Genera Crenacara, Batrachojys, and 
Crenicichla. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zooloc4ical Society of London should be addressed to 



P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, Secretary. 



3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
14iA February ^ 1905. 



No. 15. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON* 

February 31st, 1905. 
Howard Saunders, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read a report on the additions that had been 
made to the Society's Menagerie duiing the month of January 
1905, and called special attention to a Red Teetee {Gcdlithrix 
cuprea) from Bi-azil, representatives of two unknown species of 
Lemur from Madagascar, a pair of Moulion {Ovis musimon) 
from Corsica, a Prongbuck [Antiloccqyra americana) from North 
America, an Ethiopian Wart-Hog {Fhacochoerus cethiopicus), and 
two Black-and- White Geese {Anseranas semipalmata) from 
Australia. The total number of additions during the month 
was 70. 

Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S., exhibited, on behalf of Mr. 
Rowland Ward, F.Z.S., a mounted specimen of the Blackbuck 
{Antilope cervicapra). The animal was remarkable for the extent 
and depth of the dark coloration which covered the wliole of the 
face, obliterating the white eye-patches. 

Mr. R. I. PococK, F.Z.S., exhibited some specimens of the 
South- African Milhpede {,SpirostrepUts pj/rocep/udas), presented by 
Mr. Gutlirie, of Port Elizabeth, to tlie Society's Gardens. These 
Millipedes had bred in the Gardens. 

Mr. G. A. BouiiENGER, F.R.S., read a paper entitled " A Con- 
tribution to our Knowledge of the Yarieties of Lacerta viuralis 
in Western Europe and North Africa." 

A communication was read from Mr. R. Lydekker, F.R.S., on 
the Nigerian Giraffe {Giraffa camelopardalis percdta) and the 



* This Abstract is published by the Society at 3 Hanorei- Square, London, 
W., on the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. It will 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
at the price of Siccj^ence, or, if desired, sent post-free for the sum of Six 
ShiUings per annum, payable in advance. 



10 

Kilimanjaro Giraflfe {G. camelopardalis tippelskirchl), based on 
specimens recently received at the Natural History Museum. 

A second communication from Mr. Lydekker, on Dolphins from 
Tra van core, was also read. In it the author made special reference 
to two specimens of the genus Tursiops, drawings and particulars 
of which had been supplied to him from the Trevandrum Museum, 

A paper by Messrs. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and Harold 
Schwann, F.Z.S., giving an accovint of a second collection of 
Mammals made by Mr. C. H. B. Grant for Mr C. D. Rudd's 
exploration of South Africa, was read. 

The collection, which had been presented to the National 
Museum by Mr. Eudd, was made in the Wakkerstroom district 
of the South-eastern Transvaal and includes examples of twenty- 
six species. 

Several local subspecies were described, besides the following 
new Shrew from Zululand : — 

Myosorex sclateri, sp. n. 

Allied to Myosorex varius, but larger and darker. General 
colour dark bistre-brown instead of grey. 

Dimensions of the type (male) : — Head and body 99 mm. ; 
tail 53 ; hind foot 16 ; ear 10-5, 

Skull : basal length 22 ; greatest breadth across brain-case 12*5 ; 
length of upper tooth-series 10-5. 

ffab. Ngoye Hills, Zululand : alt. 250 m. 

Tijpe. Male. B.M. no. 4.12.3.12. 

Mr. R. I. PococK, F.Z.S., read a paper on the Greater Kudu 
of Somaliland, and pointed out that the northern form of Strepsi- 
ceros strepsiceros differed from the southern in having only about 
fiA^e white stripes instead of nine or ten on each side of the body. 
The northern form should thus rank as a distinct subspecies, for 
which the name chora was available. The difference in coloration 
seemed to be correlated with a difference of habitat, the northern 
form frequenting more mountainous and less thickly- wooded 
cx)untry than the southern, which was frequently found in the 
thick jungle along river-banks as well as in the hills. 



The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will 
be held on Tuesday, the 7th March, 1905, at half -past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — 

1. Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B.— Notes on the 
Mammals and Birds of Libei-ia. 

2. Mr. Cryil Crossland, F.Z.S. — The (Ecology and Deposits 
of the Cape Yerde Marine Fauna. 



11 

3. Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S.— A Revision of the Fishes of 
the South- American Cichlid Genera Crenacara, Batrachops. and 
Crenicichla. 

4. Capt. R. Meikertzhagen, F.Z.S.— Kotes on a new Oribi 
Antelope from the Kenya District, British East Africa. 



The following Papers have been received : — 

1. Mr. Martin A. C. Hinton. — On some Abnormal Remains 
of Cervus elaphus ivovn the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the South 
of England. 

2. Dr. R. Broom, O.M.Z.S. — On the Affinities of Procolophon. 

3. Dr. E. LoNXBERG, O.M.Z.S. — On Hybrids betAveen Lepus 
tlniidus and L. eicropceus from Southern Sweden. 

4. Mr. R. I. PocoCK, F.Z.S.— On the Effects of Castration on 
the Horns of the Prongbuck. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zoological Society of London should be addressed to 

P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, Secretary/. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 

2Sth February/, 1905. 



CkDNTENTS {continued). 

February 7, 1905 {contimted). 

Page 

1. On Abnormal Eanid Larvse from North-Eastern India. By Nelson Annandale, B.A., 

Deputy Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. (Plate VI.) .58 

2. On a Second Collection of Fishes made by Mr. S. L. Hinde in the Kenya District, East 

Africa. By G. A. Boulengbe, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. (Plate VII.) iVl 

3. Notes on the Mammals of Southern Cameroons and the Benito. By George L. 

Bates (iri 

4. A Contribution to the Study of the Function of the Antennaj in Insects. By Macleod 

Yearsley, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. ,. sf. 

.5. Notes on a small Collection of Heterocera from the Fiji Islands, with Descriptions of 

some New Species. By G. T. Bethune-Bakee, F.L.S., F.Z.S. (Plates VIII. & IX.). . 88 

<■(. On some Points in the Anatomy of the Theriodont Reptile Blademodon. By E-. 

Broom, M.D., C.M.Z.S., Victoria College, Stellenbosch. (Plate X.) iJG 

7. A Contribution to the Knowledge of the. Arteries of the Brain in tlie Class Aves. By 

Frank E. Beddard, M.A., F.R.S., Prosector to the Society 102 



February 21, 1905. 

The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in January 1905 .... lis 

Mr. Henry Scberren, F.Z.S. Exhibition, on behalf of Mr. Rowland Ward, of a melanistic 

specimen of the Blackbuck ; 1 1 >.< 

Mr. R. I. Poeock, F.Z.S. Exhibition of specimens of the South-African Millipede, 

Spirosfreptus p7/rocephalus Ug 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Notice of a Memoir entitled "A Contribution to our 
Knowledge of the Varieties of Lacerta muralis in Western Europe and North ■ 
^fi-i'^a" • 118 

1. On the Nigerian and Kilimanjaro GirafiFes. By R. Lydekkek. (Plates XI. & XII.) . . ll'J 

2. On Dolphins from Travancore. By R. Lydekker. (Plate XIII.) loy 

.3. The Rudd Exploration of South Africa. — II. List of Mammals from the Wakkerstroom 
District, South-Eastern TransTaal. By Oldpield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S., and Harold 
Schwann, F.Z.S jojt 

4. On the Greater Kudu of Somaliland. By R. I. Pocock, Superintendent of the 

Gardens -^-j^i^ 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1905.— VOL. I. 
PART I. 



Plate Page 

I. Gephyrea from Zanzibar 28 

IT. Gephyrea from the Malay Penmsula ... 35 

III. Pharyngeal Denticles of Elasmobranchs 41 

IV. Babax waddeUi t . , 

V. 1.. Lanius lama. 2. Garrulax tihetanus J 

Vl. Abnormal Banid Larvae 58 

VII. 1. Biscognathus hindii. 2. Barbus thikensis. 3. AmpJdlius 

grandis 62 

lY [ Heterocera from the Fiji Islands 88 

X. Biademodon mastacus 90 

XI. Giraffa camelopardalis tipfelskirchi (Immature female) \ 

XII. l^igs. 1, 2. Head and neck of Giraffa camelopardalis peralta. I 119 

Fig. 3. Back yiew of head of G. c. cottoni | 

XIII. Dolphins from Travancore 122 



NOTICE. 

The ' Proceedings ' for the year are issued in four parts, forming two volumes, 

as follows: — 

VOL. I. 

Part I. containing papers read in January and February, in June. 

II. „ ., „ March and April, in August. 

VOL. II. 
Part I. containing papers read in May and June, in October. 

II. „ „ „ November and December, in April. 

' Proceedings,' 1904, Vol. II. Part II. was published on April 18th, 1905. 



The Abstracts of the papers read at the Scientific Meetings in 
January and February are contained in this Part. 



'M 



PROCEEDINGS 



GENERAL MEETINaS FOR SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

OF LONDON. 
1905, vol. I. 



PART II. 

CONTAINING PAPERS READ IN 

MARCH AND APRIL. 



AUGUST 1905. 



FEINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
SOLD AT THEIE HOUSE IN HANOVER SQUARE. 

LONDON: , 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GRKBN, AND CO., 

PATERNOSTER-ROW. ^^^ 



\_Price Twelve Shillings.'] 



f 



'%^- 



scr.t-? 



LIST OF CO^'TEINTS. 

1905.— Vol. 1. 
Part II. 



March 7, 1905. 

Page 
Dr. Albert A. Gx-ay. Exhibition of a series of lantern-slides of, and remarks upon, the 

Membranous Labyrinth of certain animals 143 

Mr. Henry Scherreo, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, illustrations of a Zebra in 

works by Aldrovandus and Ludolphus 145 

Mr. J. Lewis Bonhote, F.Z.S. Remarks on the hybridisation of Ducks, illustrated with 

specimens 147 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. Exhibition of a series of Fishes from Lake Chad and the 

Sliari River - 151 

1. A Revision of the Fishes of the South-American Cichlid Genera Cromcara, Batrackoj^s, 

and Crenicichla. By C. Tate Reg.'vn, B.A., F.Z.S. (Plates XTV. & XV.) 152 

2. Notes on a New Oribi Antelope from the Kenya District, British East Africa. By 

Capt. R. Meinertzhagen, F.Z.S 169 

3. The fficology and Deposits of the Cape Verde Marine Fauna. By Cyril Crossland, 

M.A., B.Sc, F.Z.S., Carnegie Fellow and Fellow of the University of St. Andrews . . 170 



March 21, 1905. 

The Secretary. Report on the Additions to tlie Society's Menagerie in February 1905 . . 186 

Mrs. S. L. Hinde. Exti-act from a letter from, giving an account of an Antelope killing 

a bird 187 

Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a photograph of a wounded 

Oryx hiding in bushes 187 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, a series of sketches of Fishes 

of the Rio Negro , 189 

Mr. Macleod Yearsley, F.Z.S. Exhibition of an X-ray photogi-aph of a Snake with two 

Frogs within it 190 

Mr. R. B. Holding. Exhibition of Antlers of Deer showing arrest of development due to 

Castration 190 

1 . The Effects of Castration on the Horns of the Prongbuck {Antilocapra americana). By 

R. I. PocoCK, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Superintendent of the Gardens . . . . , 191 

2 Notes on the Mammals and Birds of Liberia. By Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., 

K.C.B., F.Z.S 197 



THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



This Society was fouaded iu 1826 bj' Sir Stamford Raffles, 
"Mr. J. Sabine, Mr. N. A. Vigors, and other eminent Naturalists, 
for the advancement of Zoologj' and Animal Physiology, and for the 
introduction of new and curious subjects of the Animal Kingdom, 
and was incorporated by Eoyal Charter in 1829. 



COUNCIL. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF BEDFOED, K.G., President. 



Sir Alexander Baird, Bt. 
George A. Botjlenger, Esq., 

F.R.S., Vice-President. 
Thomas H. Burroughes, Esq. 
F. G. D. Drewitt, Esq., M.A.^ 

M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Herbert Druce, Esq., E.L.S., 

Vice-President. 
Charles Drtjmmond, Esq., 

Treasurer. 
Sir Edward Durand, Bt., C.B. 
Ekederice: Gillett, Esq. 
F. Du Cane Godman, Esq., 

D.C.L., F.R.S., Vice-President. 
W. R. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq. 



J. Jackson Lister, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Sir Edmund Giles Lodee, Bt. 

E. G. B. Meade-Waldo, Esq. 

P. Chalmers Mitchell, Esq., 
M.A., D.Sc, Secretary. 

E. LoRT Phillips, Esq. 

Howard Saunders, Esq., Vice- 
President. 

H.S.H. Prince Francis op Teck. 

Charles S, Tomes, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., Vice-President. 

Augustus F. Wiener, Esq. 

Henry Woodward, Esq., LL.D., 
F.R.S. , Vice-President. 



The Society consists of Fellows, and Honorarj', Foreign, and 
Corresponding Members, elected according to the By-Laws. 

The Gardens in the Eegent's Park are open from Nine o'clock a.m. 
till Sunset. 

The Offices (3 Hanover Square, W.), where all communications 
should be addressed, are open from Ten till Five, except on Satur- 
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The Library (3 Hanover Square), under the superintendence of 
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The Meetings of the Society for General Business are held at the 
Office on the Thursday following the third Wednesday in every 
month of the year, except in September and October, at Four p.m. 

The Meetings for Scientific Business are held at the Office twice 
a month on Tuesdays, except in Jiily, August, September, and 
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The Anniversary Meeting is held on the 29th April, at Four p.m., 
or the nearest convenient day (April 28, 1905). 

TERMS FOE THE ADMISSION OF FELLOWS. 
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or a Composition of =£30 in lieu thereof; the whole payment, 
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No person can become a Fellow until his Admission Fee and 
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25 per cent, is also made upon all purchases of Publications issued 
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Any Fellow, having paid all fees due to the Society, is at liberty to 
withdraw his name upon giving notice in writing to the Secretarj\ 

Ladies or Gentlemen wishing to become Fellows of the Society 
are requested to communicate with the undersigned. 

P. CHALMEllS MITCHELL, M.A., D.Sc, 

Secretary. 
3 Hanover Square, London, W., 
August, 1005. 



MEETINGS 

OE THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 

EOR 

SCIENTIFIC BUSINESS. 

(AT 3 HANOVEE SQUARE, W.) 



TuESDAr, June .... 6 

,, November 14 and 28 



1905. 

Tuesday, December 12 



The Chair will he talcen at half-past Eight o'clock in the Evening 
precisely. 



LIST OF THE PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



The scientific publications of the Zoological Society of London 
are of two kinds — " Proceedings/' published in an octavo 
form^ and '' Transactions," in quarto. 

According to the present arrangements,, the " Proceedings" 
contain not only notices of all business transacted at the scien- 
tific meetings, but also all the papers read at such meetings 
and recommended to be published in the ''Proceedings" by 
the Committee of Publication. A large number of coloured 
plates and engravings are attached to each annual volume of 
the " Proceedings," to illustrate the new or otherwise remark- 
able species of animals described in them. Amongst such 
illustrations, figures of the new or rare species acquired in a 
living state for the Society's Gardens are often given. 

The "^ Proceedings " for each year are issued in four parts, 
on the first of the months of June, August, October, and 
April, the part published in April completing the volume 
for the last half of the preceding year. From January 1901 
they have been issued as two half-yearly volumes. 

The " Transactions " contain such of the more important 
communications made to the scientific meetings of the Society 
as, on account of the nature of the plates required to illustrate 
them, are better adapted for publication in the quarto form. 
They are issued at irregular intervals. 

Fellows and Corresponding Members, upon payment of 
a Subscription of One Guinea before the day of the Anni- 
versary Meeting in each year, are entitled to receive the 
Society's Publications for the year. They are likewise 
entitled to purchase the Publications of the Society at 25 per 
cent, less than the price charged for them to the Public. A 
further reduction of 25 per cent, is made upon purchases of 
Publications issued prior to 1881, if they exceed the value of 
five pounds. 

Fellows also have the privilege of subscribing to the 
Annual Volume of the Zoological Record for a sum of 305. 
(which includes cost of delivery), payable on the 1st July 
in each year; but this privilege is forfeited unless the 
subscription be paid before the 1st of December following. 

The following is a complete list of the publications of the 
Society already issued. 

^August, 1905.] 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, 





4to. 


16 vols, and Index, 


Price to 
Fellows. 


Price to the 
Public. 


Vol. I., 


containing 69 Plates 


... (1833-35) .. 


. £3 13 


6 . 


. . £4 18 Of 


. n.. 




71 „ 


... (1835-41) .. 


. 4 


. 


.. 5 6 6t 


„ III., 




63 „ 


. . . (1842-49) . . 


. 3 8 


3 . 


. . 4 11 Ot 


„ IV., 




77 „ 


... (1851-62) .. 


. 6 2 


. 


.. 8 2 6t 


„ v., 




67 „ 


... (1862-66) .. 


. 5 4 


3 . 


.. 6 19 


„ VI., 




92 „ 


... (1866-69) .. 


. 11 6 


. 


..15 


„ VII., 




73 „ 


... (1869-72) .. 


. 10 4 


. 


. . 13 12 


„ VIII., 




82 „ 


... (1872-74) .. 


. 9 8 


8 . 


. . 12 11 


„ IX., 




99 „ 


... (1875-77) .. 


. 12 1 


6 . 


..16 2 


)! ^-I 




95 „ 


... (1877-79) .. 


. 10 


3 . 


..13 7 


Index, Vols. T-X. 




. . n 883-79^ . . 


. 7 


6 


10 


Vol. XI., 


containing 97 Plates.. (1880-85) .. 


. 9 12 


. 


. . 12 16 


„ XII., 




. 65 „ 


.. (1886-90) .. 


. 5 8 


. 


..740 


„ XIII., 




„ 62 „ 


.. (1891-95) .. 


. 6 8 


3 . 


.. 8 11 


„ XIV., 




„ 47 „ 


. . (1896-98) . . 


. 5 5 


. 


..700 


„ XV., 




„ 52 „ 


.. (1898-1901) 


. 5 15 


6 . 


. . 7 14 


„ XVI., 




j> 38 „ 


. . (1901-1903) 


. 5 8 


. 


..740 


„ XVIL, 


Pt. 1 


>; 5 ,, 


. . (Aug. 1903) 


. 1 2 


6 . 


. . 1 10 


„ XVIL, 


„ 2 


» 3 „ 


. . (Aug. 1903) . 


, 13 


6 . 


. . 18 


„ XVIL, 


„ 3 


V 13 „ 


.. (Oct. 1904).. 


. 1 2 


6 . 


.. 1 10 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE COMMITTEE OF SCIENCE AND 

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VII. 1839. 

VIII. 1840. 



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Public. 


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Public. 


1861 


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1862 


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Qd. . 


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1868 


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M. . 


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1864 


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1865 


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1866 


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1867 






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1868 






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1870 






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1878 






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LIST OF VOLUMES of the 'ZOOLOGICAL EECOED.' 



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{3 Hanover Square, W.). 



No. 16. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.^ 

March 7tli, 1905. 

Dr. W. T. Blanford, O.I.E., F.R.S., Vice-President, 
in the Chair, 



Dr. Albert Gray exhibited a series of lantern-slides in illus- 
tration of remarks upon the membranous labyrinth of certain 
animals. 

Mr. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S., called attention to pictures of 
the Zebra in Aldrovanclus (1640) and the ' Commentarius ' of 
Ludolphus (1691). In the course of his remarks he said that in 
the seventeenth century Zebras (now known as Equips grevyi) 
had been sent by the Euler of Abyssinia to the Governor of the 
Dutch East India Company at Batavia, and to the Sultan of 
Turkey, so that the species was seen in Europe two centuries 
before the type of Equus grevyi reached France in 1882. In 
proof, passages were cited from Philostorgius Ludolphus, Jean de 
Thevenot, and other writers, 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., exhibited and made some 
remarks on a series of spirit-specimens of Fishes from Lake 
Chad and the Chari River, collected and presented to the British 
Museum by Capt. G. B. Gosling. 

Mr. J. L, BoNHOTE, F.Z.S., gave an exhibition of hybrid Ducks 
which had been bred in his aviaries at Cambridge. The crosses 
exhibited dealt chiefly with four species, of which the following 
were shown : — 

Anas boschas xA. 'pcecilorhyncha, 

Anas boschas x A. pcecilorhyncha x Dafila aciota, 

Anas boschas X A. pceciloi-hyncha xA. superciliosa, 

Anas boschas X A. pcecilorhyncha X A. superciliosa x D. acuta. 

* This Abstract is published by the Society at 3 Hanover Square, London, 
W., on the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. It will 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings ' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
at the price of Sixpence, or, if desired, sent post-free for tiie sum of *S'/.r 
Shillings per annum, payable in adyance. 



u 

In describing the various plumages Mr. Bonhote pointed out that 
the hybrids Mallard [Anas hoschas) X Spotbill [A-, pcecilorhyncha) 
X Pintail {Dafila acuta) were divisible into two races, a light 
and a dark, and also that, whereas in the full-plumaged drakes 
the Mallard and Pintail characters were chiefly apparent, in the 
eclipse plumage the characters of the Spotbill supervened. Some 
curious resemblances to species other than their parents were 
then noticed, and also characters that could be referred to no 
known species. 

Mr. Bonhote then referred to a paper he had read to the 
Linnean Society last year, pointing out that colour-variations 
tended to appear first of all on cei-tain definite parts of the body, 
and that these parts, to which the name " poecilomeres " had been 
giA^en, were common to mammals and birds alike. After treating 
of this matter at some length, Mr. Bonhote came to the conclusion 
that, from the study of the birds shown, hybridisation tended 
to bring about great variation, which followed the lines of the 
poecilomeres, and as the result of that variation resemblances were 
shown towards species which had no part in their parentage. 

As illustrating this last statement, a bird (presumably a hybrid 
between a Wigeon and Pintail) which had been shot wild a short 
time back was shown. This bird, in addition to the characters 
of the two parent species, showed on the head ma.rkings that 
might be referred to both the Teal and the New Zealand Duck. 

A communication from Mr. Cyril Crossland, F.Z.S., contained 
an account of the CEcology and Deposits of the Cape Verde 
Marine Fauna. The Author pointed out that so far as the Cape 
Yerde Group was concerned there was no evidence of any common 
tropical marine fauna, though certain species were found in both 
the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Reef animals were remarkably 
few in number, the fauna in their place having a considerable 
subtropical constituent. 

Bock simulating coral-rag was formed at the low-tide level by 
serpulid tubes fused together by Lithothamnion, and by the latter 
and Foraminifera between 5 and 20 fathoms. The absence of 
i-eefs might be due in some degree to the remarkably steep coasts 
of the islands, but it was more especially owing to the extra- 
ordinary dominance of boring sponges, worms, and molluscs. 
Beach sandstone w.^s formed by the deposition of calcareous 
cement where the f i-esh water met the salt ; it was only found in 
certain situations, and was everywhere being slowly eroded away 
by the sea. 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S., read a paper entitled " A Revision 
of the South- American Cichlid Genera, Crenacara^ Batrachops, 
and Crenicichla" in which 23 species were described, 4 of them as 
new to science. 

A communication from Capt. Ft. Mein^ertzhagex contained 



15 

the following description of a new Antelope from British East 
Africa : — 

OUREBIA KENY^, Sp. n. 

Allied to 0. haggardi, but with the horns smaller, thinner, and 
smoother. 

Basal length of typical skull 145 mm.; length of horns 136, 
circumference at base 53. 

Hah. Upper Tana River, Mt. Kenya District. 

Type. British Museum, No. 4.11.5.28, 



The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will 
be held on Tuesday, the 21st March, 1905, at half-past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — 

1. Sir Harky Johnston, G.O.M.G., K.O.B. — Notes on the 
Mammals and Birds of Liberia. 

2. Mr. Martin A. 0. Hinton. — On some Abnormal Remains 
of Cervus elaphus from the Post-Pliocene Deposits of the South 
of England. 

3. Dr. R. Broom, C.M.Z.S. — On the Affinities of Procolophon. 

4. Mr. R. I. PococK, F.Z.S.— On the Efi'ects of Castration on 
the Horns of the Prongbuck. 



The following Papers have been received :— 

1. Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. — Notes on Parasites from the 
Zoological Gardens, London, and elsewhere. 

2. Dr. E. Lonnberg, C.M.Z.S. — On Hybrids between Lepus 
tiviidus and L. europceus from Southern Sweden. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zoological Society of London should be addressed to 

P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, Secretary. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
Uth March, 1905. 



No. 17. 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE 

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON* 

March 21st, 1905. 
G. A. BouLENGER, Esq., F.R.S., Yice-President, in the Chan\ 



The Secketary read a report on the additions that had been 
made to the Society's Menagerie duidng the month of February 
1905, and called special attention to a female Kiang [Bquus 
hemionus kiang) deposited by H.M. The King ; to a male Lynx 
{Felis lynx) from the Caucasus and a male Leopard of the Persian 
race {Felis pardus tulUana), received in exchange ; and to a semi- 
albino variety of the Common Fox [Canis vulpes), received on 
deposit. 

The Secretary also read an extract from a letter from Mrs. S. 
L. Hinde describing the act of a Duiker [Cephalophits sp. inc.) 
killing a Partridge and devouring its head, which it was thought was 
committed by the animal to gratify its desire for salt. 

Mr. Frederick Gillett, F.Z.S., exhibited a photograph of a 
wounded Oryx {Oryx beisa) hiding in undergrowth of wood in 
its native haunts, in order to show the protective nature of the 
coloration of the animal. 

Mr. C. Tate Regan, F.Z.S., exhibited and made remarks upon 
a series of pencil sketches of Fishes of the Rio Negro and its 
tribu.taries made by Dr. A. R. Wallace about fifty years ago. 

Mr. Macleod Yearsley, F.Z.S., exhibited a radiograph of a 
living Snake showing the skeletons of two frogs it had swallowed 
some hours previously. 



* This Abstract is published by the Society at 3 Hanover Square, London' 
W., on the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. It will 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings ' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
at the price of Sixpence, or, if desired, sent post-free for the sum of SLv 
Shillings per annum, payable in advance 



18 

Mr. R. E. Holding exhibited and made remarks upon some 
skulls of the Fallow Deer {Dama vulgaris) and the Red Deer 
[Oervus elaphus) showing arrest of the growth of the antlers due 
to complete or partial castration. 

Mr. R. I. PococK, F.Z.S., read a paper upon the efiects of cas- 
tration upon the horns of the Prongbuck (^Antiloccqyra americana), 
and pointed out that in a gelded specimen recently deposited in 
the Gardens the horns formed a semicircular procurvature from 
the root, ending in a slightly incurved point close beneath the eye ; 
that each horn-sheath, measuring about 9 inches along its convex 
side, was composite, consisting of six partially severed stunted 
sheaths ; that the " prong," or anterior tyne, was sometimes 
represented by a small tubercle, but was not present upon all the 
component sheaths. Hence the effects of the operation were 
curvature in growth, prevention of exuviation, and practical sup- 
pression of the anterior tyne. 

Sir Harry Johnston, G.O.M.G., K.C.B., read a paper on the 
Mammals and Birds of Liberia. He was of opinion that, although 
Liberia was not marked off clearly by any natural features from 
either Sierra Leone on the one hand, or the Ivory Coast on the 
other, it possessed a certain distinctness and a slight degree of 
peculiarity as regards its flora and fauna. As regards Mammals 
and Birds, Liberia was, to a great extent, a meeting-place for the 
forms of ISToi'thern Guinea (Siei-ra Leone to the Gambia) and those 
of the Gold Coast, the Niger Delta, and the Cameroons. The 
species of Mammals peculiar to it included the Dwarf Hippopo- 
tamus, the Zebra Antelope, Jentink's Duiker, and Bilttikofer's 
Monkey. The author enumerated eighteen species of Mammals 
and twenty of Birds, specimens of which had been obtained by 
various collectors in Liberia. 

Mr. Martin A. 0. Htnton read a paper on Abnormal Remain 
of the Red Deer [Gervus elcqyhus). The remains consisted of 
three antlers which were obtained from different Post-Pliocene 
deposits in the South of England. They agreed in having all the 
tynes suppressed and in being sujoported upon very long pedicles, 
thus resembling in form, though much exceeding in size, those of 
the Pricket. Rudimentary offsets were seen on the most perfect 
example, which proved the antler to be the third in the series. 
These antlei'S belonged to individuals who had suffei-ed testicular 
injury at an early period of life, by which the characters of youth 
were I'etained for a longer period than was visual. 

A paper by Dr. R. Broom, C.M.Z.S., entitled " On the Affinities 
of Procolojihon" was communicated by Dr. A. Smith Woodward, 
F.R.S. 

The author believed that Reptiles in Permian times became 



ID 

specialised along two distinct lines : the one represented by the 
Pareiasaurians, Anomodonts, Therocephalians, and Theriodonts, 
and terminating in the Mammals ; the second giving rise to all 
the other reptilian orders. The common ancestor was believed to 
have been a ti-ue reptile probably belonging to the order Ootylo- 
sauria. Procolophon was held to be an early member of the 
branch which led to the Rhynchocephalians, and possibly fairly 
closely allied to the land ancestor of Mesosaurus. 

Professor H. G. Sbkley, F.R.S., described the skidls of the 
Fossil Reptile Procolophon from Donnybrook and Fernrocks. He 
considered that the bone hitherto regarded as quadrato-jugal was 
the qnadrate bone, which was embedded in the squamosal and 
sent a strong thin process inward above the pterygoid. The size 
of the posterior process of the quadi^ate was a character distin- 
guishing species. There was no postorbital foramen in several 
species ; it attained its maximum in Procolofohon laticeps. The 
occipital region was closed and projected beyond the squamosal 
and quadi-ate bones. The molar teeth had inner and outer cusps. 
The fore and hind limbs were also described. The author con- 
clvided that the main affinities were with the Anomodontia, chiefly 
with the Pareiasauria, and in the teeth with the Theriodontia ; 
but that in a less degree there were indications of affinity with 
Reptiles classed as Labyrinthodonts. All parts of the skeleton 
supported the separation of the Procolophonia as an order of 
extinct Reptilia. 



The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will 
be held on Tuesday, the 18th April, 1905, at half- past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — 

1. Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S. — Notes on Ento- Parasites from 
the Zoological Gardens, London, and elsewhei'e. 

2. Dr. E. LoNNBEEG, O.M.Z.S. — On Hybrids between Lepus 
timidus and L. europcei(,s from Southern Sweden, 

3. Mr. R. H. BuRNE, F.Z.S.— Notes on the Muscular and 
Yisceral Anatomy of a Leathery Turtle {Demochelys coriacea). 



The following Papers have been received : — 

1. Prof. E. A. MiNCHiN, F.Z.S. — On Leucosolenia contorta 
Bowerbank, Ascanclra contorta Haeckel, and Ascetta sjnnosa 
Lendenfeld. 

2. Mr. A. L. Butler, F.Z.S.— On the Giant Eland of the 
Bahr-el-Ghazal {Taurotragrcs de7-biauics gigas Heugl.). 



20 

3. Mr. F. E. Beddard, F.Z.S, — Some Notes upon the Anatomy 
of the Ferret-Badger [Helictus personatus). 

4. Messrs. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and Harold Schwann, 
F.Z.S.— The Riidd Exploration of South Africa. III. List of the 
Mammals obtained by Mr, Grant in Zululand. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zoological Society of London should be addressed to 

P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, Secretary. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
2^th March, 1905. 



No. 18 . 

ABSTRACT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON* 

April 18th, 1905. 

Herbert Druce, Esq., F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 



The Secretary read a report on the additions that had been 
made to the Society's Menagerie during the month of March 1905, 
and called special attention to an Eland and a Bactrian Camel, 
born in the Gardens ; to a Brush-tailed Pouched Mouse (Fhasco- 
gale peniciUata), a Greater Bird-of- Paradise {ParacUsea cqjocla) 
and two Lesser Birds-of- Paradise (P. minor), received on deposit ; 
and to a Black Loiy {Ghcdcopsiitacics ater) obtained by purchase. 
The total number of additions during the month was 148. 

Mr. J. G. MiLLAis, F.Z.S., exhibited the horn-core (with sheath 
attached) of an Urus {Bos primigenius). The specimen was 
believed to be the only British example of the actual horn of the 
TJrus in existence. The curious corrugations on the surface of 
the lower end were similar to those found on the Ameiican and 
European Bison, and incidentally supported the view that the 
White Cattle of Chillingham, Chartley, and Cadzow were not 
descended from this animal. 

The Secretary exhibited, on behalf of Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
F.R.S., a photograph of the horns of a Roberts's Gazelle {Gazella 
grantii robertsi) which had been obtained by Mr. C. L. Chevalier, 
Medical Officer to the Anglo-German Boundary Commission. 

Dr. W. J. Holland, F.Z.S., Directoi- of the Carnegie Museum 
and institute, Pittsburg, U.S.A., gave an account, illustrated by 
stereopticon slides, of the discovery of the skeleton of Biplodocus 
carnegii Hatcher, a reproduction of which he was at present 



* This Abstract is piiblislied by the Society at 3 Hanover Square, London, 
W., on the Tuesday following the date of Meeting to which it refers. _ Itwill 
be issued, free of extra charge, to all Fellows who subscribe to the Publications, 
along with the ' Proceedings' ; but it may be obtained on the day of publication 
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22 

installing in the Gallery of Reptiles at the British Museum 
(Natural History), South Kensington. 

After paying tribute to the generosity of Mr. Andrew Carnegie, 
who had supplied the funds necessary foi- the extensive explor- 
ations which were being cariied on by the Carnegie Institute, 
under the direction of the speaker, he Avent on to speak of the 
Geology of Wyoming and of the immediate locality, where the 
specimen was obtained. He incidentally described the methods 
employed by American collectors to secure vertebrate fossils in 
fine condition. He then discussed the osteology of Dijjlodocus, 
briefly pointing out some of the more interesting structural 
features of the skeleton, and in this connection animadverted 
upon certain so-called " restorations " made public in popular 
magazines and emanating from artists whose artistic ability was 
quite in excess of their scientific knowledge. 

Dr. Holland concluded his account by exhibiting in rapid suc- 
cession pictures of a few of the more remarkable skeletons which 
had been recovei'ed by the paliBontological staif of the Carnegie 
Museum from various localities in the region of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Dr. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., read a paper on a uniqxie 
specimen of Getiosaurus leedsi, a Saui'opodous Dinosaur from the 
Oxfoi'd Clay of Peterboi'ough. He described the fore and hind 
limbs and the tail, and confirmed the observation of the late 
Prof. 0. C. Marsh, that Getiosaurus was one of the more 
generalised Sauropoda. 

The Secretary read a short paper entitled "On a Young 
Female Nigerian Girafie." On the evidence afforded by a young 
female girafi'e, obtained by Captain Phillips in the district of 
Gummel, about 300 miles due west of Lake Chad, and now 
deposited in the Society's Gardens, he was inclined to believe in 
the distinctness of the Nigerian Girafi'e {Giraffa camelopardalis 
2oercdta of Thomas), which, however, was closely allied to the 
Nubian form (G. c. typica). 

A communication was read from Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S., 
dealing with the Ento- Parasites he had obtained from the Zoo- 
logical Gardens, London, and elsewhere. Thirteen species were 
enumerated, one of which was described as new. 

Mr. R. H. Borne, F.Z.S., read a paper descriptive of the 
muscular and visceral anatomy of a Leatheiy Turtle {Bermato- 
chelys coriacea). The animal was a young female about four feet 
long, and was thus considerably larger than the few examples of 
this rare Chelonian that had previously been dissected. It came 
from Japan. The muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs were 
described in detail, and notes were made of numerous hitherto 
unrecorded or imperfectly described features of the alimentary 
and other internal organs. 



23 

Mr. Harold Schwann, F.Z.S., read a paper, prepared by 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., and himself, which gave an account 
of a tliird collection of Mammals made by Mr. 0. H. B. Grant 
for Mr. 0. D. Rudd's Exploration of South Africa, and presented 
by the latter gentleman to the ISTational Museum. 

The present series was obtained in Zululand, and consisted of 
222 specimens, belonging to 49 species, of which several were 
described as new, besides a number of local subspecies. 

Of the new forms, the following were the most noticeable : — 

Amblysomus iris, sp. n. 

Allied to A. hottentotUos, but much smaller. Colour smoky 
blackish above and below. 

Dimensions of the type : — Head and body 116 mm. ; hind foot 
13. Greatest length of skull 25-4. 

Hab. Umvolosi Station, Zululand. Type. B.M. No. 4.12.3.9. 

Otomys laminatus, sp. n. 

Allied to 0. irroratus, but with 9 lamina; on the last upper 
molar and 7 on the anterior lower. 

Dimensions of the type : — Head and body 180 mm. ; tail 120 ; 
hind foot 22. Basilar length of skull 35. 

ffab. Sibudeni, Zululand. Tyj^e. B.M. No. 4.5.1.45. 

Pronolagus ruddi, sp. n. 

Allied to F. cras'sicaudahts, but considerably lai-ger and with 
coarser fur. Palatal foramina narrowed and sharply edged 
behind. 

Dimensions of the type : — Head and body 482 mm. ; tail 52 ; 
hind foot 99 ; ear 98. Greatest length of skull 92. 

Hah. Sibudeni, Zululand. Ty^^e. B.M. No. 4.5.1.78. 

A communication from Mr. G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., contained 
a desci^iption of a new species of Newt from Yunnan. 

The Secretary read, on behalf of Dr. Einar Lonnberg, 
C.M.Z.S., a paper on hybrid HaTes between Lepns timichts Linn, 
and L. eu7-opceus Pall., in Southern Sweden. The hybrids had 
become comparatively common in this part of Sweden owing to 
the introduction of the latter species for hunting purposes. 

A communication from Mr. A. L. Butler, F.Z.S., contained a 
description of the Giant Eland of the Bahr-el-Ghazal. Mr. Butler 
was of opinion that this Eland was more nearly allied to the West 
African form than to that of South Africa, and proposed to dis- 
tinguish it as Taurotragiis derbianus gigas. It differed from the 
typical T. derbiamis in its much lighter body-colour (a pale "cafe- 
au-lait " fawn instead of a rich ruddy brown), in the greyish Avhite 
of the black-maned dewlap, and in carrying grander horns. 



24 

The next Meeting of the Society for Scientific Business will 
be held on Tuesday, the 2nd May, 1905, at half -past Eight 
o'clock P.M., when the following communications will be made : — 

1. Prof. E. A. MiNCHiN, F.Z.S. — On Leucosolenia contorta 
Bowerbank, Ascandra contorta Haeckel, and Ascetta sjnnosa 
Lendenfeld. 

2. Mr. F. E. Beddard, F.K.S. — Some Notes upon the Anatomy 
of the Ferret- Badger [Helictis per sonata). 

3. Mr. W. P. Pycraft, F.Z.S. — Contributions to the Osteology 
of Birds. — Part VII. ^Mr?/?ce??itVZos, with Remarks on the Systematic 
Position of the Group. 



The following papers have been received : — 

1. Mr. F. E. Beddard, F.B.S.— A Contribution to the Know- 
edge of the Encephalic Arterial System in Sauropsida. 

2. Dr. E. Bergrotit, C.M.Z.S.— On Stridulating Halyince, with 
Descriptions of new Genera and Species. 



Communications intended for the Scientific Meetings of the 
Zoological Society op London should be addressed to 

P. CHALMERS MITCHELL, Secretary. 

3 Hanover Square, London, W. 
25^1 A2}ril, 1905. 



Contents (continued). 

March 21, 1905 {coyitinued). 

Page 

3. On some Abnormal Eemains of the Red Deer (Cerw«s daphus) from the Post-Pliocene 

Deposits of the South of England. By Martin A. C. Hinton 210 

4. On the Affinities of the Primitive Reptile Procolophon. By R. Broom, M.D., B.Sc, 

C.M.Z.S., Victoria College, Stellenbosch, Cape Colony 212 

5/On the Primitive Reptile VrocolopTion. By H. G. Seeley, RR.S., F.Z.S 218 



April 18, 1905. 

The Secretary. Report on the Additions to the Society's Menagerie in March 1905 230 

Mr. J. G. Millais, F.Z.S. Exhibition of, and remarks upon, the horn of an Urus 231 

Dr. W. J. Holland, F.Z.S. Remarks, illustrated with Lantern-slides, on the discovery of 

the skeleton of Biplodocus carnegii 231 

1. On Parts of the Skeleton of Cetiosaunis Icedsl, a Sauropodous Dinosaur from the Oxford 

Clay of Peterborough. By A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S 232 

2. On a Young Female Giraffe from Nigeria. By P. Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc, 

Secretary to the Society 244 

3. Notes on Ento-Pafasites from the Zoological Gardens, London, and elsewhere. By 

A. E. Shipley, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge, and 
University Lecturer in the Morphology of the Invertebrata 248 

4. The Rudd Exploration of South Africa. — III. List of the Mammals obtained by 

Mr. Grant in Zululand. By Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z S., and Harold Schwann, 
F.Z.S. (Plate XVL) ^ 254 

5. Description of a new Newt from Yimnan. By G. A. BoulengeR, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

(Plate XVII.) 277 

6. On Hybrid Hares between Lepus timidus L. and Lepus curopasus Pall, fj-om Southern 

Sweden. By Einau Lonnberg, O.M.Z.S., &c. 278 

7. On tlie Giant Eland of the Bahr el Ghazal, Taurotragus derhiaoms gigas (Heugl,). By 

A. L. Butler, F.Z.S., Superintendent of Game Preservation, Soudan 288 

8. Notes on the Muscular and Visceral Anatomy of the Leathery Turtle {Bermochelys 

coriacea). By R. H. Burne, B.A., F.Z.S 291 

Index 325 

Titlepage • i 

List of Council and Officers ii 

List of Contents iii 

Alphabetical List of Contributors ix 

List of Plates xvir 

List of Text-figures ^ xix 

New Generic Term , xxii 

Eri-atum .- xxii 



LIST OF PLATES. 

1905.— VOL. I. 
PAET II. 



Plate 

XIV. 1. Bairacho2}spiinctulatus. 2, Crenicichla wallacii. . 3. C.aoutiA, 

rostris [■ 152 

XV. 1. Creniciohla strigata. 2. C. ornata J 

XVI. 1-3. Amhlysomus. 4, 5. Fronolagus 254 

XVII. Molge wolterstorffi 277 



NOTICE. 

The ' Proceedings ' for the j-ear are issued in four parts, forming two volumes, 

as follows: — 

VOL. I. 

Part 1. containing papers read in January and February, in June. 

II. „ ,, ,; March and April, in August. 

VOL. II. 
Part I. containing papers read in May and June, in October. 

II. „ „ „ November and December, in April. 



' Proceedings,' 1905, Vol. I. Part I. was published on June 1st, 1905. 



The Abstracts of the papers read at the Scientiiic Meetings in 
March and April are contained in this Part. 



D 97